PIB ANALYSIS FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM
- Azad Hind Fauj
- National Police Memorial – Award
1 Release Title– Prime Minister attends commemoration of 75th Anniversary of Formation of Azad Hind Government
Quick Facts About Azad Hind Fauj
Formation Year – 1942
Purpose of formation – To attain independence from British Rule
Years Active – 1942-1945
Founded by – Mohan Singh
Revived by – Subhash Chandra Bose
- Many exiled Indian nationalists took refuge in Japan and other parts of South-East Asia before the start of the ‘Second World War’ in 1939.
- In September 1941, Major Iwaichi Fujiwara was sent by the Japanese with intelligence missions to recruit as many soldiers as possible from British Malaya (present-day Malaysia), British India, and British Burma.
- Fujiwara’s military intelligence operation, which was named as ‘Fujiwara kikan,’ succeeded in establishing cooperative ties with various members active in Indian independence movement.
- t the onset of ‘World War II,’ 70,000 Indian troops were stationed in Malaya. During Japan’s ‘Malayan Campaign,’ a host of Indian soldiers were captured
- These prisoners formed a part of the ‘First Indian National Army,’ formed under the leadership of Mohan Singh.
- Mohan Singh himself was captured during the Malayan campaign when he was serving as an officer in the British-Indian Army. People of Indian origin had formed various local leagues in Malaya, which had come together to form a political organization called the ‘Indian Independence League’ (IIL) under the leadership of Rash Behari Bose.
- The Indian Independence League made Indian National Army its subordinate and together the organizations formed a working council which was to decide if INA should go to war.
- Fearing that they would look like puppets in the hands of the Japanese to the outside world, the Indian leaders decided that the INA would accompany Japan in wars only when the Indian National Congress instructs it to do so.
- Bidadary resolution, promised to raise an army to fight for the independence of Indian.
- The resolution also stated that the army would go to war only when it is asked to do so by the people of India and by the Indian National Congress.
- This irked the Japanese, which created a rift between them and the INA.
- Just before the end of 1942, the INA and the IIL had various disagreements, which made Mohan Singh to dissolve the INA in December 1942.
- Rash Behari then played a pivotal role in organizing the movement. Subhash Bose was invited to take up the leadership
- In 1943, a series of meetings were held between the Japanese and the leaders of the Indian National Army, post which it was decided that Bose would henceforth lead both the IIL and the INA.
- Bose reached Tokyo on May 11, 1943, and met the general of the Imperial Japanese Army, Hideki Tojo.
- In July 1943, Bose visited Singapore, where he made use of radio broadcasts to exhort Indians living in Southeast Asia to join the fight against the British Raj in India.
- Since the sole objective of the newly formed INA under Subhas Chandra Bose was to fight for the independence of India, the number of volunteers willing to serve the army was more than ever.
- Under the leadership of Lakshmi Sahgal, an all-female unit was created, which subsequently drew female volunteers as well.
- In October 1943, Netaji, as Bose was fondly called by the INA members, proclaimed the formation of ‘Provisional Government of Free India’ (Azad Hind) and declared INA as the official army of ‘Azad Hind.’
- U-Go Offensive,’ which was a military operation aimed at capturing Manipur and the Naga Hills from the British
- Burma Expedition
- The siege of Imphal was to be the turning point in the saga of the INA. It was not the British army, but monsoon, which became the biggest adversary.
- Logistics became the major problem as American B 29 bombers disrupted the lines of supply. Outbreak of malaria and dysentery in the face of lack of medical facilities and supplies took a heavy toll.
- Netaji was forced by circumstances to issue instructions to INA to withdraw.
- The losses during the long withdrawal were significant and had a serious impact on the INA. Netaji did not give up and the task of rebuilding the INA continued in Burma.
- On 7 May 1945, Germany formally surrendered following the death of Hitler. Japan continued, but it was a losing battle.
- On 7 August 1945, the first atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima followed by the second bomb on 9 August 1945 on Nagasaki. Inevitably Japan surrendered.
- Netaji wanted to stay on in Singapore but under extreme pressure from his cabinet colleagues, decided to leave. He travelled to Saigon and from there to Taiwan and then he disappeared.
- Provisional government established in Occupied Singapore in 1943
- INA activities of Subhas Chandra Bose, which weakened the very foundation of the British Empire in India,
- The after effect of the activities like INA Trial and Royal Indian Navy Mutiny which made the British realise that the support of the Indian armed forces could no longer be relied upon which on
2 Release Title – Prime Minister dedicates National Police Memorial to the Nation: announces an award in the name of Subhash Chandra Bose
Where – National Police memorial is situated in New Delhi
Why – Recognition of the supreme sacrifice made by police personnel since independence.
Date : October 21 is observed as the Police Commemoration Day every year in memory of the policemen killed at Hot Springs in Ladakh by Chinese troops on this date in 1959
Details of the Memorial
- This Police Memorial represents all State/UT Police Forces and Central Police Organizations of the country
- The central sculpture of the NPM is a 30 feet monolith made of a single piece of granite, weighing 238 tonnes
- Its weight and colour symbolise the gravitas and solemnity of the supreme sacrifice.
- A 60 foot long river at the base of the sculpture reflects the continuous self-service of the policeman and woman, to maintain peace and public order.
- The Wall of Valour has the names of all 34,844 martyrs engraved on granite.
Award in the Name of Subhash Chandra Bose
- The Award is instituted to honour those involved in disaster response operations.
- The award would be announced every year, recognizing the bravery and courage displayed in saving lives of people, in the wake of a disaster.