Daily Current Affairs : 26th August 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

  1. Presidents Rule
  2. India – Bhutan
  3. Global Value Chain
  4. ISAC
  5. India – Greece Relationship
  6. Facts for Prelims : IAEA

1 . Presidents Rule

What is President’s Rule

  • The imposition of Article  356 of the Constitution on a State following the failure of constitutional machinery is called President’s Rule in India. 
  • Under this Article if the president, on receipt of report from the governor of a state or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, the president can impose president’s rule
  • Once the President’s Rule has been imposed on a state, the elected state government will be temporarily dissolved, and the Governor, who is appointed by the government at the Centre, will replace the Chief Minister as the chief executive of the State.
  • The state will fall under the direct control of the Union government, and the Governor will continue to be head the proceedings, representing the President of India – who is the Head of the State.
  • Article 356 is inspired by sections 93 of the Government of India Act, 1935, which provided that if a Governor of a province was satisfied that a situation had arisen in which the government of the province cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the said Act, he could assume to himself all or any of the powers of the government and discharge those functions in his discretion.
  • The imposition of the President’s rule requires the sanction of both the houses of Parliament. If approved, it can go on for a period of six months. 
  • However, the imposition cannot be extended for more than three years, and needs to be brought before the two houses every six months for approval.

When can President’s Rule be imposed on a state?

  • State Legislature is unable to elect a leader as Chief Minister
  • If the ruling party or coalition does not have numbers to prove majority in the Assembly.
  • If the breakdown of law and order situation takes place in the state.
  • Loss of majority in the state assembly
  • If elections are postponed due to inevitable reasons.

How long President’s Rule can last

  • A proclamation of President’s Rule can be revoked through a subsequent proclamation in case the leader of a party produces letters of support from a majority of members of the Assembly, and stakes his claim to form a government. The revocation does not need the approval of Parliament.

President’s Rule in India

  • Manipur and Punjab have seen among the most instances of President’s Rule since Article 356 was enshrined in the Constitution in 1950. Manipur is tied with Uttar Pradesh for the most frequent imposition of President’s Rule, at 10 each.
  • Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir follow with 9 each. Since 1950, President’s Rule has been imposed a total of 134 times across 29 states and UTs.
  • In 1977 alone, there were 14 impositions of President’s Rule following a two-year period of Emergency under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. After the Morarji Desai-led Janata Party government defeated the incumbent Congress to win a majority in the 1977 Lok Sabha elections, it dissolved 9 state assemblies citing the electorate’s “lack of confidence” in the state governments. Following the general elections in 1980, in which Indira Gandhi returned to power, she, too, dissolved state Assemblies and imposed President’s Rule in the same 9 states, after claiming the state governments no longer represented the electorate.
  • The next highest instances of President’s Rule came in 1992 at 6, of which 4 occurred in UP, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh due to communal violence following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, UP.
  • Since 1950, President’s Rule has been imposed at least once a year in 53 out of 74 years. The 1960s and 1970s saw the most frequent use of President’s Rule. The provision has been applied considerably less frequently since then.
  • Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab have seen the longest durations spent under President’s Rule, at 4,668 days (12 years, 9 months) and 3,878 days (10 years, 7 months), respectively, owing to the recurring spells of militant and separatist activity, and unstable law and order situations in both regions.
  • Puducherry, at 2,739 days or 7.5 years, saw the third longest duration of President’s Rule. The UT saw repeated cases of governments losing support in the Assembly due to infighting among coalition partners or defections. The most recent instance of President’s Rule was also in Puducherry in 2021, after the Congress-led government lost power in a vote of confidence.
  • Despite experiencing the highest number of separate instances of President’s Rule, UP and Manipur saw shorter durations, at 1,690 days (4 years, 7 months) and 1,511 days (4 years, 1 month), respectively. Only 8 states and UTs have seen less than a year of President’s Rule in total. Uttarakhand, a relatively new state, has spent just 44 days under President’s Rule, in 2016.
  • States and UTs have cumulatively seen 30,478 days under President’s Rule. On average, each instance of President’s Rule in India lasted 228 days (or more than 7 months).

2 . India – Bhutan Relationship

Context : China and Bhutan this week held the first meeting of the newly set-up joint technical team on the delimitation of their disputed boundary, as officials from both sides met for four days in China and agreed to speed up a boundary resolution.

Background of India Bhutan Relationship

  • The India-Bhutan relationship is steeped in history, marked by close cultural and geographical proximity. The foundation of this friendship was laid when India became the first country to recognize Bhutan’s independence in 1949.
  • Diplomatic relations between India and Bhutan were established in 1968 with the
    establishment of a special office of India in Thimphu. Before this our relations with
    Bhutan were looked after by our Political Officer in Sikkim.
  • The basic framework of India- Bhutan bilateral relations was the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation signed in 1949 between the two countries, which was revised in February 2007.
  • The Golden Jubilee of the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between India and Bhutan is being celebrated in the year 2018.

Significance of Bhutan for India

  • Bhutan’s significance to India stems from its geographic location. Nestled in the Himalayas, it is sandwiched between India and China. Thus, it serves as a buffer between the two Asian giants.
  • Bhutan’s value as a buffer soared after China annexed Tibet in 1951. As the 2017 crisis in the Doklam region revealed, India will strongly oppose, even militarily, any Chinese attempt to assert control over Doklam. Securing Bhutan’s present borders especially its western border is clearly important for India.
  • Doklam in the hands of a hostile power would heighten the vulnerability of India’s Siliguri Corridor, a narrow strip of land that links India to its Northeastern states.

Treaty of Friendship

  • On August 8, 1949 Bhutan and India signed the Treaty of Friendship, calling for peace between the two nations and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • However, Bhutan agreed to let India “guide” its foreign policy and both nations would consult each other closely on foreign and defence affairs. The treaty also established free trade and extradition protocols.
  • Scholars regard the effect of the treaty is to make Bhutan into a protected state, but not a protectorate, because Bhutan continues to have the power to conduct its own foreign policy

The New Treaty of Friendship 2007

  • India re-negotiated the 1949 treaty with Bhutan and signed a new treaty of friendship in 2007. The new treaty replaced the provision requiring Bhutan to take India’s guidance on foreign policy with broader sovereignty and not require Bhutan to obtain India’s permission over arms imports.
  • India allows 16 entry and exit points for Bhutanese trade with other countries (the only exception being the People’s Republic of China) and has agreed to develop and import a minimum of 10,000 megawatts of electricity from Bhutan by 2021.

Bilateral Cooperation

  • There are a number of institutional mechanisms between India and Bhutan in areas such as security, border management, trade, transit, economic, hydro-power, development cooperation, water resources.
  • There have been regular exchanges at the Ministerial and officials’ level, exchanges of parliamentarian delegations to strengthen partnership in diverse areas of cooperation.


  • Hydropower Cooperation Hydropower projects in Bhutan are an example of win-win cooperation, providing a reliable source of inexpensive and clean electricity to India, generating export revenue for Bhutan and cementing our economic integration.
  • Government of India has constructed three Hydroelectric Projects (HEPs) in Bhutan totaling 1416 MW, which are operational and exporting surplus power to India
  • About three-fourth of the power generated is exported and rest is used for domestic consumption.

Military Ties

  • India has strong military and economic ties with Bhutan. The Indian military “is virtually responsible for protecting Bhutan from external and internal threats” and to this end, the Eastern Command of the Indian Army and Air Force have integrated Bhutan’s defence into their role and responsibilities.
  • Indian Military Training Team (IMTRAT) trains Bhutanese security personnel as well.

China – Factor in India – Bhutan Relationship

  • Strategic Balancing Act: China’s emergence as a global power has led to a nuanced approach in the region, with India and Bhutan navigating their relationship while considering their respective ties with China. Bhutan, a landlocked nation nestled between India and China, faces the challenge of balancing its close historical and strategic ties with India while managing its growing interactions with China.
  • Territorial Disputes and Sovereignty: China’s territorial claims, such as those concerning Tibet and parts of Bhutan, have the potential to impact the India-Bhutan relationship. The Doklam standoff in 2017 highlighted the delicate nature of border disputes and how they can affect regional stability. India’s support to Bhutan during the standoff underscored its commitment to safeguarding Bhutan’s sovereignty.
  • Infrastructure and Connectivity Initiatives: China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a massive infrastructure and connectivity project, has implications for the region, including Bhutan. India has expressed concerns over the BRI’s potential impact on the strategic balance and sovereignty of nations in the region. Bhutan’s careful approach to the BRI reflects its cautious assessment of the initiative’s implications.
  • Trade and Economic Engagement: China’s economic influence extends beyond its borders, impacting the economic choices of neighboring countries. Bhutan, while maintaining strong economic ties with India, has also explored limited economic engagement with China. Balancing economic interests with strategic considerations remains a challenge, especially in light of Bhutan’s dependence on India for its economic well-being.
  • Environmental Concerns and Water Security: China’s upstream development projects and dam construction on transboundary rivers raise concerns about water security downstream, particularly for Bhutan and India. The potential impacts on water flow and environmental stability have implications for the entire region.

China – Bhutan Boundary talks

  • The boundary talks between Bhutan and China began in 1984, and the 24th round was held in 2016. The talks have largely focused on disputed areas to Bhutan’s north, and to its west, abutting the Doklam plateau. However, these have been stalled since 2016, especially after the 2017 Doklam stand-off.
  • India and China were involved in a stand-off in Doklam near the India-China-Bhutan trijunction in 2017.
  • Experts in India have said any deal between Beijing and Thimphu that accedes to a “swap arrangement” between areas to the North (Jamparlung and Pasamlung valleys) with Doklam to the West would be of concern to India, given the proximity to India’s narrow “Siliguri corridor” that connects northeastern States with the rest of India.

3 . Global Value Chain and Global Supply Chain

Context : Trade and Investment Ministers of G20 nations, which together generate 75% of the world’s trade flows, agreed to map global value chains, integrate small businesses with them and ease trade documentation. But a comprehensive communiqué remained elusive on the thorny issue of the war in Ukraine as China and Russia blocked a paragraph flagging geopolitical issues.

What is Global Value Chains

  • Global Value Chains refer to the process by which various stages of production are spread across different countries, each contributing a unique value to the final product. This strategic allocation of tasks enhances efficiency, reduces costs, and promotes specialization.
  • For instance, a smartphone may be designed in one country, its components manufactured in another, and assembly conducted in yet another.
  • India’s participation in GVCs spans sectors such as textiles, automotive, information technology, and pharmaceuticals, leveraging its skilled labor force and competitive advantage in certain stages of production.

What is Global Global Supply Chain

  • Global Supply Chains encompass the broader framework that facilitates the movement of goods, services, and information across borders.
  • They involve the entire lifecycle of a product, from raw material extraction to end-user consumption.
  • These chains underscore the importance of logistics, transportation, and infrastructure.
  • India’s strategic location and improving infrastructure position it as a key participant in GSCs, particularly as a major importer and exporter of goods.
  • India is charting its way to be more involved in the global supply chains as an alternative to China as it seeks to become the third largest economy by the end of this decade.
  • A supply chain refers to every step involved in delivering a finished product or service to customers. A disruption at any level leads to delays, unavailability or even rise in prices, affecting the markets at large.

India’s Role in Global Value Chain and Global Supply Chain

  1. Manufacturing Hub: India’s diverse manufacturing capabilities contribute to GVCs. Industries such as textiles, pharmaceuticals, and automotive components are integral parts of global production networks.
  2. Services and Technology: India’s prowess in the services sector, particularly information technology and business process outsourcing, enhances GVCs. It provides critical support functions that enable global operations.
  3. Agri-Exports: Agriculture contributes to GVCs through exports of products like spices, tea, and textiles. However, enhancing value addition in the agri-supply chain remains an opportunity.
  4. Infrastructure Development: India’s investments in infrastructure, such as ports and logistics, improve its connectivity within GSCs, facilitating efficient movement of goods.
  5. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): India’s FDI policies and market potential make it an appealing destination for companies seeking to integrate into GVCs.


While India’s participation in GVCs and GSCs is substantial, challenges persist:

  1. Infrastructure Deficits: Despite improvements, infrastructure gaps can impede seamless integration into GSCs, necessitating ongoing investments.
  2. Regulatory Complexity: Streamlining regulations, customs procedures, and trade facilitation could enhance ease of doing business.
  3. Skill Enhancement: Addressing skill gaps ensures India’s workforce remains competitive, especially in high-value stages of production.
  4. Environmental Sustainability: Sustainability concerns are gaining prominence in GVCs and GSCs. India needs to align its industrial practices with environmental standards to meet global expectations and attract environmentally-conscious partners.
  5. Intellectual Property Protection: Intellectual property rights (IPR) protection is vital to encourage innovation and technology transfer. Strengthening IPR laws and enforcement mechanisms is crucial for attracting technology-intensive industries.
  6. Fragmented Agriculture Sector: India’s agriculture sector is fragmented, leading to inefficiencies in production, distribution, and marketing. Modernizing agriculture, improving supply chain infrastructure, and implementing market reforms are vital

Future Prospects

  • India, which has been an ideal market for the global sellers, is now emerging as a manufacturing hub with an immense potential. Several top companies like Apple have already started production in India while the country aims to begin domestic microchips production by the end of 2024.
  • India is also eyeing a key space in the electronics sector with ‘Made in India’ laptops and computers. It has already become the second largest producer of mobile phones.
  • The western world is shifting its supply chains from China in view of the geopolitical situation and India seeks to make most of this opportunity. The government has set an ambitious target of reaching $2 trillion in overall exports every year by 2030.
  • India’s potential within GVCs and GSCs is immense. By fostering an enabling environment for trade, investing in infrastructure, and nurturing a skilled workforce, India can further integrate into global chains. This integration not only boosts economic growth but also enhances the nation’s competitiveness on the global stage.

4 . India – Greece Relationship

Context : India and Greece agreed to upgrade bilateral ties to the level of strategic partnership. Announcing the decision in Athens, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the two countries will collaborate in the field of defence and will soon conclude an agreement on migration mobility to smoothen movement of skilled population of both sides.

Key Agreements during the visit

  • India and Greece agreed to establish a “Strategic Partnership” and announced plans for a dialogue mechanism between their National Security Advisers apart from plans for a skilled migration and mobility partnership, as well as cooperation to complete negotiations for the India-European Union (EU) Free Trade Negotiation on Connectivity partnership.

Ancient Greece and India : Historical Connections

  • The historical connections between India and Greece date back to ancient times. The influence of Greek philosophy, art, and culture can be traced to the Indian subcontinent, particularly during the Hellenistic period.
  • The teachings of Greek philosophers like Pyrrho and the travels of Alexander the Great left an indelible mark on the cultural fabric of India.
  • These historical interactions have provided a strong foundation for the modern diplomatic relationship.

Diplomatic Ties between India and Greece

  • India and Greece established diplomatic relations in May 1950. India opened its resident Embassy in Athens in March 1978. Interaction between
  • India and Greece goes back to antiquity. In modern times, the two countries have developed a warm relationship based on a common commitment to democracy, peace and development in the world and to a social system imbued with principles of justice and equality.
  • Despite the geographical distance that separates them, the relationship between these two nations has evolved into a multifaceted partnership characterized by economic collaboration, cultural exchanges, and mutual diplomatic support.

Cultural Bonds and People-to-People Ties:

  • Cultural affinity serves as a bridge between India and Greece. Both countries are rich in heritage and ancient civilizations, fostering mutual appreciation for each other’s cultural contributions.
  • The allure of Greece’s breathtaking landscapes and historical sites draws Indian tourists, contributing to people-to-people contacts and enhancing cross-cultural understanding.
  • Cultural festivals, art exhibitions, and academic exchanges further strengthen these ties, creating a shared sense of appreciation for diversity and heritage.

Economic Cooperation

  • Economic collaboration plays a pivotal role in the India-Greece relationship. Bilateral trade has been steadily growing, with both nations recognizing the untapped potential for deeper engagement.
  • Areas of mutual interest include maritime trade, shipping, technology, renewable energy, and tourism.
  • The strategic locations of both countries can be leveraged to enhance connectivity and facilitate trade, contributing to economic growth and development.
  • The volume of bilateral trade between the two countries for 2015-16 was US $ 445.23 million. Main items of export from Greece to India are cotton, scrap (mostly aluminum, ferrous, copper and lead), marble and granite and calcium carbonate. Indian exports to Greece comprise petroleum products (jet fuel), automobile components and automobiles (cars and SUVs), flat rolled steel items, sesame seeds, electrical transformers, frozen prawns/shrimps and squid, cashew nuts, coffee and soyabean

Strategic and Defense Partnerships:

  • The partnership between India and Greece extends to strategic and defense cooperation. Both nations recognize the importance of regional stability and security in an increasingly complex global environment. Maritime security and counterterrorism efforts have been areas of mutual interest, reflecting a shared commitment to maintaining peace and stability in their respective regions.
  • Greece’s position at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa aligns with India’s “Act East” policy. Enhanced ties can contribute to regional stability and economic integration.
  • India’s “SAGAR” (Security and Growth for All in the Region) initiative aligns with Greece’s strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean. Maritime cooperation holds potential in terms of connectivity and security.

Diplomatic Collaboration:

  • India and Greece collaborate in various international forums, often aligning their positions on global issues such as climate change, sustainable development, and human rights. These collaborations highlight their shared commitment to upholding democratic values and promoting a rules-based international order. Such diplomatic synergy strengthens the voice of both nations on the global stage.
  • India and Greece share common approach on many initiatives including UN reform and the Cyprus issue.

Education and Research Exchanges:

  • Academic exchanges and research collaborations between India and Greece contribute to knowledge-sharing and capacity-building. Scholarships and partnerships between universities facilitate the exchange of ideas, expertise, and innovative solutions to shared challenges. These educational ties create a lasting impact by fostering intellectual growth and promoting cross-cultural understanding.

Future Outlook:

  • The India-Greece relationship holds immense promise for the future. As both nations continue to evolve and adapt to global dynamics, the potential for collaboration across various sectors remains vast. Opportunities for joint ventures, technology transfer, and cultural exchanges are ripe for exploration. Additionally, the partnership could extend to addressing global challenges such as climate change, healthcare, and technological innovation.

5 . ISAC

Context : Indore has been adjudged the best Smart City while Madhya Pradesh has been chosen as the top state for exemplary performance in the Smart Cities Mission according to India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022.

About Smart Cities Mission

  • Smart Cities Mission was launched by the Hon’ Prime Minister on 25 June, 2015.
  • The Smart Cities Mission is an innovative and new initiative by the Government of India to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people by enabling local development and harnessing technology as a means to create smart outcomes for citizens

Need of Smart Cities Mission-

  • Cities accommodate nearly 31% of India’s current population and contribute 63% of GDP (Census 2011). Urban areas are expected to house 40% of India’s population and contribute 75% of India’s GDP by 2030. This requires comprehensive development of physical, institutional, social and economic infrastructure. All are important in improving the quality of life and attracting people and investment, setting in motion a virtuous cycle of growth and development. Development of Smart Cities is a step in that direction.

Objectives of smart cities mission

  • The main objective of the Smart Cities Mission (SCM) is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure, clean and sustainable environment and give a decent quality of life to their citizens through the application of ‘smart solutions’.
  • It also aims to drive economic growth and improve quality of life through comprehensive work on social, economic, physical and institutional pillars of the city.
  • The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development by creation of replicable models which act as lighthouses to other aspiring cities.
  • 100 cities have been selected to be developed as Smart Cities through a two-stage competition.

Smart City Projects-

  • The Smart Cities Mission has around 7,800 projects worth ₹1.8 lakh crore, of which more than 5,700 projects worth ₹1.1 lakh crore have been completed.
  • The Smart Cities Mission, launched in June 2015, got a year’s extension last month. Only 22 out of 100 cities have been able to finish all projects commissioned under the mission.

Implementation Mechanism

  • The implementation is monitored by an Apex Committee headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. It regularly reports on the progress of projects through the Real Time Geographical Management Information System (GMIS).
  • Smart City Advisory Forum (SCAF) has also been established at the city level to advise and enable collaboration among various stakeholders. So far, the Smart Cities have convened more than 756 meetings of SCAF.
  • For each smart city, a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) has also been created to plan, appraise, approve, release funds, implement, manage, operate, monitor and evaluate the Smart City development projects. The SPV is headed by a full-time CEO and has nominees of Central and State governments and ULB on its Board.


  1. Technology Integration: Smart cities harness technology to optimize resources, enhance services, and improve governance. From efficient waste management to smart traffic systems, technology is the backbone of transformation.
  2. Infrastructure Upgradation: The mission focuses on enhancing urban infrastructure, including water supply, sanitation, energy, and transportation, to support sustainable growth and development.
  3. Citizen-Centric Approach: The emphasis is on inclusive urban planning that prioritizes citizens’ needs, ensuring their active participation in decision-making processes.
  4. Sustainability: Smart cities emphasize eco-friendly practices and resource management to reduce their carbon footprint and contribute to a greener future.
  5. Economic Growth: By nurturing innovation, entrepreneurship, and job creation, smart cities stimulate economic growth and attract investments.

Progress and Achievements:

Since its launch, the Smart Cities Mission has made significant strides. Over 100 cities have been selected to participate, with each city formulating its unique vision and projects aligned with its specific challenges and opportunities.

  1. Integrated Command and Control Centers: Many smart cities have established integrated centers to monitor and manage various city services in real time, enhancing efficiency and responsiveness.
  2. E-Governance and Citizen Services: Digital platforms have been developed to facilitate online service delivery, citizen engagement, and transparent governance.
  3. Infrastructure Revamp: Initiatives like smart street lighting, efficient waste management systems, and improved public transportation networks have been implemented to enhance urban living.
  4. Sustainable Initiatives: Smart cities prioritize renewable energy generation, green spaces, and water conservation efforts, contributing to environmental sustainability.

Challenges and the Way Forward:

While progress has been commendable, the Smart Cities Mission faces challenges that include:

  1. Funding: Sustainable funding models are essential to ensure the continuity of projects beyond government allocations.
  2. Capacity Building: Building local expertise in urban planning, technology, and project management is crucial for successful implementation.
  3. Inclusivity: Ensuring equitable access to smart city benefits across diverse sections of society remains a challenge.

India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC)

  • The India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC) is organized under the Smart Cities Mission, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India.
  • This is one of the important activities initiated under the Mission, where pioneering city strategies, projects and ideas are recognized to award the exemplary performance, enable peer-peer learning and disseminate best practices.
  • The ISAC recognizes and reward the cities, projects and innovative ideas that are promoting sustainable development across the 100 smart cities, as well as stimulating inclusive, equitable, safe, healthy and collaborative cities, thus enhancing quality of life for all.
  • In the past, the ISAC has witnessed three editions in 2018, 2019 and 2020. The fourth edition of the ISAC was launched in April 2022 during the ‘Smart Cities-Smart Urbanization’ event in Surat.
  • The ISAC 2022 award had a two-stage submission process consisting of ‘Qualifying Stage’, which involved overall assessment of the city’s performance, and the ‘Proposal Stage’ which required the smart cities to submit their nominations for six award categories as follows:
    • Project Awards: 10 different themes,
    • Innovation Awards: 2 different themes,
    • National/Zonal City Awards,
    • State Awards,
    • UT Award, and
    • Partners Awards, 3 different themes
  • This is the fourth edition of the ISAC awards. In the past, the ISAC witnessed three editions in 2018, 2019 and 2020. The 2022 edition was launched in April last year during the ‘Smart Cities-Smart Urbanisation’ event in Surat.


  • Indore has been adjudged the best Smart City while Madhya Pradesh has been chosen as the top state for exemplary performance in the Smart Cities Mission.
  • Surat and Agra are the second and third place winners among cities, while Tamil Nadu is the second in State category followed by Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in the India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022.
  • The award for the best Union Territory has gone to Chandigarh.

6 . Facts for Prelims

National Medical Commission

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC) has been constituted by an act of Parliament known as National Medical Commission Act, 2019
  • The Board of Governors in supersession of Medical Council of India constituted under section 3A of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 stands dissolved thereafter.
  • The Aim of the National Medical Commission are to
    • Improve access to quality and affordable medical education
    • Ensure availability of adequate and high quality medical professionals in all parts of the country
    • Promote equitable and universal healthcare that encourages community health perspective and makes services of medical professionals accessible to all the citizens
    • Encourages medical professionals to adopt latest medical research in their work and to contribute to research
    • Objectively assess medical institutions  periodically in a transparent manner
    • Maintain a medical register for India
    • Enforce high ethical standards in all aspects of medical services
    • Have an effective grievance redressal mechanism.

International Atomic Energy Agency 

  • It is popularly known as the world’s “Atoms for Peace and Development” organisation. 
  • IAEA is the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. 
  • It was established on 29th July 1957 as an autonomous organisation, at the height of the Cold War (1945-1991) between the US and the Soviet Union. 
  • Though established independently of the UN through its own international treaty, the agency reports to both the UN General Assembly and the Security Council. 
  • It works with the member states and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies 

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