Daily Current Affairs: 14th and 15th November 2021

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics covered

  1. Tenures of the directors of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Enforcement Directorate (ED)
  2. S- 400
  3. Retail Direct Scheme
  4. Glasgow Climate Pact
  5. Facts for prelims
  6. Places in news

1.CBI and ED

Context: President Ram Nath Kovind promulgated two ordinances that would allow
the Union Government to extend the tenures of the directors of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Enforcement Directorate (ED) from two years to up to five years.

About New ordinance Promulgated by President

  • President promulgated two ordinances that would allow the Union Government to extend the tenures of the directors of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Enforcement Directorate (ED) from two years to up to five years.
  • The supreme court previously noted that such extensions could be given “only in rare and exceptional circumstances” to facilitate an ongoing investigation.
  • However, after the promulgation of the ordinance, the Centre can now give oneyear extensions thrice after the completion of the initial two years.
  • The Director of CBI has been provided security of two-year tenure in office by the CVC Act, 2003.

About CBI

  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Later, it was transferred to the Ministry of Personnel and now it enjoys the status of an attached office1.
  • The Special Police Establishment (which looked into vigilance cases) setup in 1941 was also merged with the CBI.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).
  • The CBI is not a statutory body or a constitutional body.
  • It derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
  • The CBI is the main investigating agency of the Central Government.
  • It plays an important role in the prevention of corruption and maintaining integrity in administration.
  • It also provides assistance to the Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal

Motto: Industry, Impartiality and Integrity


  • To uphold the Constitution of India and law of the land through in-depth investigation and successful prosecution of offences; to provide leadership and direction to police forces and to act as the nodal agency for enhancing inter-state and international cooperation in law enforcement

Composition of CBI

  • The CBI is headed by a Director.
  • He is assisted by a special director or an additional director.
  • Additionally, it has a number of joint directors, deputy inspector generals, superintendents of police and all other usual ranks of police personnel.

Selection committee to appoint CBI Director

  • The Central Government shall appoint the Director of CBI on the recommendation of a three-member committee consisting of
    • the Prime Minister as Chairperson,
    • the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha
    • the Chief Justice of India or Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by him.
  • The Delhi Special Police Establishment (Amendment) Act, 2014 made a change in the composition of the committee related to the appointment of the Director of C.B.I. It states that where there is no recognized leader of opposition in the Lok Sabha, then the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha would be a member of that committee.

Functions of CBI

  • It has the following three divisions for investigation of crime:-
    • Anti-Corruption Division – for investigation of cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 & the Prevention of Corruption(Amendment) Act, 2018 against Public officials and the employees of Central Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Corporations or Bodies owned or controlled by the Government of India – it is the largest division having presence almost in all the States of India.
    • Economic Offences Division – for investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds, including crimes relating to Fake Indian Currency Notes, Bank Frauds and Cyber Crime.
    • Special Crimes Division – for investigation of serious, sensational and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the requests of State Governments or on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts. The laws under which CBI can investigate Crime are notified by the Central Government under section 3 of the DSPE Act.
    • Coordinating the activities of the anticorruption agencies and the various state police forces
  • Taking up, on the request of a state government, any case of public importance for investigation.
  • It takes up investigation of conventional crimes like murder, kidnapping, rape etc., on reference from the state governments or when directed by the Supreme Court/High Courts.
  • The CBI acts as the “National Central Bureau” of Interpol in India. The Interpol Wing of the CBI coordinates requests for investigation-related activities originating from Indian law enforcement agencies and the member countries of the Interpol.

About Enforcement Directorate

  • The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India. It is part of the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government Of ,India.
  • In 1956, Enforcement Directorate (ED) was established. Its Headquarters is situated at New Delhi.
  • Directorate of Enforcement is a Multi Disciplinary Organization mandated with the task of enforcing the provisions of two special fiscal laws –
    • Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA)
    • Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA)
  • FEMA, a Civil Law having quasi judicial powers, for investigating suspected contraventions of the Exchange Control Laws and Regulations with the powers to impose penalties on those adjudged guilty
  • PMLA, a Criminal Law, whereby the Officers are empowered to conduct enquiries to locate, provisionally attach/confiscate assets derived from acts of Schedules Offences besides arresting and prosecuting the Money Launderers.


  • Investigate contraventions of the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999(FEMA)
  • Investigate offences of money laundering under the provisions of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002(PMLA)
  • Adjudicate Show Cause Notices issued under the repealed Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA) upto 31.5.2002 for the alleged contraventions of the Act which may result in imposition of penalties. Pursue prosecutions launched under FERA in the concerned courts
  • Processing cases of fugitive/s from India under Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018. The objective of this Act is to provided for measures to deter fugitive economic offenders from evading the process of law in India by staying outside the jurisdiction of Indian Courts and to preserve the sanctity of the rule of law in India
  • Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA
  • Render cooperation to foreign countries in matters relating to money laundering and restitution of assets under the provisions of PMLA and to seek cooperation in such matters

2 . S 400

Context : Moscow has started deliveries of the S-400 air defence systems to India, a senior Russian official confirmed. This risks the possibility of sanctions from the U.S. under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) which would come up for discussion at the India-U.S. 2+2 ministerial dialogue, also scheduled for early December.

About S – 400

  • A missile defence system is intended to act as a shield against incoming ballistic missiles.
  • The Russian-built S-400 Triumf — identified by NATO as the SA-21 Growler — is the world’s most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range surface-to-air missile system, and is considered much more effective than the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence system developed by the US.
  • The S-400 is a mobile system that integrates a multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and a command and control centre.
  • It can be deployed within five minutes, and is capable of firing three types of missiles to create a layered defence.
  • It can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and ballistic and cruise missiles within a range of 400 km, at an altitude up to 30 km. It can simultaneously track 100 airborne targets, including super fighters such as the US-built F-35, and engage six of them at the same time.

Importance for India

  • It is important for India to have the capability to thwart missile attacks from the two likeliest quarters, Pakistan and China.
  • Beijing signed a deal with Moscow in 2015 to buy six battalions of the S-400 system, and deliveries began in January 2018. While the Chinese acquisition has been seen as a “gamechanger” in the region, the concern for India is limited because of the system’s range. However, the S-400 can play a crucial role in case of a two-front war.

Which Countries have S-400

  • Russian military was operating more than 20 battalions of the S-400 Triumf by 2015 and there were plans to take that up to above 50 by 2020.
  • Some of the first countries to get the missile systems were Algeria in 2015 and close Russian ally Belarus in 2016.
  • China acquired two systems reportedly starting in 2018 while Turkey received its first battalion in 2019.
  • China and Turkey which, incidentally, is a member of the US-led NATO, were slapped with sanctions by the US for their acquisition of the advanced missile system.
  • Saudi Arabia are among others negotiating for the S-400; Iraq and Qatar, too, have shown interest.

Further Reading

3 . Retail Direct Scheme

Context : The RBI announced proposals for the Retail Direct Scheme for investors in government securities and the Integrated Ombudsman Scheme. The schemes were unveiled by the Prime Minister on November 12.

What is the Retail Direct Scheme?

  • Under the Retail Direct Scheme, small investors can now buy or sell government securities (G-Secs), or bonds, directly without having to go through an intermediary like a mutual fund.
  • It is similar to placing funds in debt instruments such as fixed deposits in banks. However, the same tax rules apply to income from G-Secs. But, with the Government being the borrower, there is a sovereign guarantee for the funds and hence zero risk of default.
  • Also, government securities may offer better interest rates than bank fixed deposits, depending on prevailing interest rate trends. For example, the latest yield on the benchmark 10-year government securities is 6.366%. India’s largest lender, State Bank of India, offers 5.4% on deposits of less than ₹2 crore for a tenure of five to 10 years.

How can individuals access G-Sec offerings?

  • Investors wishing to open a Retail Direct Gilt account directly with the RBI can do so through an online portal set up for the purpose of the scheme. Once the account is activated with the aid of a password sent to the user’s mobile phone, investors will be permitted to buy securities either in the primary market or in the secondary market.
  • The minimum amount for a bid is ₹10,000 and in multiples of ₹10,000 thereafter. Payments may be made through Net banking or the UPI platform.
  • Retail participants would be bidding for the securities under the “non-competitive segment of primary auctions of Government Securities and Treasury Bills

Why was it necessary to introduce this scheme?

  • Scheme would help “broaden the investor base and provide retail investors with enhanced access to the government securities market — both primary and secondary. Scheme was a “major structural reform placing India among select few countries which have similar facilities”.
  • This scheme, among others, would “facilitate smooth completion of the Government borrowing programme in 2021-22”. The Government intends to borrow up to ₹12 lakh crore this year ending March 31, 2022. The significant spike in borrowing — that is expected to spur infrastructure and social funding — follows a steep decline in the economy last fiscal. The Union Government, hence, wishes to broaden the base of investors signing up for bond purchases.
  • The added benefit of the Government accessing retail investors could be the freeing up of room for companies to mop up funds from institutional investors; funds that may otherwise have been cornered by the government to fund its expenses.

Why is the RBI setting up an Integrated Ombudsman?

  • Prior to the introduction of this scheme, the RBI had three different ombudsman schemes to aid dispute resolution with respect to banks, NBFCs, and non-bank pre-paid payment issuers (PPIs). They were operated by the RBI through 22 ombudsman offices.
  • New scheme will make dispute resolution more “simpler, efficient and responsive “by enabling customers to register their complaints under the integrated scheme, with one centralised reference point”.
  • The RBI would appoint the Ombudsman and a Deputy Ombudsman for three years.
  • Complaints may be made either physically to the Centralised Receipt and Processing Centre or the RBI’s offices; or electronically through the regulator’s complaint management system

4 . Glasgow Climate Pact

Context : After two weeks of hard negotiations with governments squabbling over provisions on phasing out coal, cutting greenhouse gas emissions and providing money to the poor world, the annual climate change summit came to an end with the adoption of a weaker-than-expected agreement called the Glasgow Climate Pact.


  • The Glasgow meeting was the 26th session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, or COP26.
  • These meetings are held every year to construct a global response to climate change. Each of these meetings produce a set of decisions which are given different names. In the current case, this has been called the Glasgow Climate Pact.
  • Earlier, these meetings have also delivered two treaty-like international agreements, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and the Paris Agreement in 2015, which form the global architecture for actions to be taken to tackle climate change. While the Kyoto Protocol expired last year, the Paris Agreement is now the active instrument to fight climate change.

Main Task of Glasgow Summit

  • The main task for COP26 was to finalise the rules and procedures for implementation of the Paris Agreement. Most of these rules had been finalized by 2018, but a few provisions, like the one relating to creation of new carbon markets, had remained unresolved.
  • However, due to clear evidence of worsening of the climate crisis in the six years since the Paris Agreement was finalized, host country United Kingdom was keen to ensure that Glasgow, instead of becoming merely a “procedural” COP, was a turning point in enhancing climate actions.
  • The effort was to push for an agreement that could put the world on a 1.5 degree Celsius pathway, instead of the 2 degree Celsius trajectory which is the main objective of the Paris Agreement.

What was achieved

Mitigation: The Glasgow agreement has emphasised that stronger action in the current decade was most critical to achieving the 1.5-degree target. Accordingly, it has:

  1. Asked countries to strengthen their 2030 climate action plans, or NDCs (nationally-determined contributions), by next year
  2. Established a work programme to urgently scale-up mitigation ambition and implementation
  3. Decided to convene an annual meeting of ministers to raise ambition of 2030 climate actions
  4. Called for an annual synthesis report on what countries were doing
  5. Requested the UN Secretary General to convene a meeting of world leaders in 2023 to scale-up ambition of climate action
  6. Asked countries to make efforts to reduce usage of coal as a source of fuel, and abolish “inefficient” subsidies on fossil fuels
  7. Has called for a phase-down of coal, and phase-out of fossil fuels. This is the first time that coal has been explicitly mentioned in any COP decision. It also led to big fracas at the end, with a group of countries led by India and China forcing an amendment to the word “phase-out” in relation to coal changed to “phase-down”. The initial language on this provision was much more direct. It called on all parties to accelerate phase-out of coal and fossil fuel subsidies. It was watered down in subsequent drafts to read phase-out of “unabated” coal power and “inefficient” fossil fuel subsidies. But even this was not liking to the developing countries who then got it changed to “phase down unabated coal power and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies while providing targeted support to the poorest and the most vulnerable in line with national circumstances…”. Despite the dilution, the inclusion of language on reduction of coal power is being seen as a significant movement forward.

Adaptation: Most of the countries, especially the smaller and poorer ones, and the small island states, consider adaptation to be the most important component of climate action. These countries, due to their lower capacities, are already facing the worst impacts of climate change, and require immediate money, technology and capacity building for their adaptation activities. As such, the Glasgow Climate Pact has:

  1. Asked the developed countries to at least double the money being provided for adaptation by 2025 from the 2019 levels. In 2019, about $15 billion was made available for adaptation that was less than 20 per cent of the total climate finance flows. Developing countries have been demanding that at least half of all climate finance should be directed towards adaptation efforts.
  2. Created a two-year work programme to define a global goal on adaptation. The Paris Agreement has a global goal on mitigation — reduce greenhouse gas emissions deep enough to keep the temperature rise within 2 degree Celsius of pre-industrial times. A similar global goal on adaptation has been missing, primarily because of the difficulty in defining such a target. Unlike mitigation efforts that bring global benefits, the benefits from adaptation are local or regional. There are no uniform global criteria against which adaptation targets can be set and measured. However, this has been a long-pending demand of developing countries and the Paris Agreement also asks for defining such a goal.

Finance: Developed countries are under an obligation, due to their historical responsibility in emitting greenhouse gases, to provide finance and technology to the developing nations to help them deal with climate change. In 2009, developed countries had promised to mobilise at least $100 billion every year from 2020. This promise was reaffirmed during the Paris Agreement, which also asked the developed countries to scale up this amount from 2025. The 2020 deadline has long passed but the $100 billion promise has not been fulfilled. The developed nations have now said that they will arrange this amount by 2023.

A deal aimed at staving off dangerous climate change has been struck at the COP26 summit in Glasgow. The pact has:

  1. Expressed “deep regrets” over the failure of the developed countries to deliver on their $100 billion promise. It has asked them to arrange this money urgently and in every year till 2025
  2. Initiated discussions on setting the new target for climate finance, beyond $100 billion for the post-2025 period
  3. Asked the developed countries to provide transparent information about the money they plan to provide

5 . Facts for Prelims

Chenchu tribes

  • The Chenchus are a Dravidian tribe, a designated Scheduled Tribe in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Odisha. 
  • They are an aboriginal tribe whose traditional way of life been based on hunting and gathering.
  • The Chenchus speak the Chenchu language, a member of the Dravidian language family.
  • In general, the Chenchu relationship to non-tribal people has been largely symbiotic.
  • Some Chenchus have continued to specialize in collecting forest products for sale to non-tribal people.
  • Many Chenchus live in the sparse and deciduous Nallamala forest of Andhra Pradesh.

Kattupaniya tribes

  • The Kattupaniyan tribe is a nomadic tribal group.
  • They live in the forested hills of Malappuram’s Nilambur taluk and the bordering Thamarassery forest area of Kozhikode’s district, Kerala.
  • Few of them were rehabilitated from caverns near the South Wayanad – Nilambur forest division before seven years.
  • Recently Members of Kattupaniya, a nomadic tribal group that was rehabilitated from caves near the South Wayanad-Nilambur Forest Division a few years ago, have enrolled for Aadhaar cards on the intervention of the District Legal Services Authority (DLSA).

Kaiseri-Hind butterfly

  • The State Cabinet approved the large, brightly coloured Kaiseri-Hind as the State butterfly of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Kaiseri-Hind (Teinopalpus imperialis) literally means Emperor of India.
  • This butterfly with a 90-120 mm wingspan is found in six States along the eastern Himalayas at
  • elevations from 6,000-10,000 feet in well wooded terrain.
  • The butterfly also flutters in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and southern China.
  • Protected areas under the Hapoli Forest Division are popular with butterfly enthusiasts.
  • Although the Kaiser i Hind is protected under Schedule II of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, it is hunted for supply to butterfly collectors.
  • The species is confined to very few pockets of Arunachal Pradesh and could become extinct if not conserved.
  • The State butterfly tag can translate into its habitat conservation.

Rani Kamlapati

  • Rani Kamlapati was the widow of Nizam Shah, whose Gond dynasty ruled the then Ginnorgarh, 55 km from Bhopal, in the 18th century.
  • Nizam Shah built the famous seven-storeyed Kamlapati Palace in her name in Bhopal.
  • According to the state government, Kampalati is known to have shown great bravery in facing aggressors during her reign after her husband was killed.
  • Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan has claimed that Kamlapati was the “last Hindu queen of Bhopal”, who did great work in the area of water management and set up parks and temples.
  • The Gond are one of the largest tribal communities in India, spread across Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar and Odisha.
  • The name of Bhopal’s Habibganj railway station has been changed to Rani Kamlapati station.


  • Researchers discovered a mineral that shouldn’t exist on Earth’s surface but was found inside a diamond.
  • The mineral, davemaoite, was found inside a diamond from an African mine.
  • It was last dug up decades ago in Botswana at the Orapa mine, the world’s largest opencast diamond mine.
  • The mineral is named after Ho-kwang ‘Dave’ Mao, a scientist who made many pioneering discoveries in high-pressure geochemistry and geophysics.
  • Davemaoite is mostly calcium silicate, but it can have radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium, which generate a lot of heat in the lower portion of Earth’s mantle, according to the journal. 
  • Davemaoite is part of the group of minerals that helps manage how heat moves and cycles through the deep Earth.
  • Usually, davemaoite can exist only in high pressures found in the lower mantle, but the mineral survived inside specks found in the diamond. 
  • Davemaoite is one of three main minerals in Earth’s lower mantle and makes up 5% to 7% of the material in the mantle

Eggshell planets

  • Strange ‘eggshell planets’ are among the rich variety of exoplanets possible, according to a study.
  • These rocky worlds have an ultra-thin outer brittle layer and little to no topography.
  • Such worlds are unlikely to have plate tectonics, raising questions as to their habitability.
  • Planetary geologists have said at least three such worlds found during previous astronomical surveys may already be known.

Circumbinary star

ABb: circumbinary planet

circumbinary planet is a planet that orbits two stars instead of one. Planets in stable orbits around one of the two stars in a binary are known.
New studies showed that there is a strong hint that the planet and stars originate from a single disk

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

  • PVTGs are more vulnerable amongst the tribal groups, hence in 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 17 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census).
  • Currently there are 75 tribal groups have been categorized by the Ministry of Home Affairs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)s.
  • PVTGs reside in 18 States and UT of A&N Islands. 
  • For the identification of PVTGs the state governments or UT governments submit proposals to the Central Ministry of Tribal Welfare for identification of PVTGs. After ensuring the criteria is fulfilled, the Central Ministry selects those groups as PVTGs.
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha

How they are identified

  • The criteria for identifying Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups are: –
    • Pre-agricultural level of technology
    • Low level of literacy
    • Economic backwardness
    • A declining or stagnant population
  • According to the procedure, the state governments or UT governments submit proposals to the Central Ministry of Tribal Welfare for identification of PVTGs. After ensuring the criteria is fulfilled, the Central Ministry selects those groups as PVTGs.


  • In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.
  • In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • PVTGs have some basic characteristics -they are mostly homogenous, with a small population, relatively physically isolated, social institutes cast in a simple mould, absence of written language, relatively simple technology and a slower rate of change etc

Scheme for PVTGs

  • Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs): this scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs exclusively for PVTG. Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which are then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.  Activities for development of PVTGs are undertaken in Sectors of Education, Health, Livelihood and Skill Development , Agricultural Development , Housing & Habitat, Conservation of Culture etc.

6 . Places in News

About Pakke Tiger Reserve

  • Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakke Tiger Reserve also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve falls in the East Kameng district. Its Southern border merges with the inner line, State borderline between Assam and Arunachal.
  •  The tract of the protected area falls within the land area of Pakke river and Kameng river.
  • This Tiger Reserve has won India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of ‘Conservation of threatened species’ for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme
  • The habitat types are lowland semi-evergreen, evergreen forest and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests.
  • At least 40 mammal species occur in Pakhui Tiger Reserve (PTR). Three large cats – the Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and clouded leopard share space with two canids – the wild dog and Asiatic jackal. Among the herbivore species, elephant, barking deer, gaur, and sambar are most commonly encountered.

Nallamala Hills

  • Nallamala Range, range of parallel hills and valleys of the Eastern Ghats in eastern Andhra Pradesh state, southern India.
  • Located south of the Krishna River, the hills run north to south, parallel to the Coromandel Coast on the Bay of Bengal.
  • Their total length is about 265 miles (430 km); the northern boundary is in the Palnad Basin, and the southern boundary is in the Tirupati Hills.
  • Chenchu tribes are the important tribe here
Chenchus of Nallamala forest: Forced out of the forest - The Hindu

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