PIB Analysis : Date 3/1/2019

PIB ANALYSIS FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM

Topics Covered

  1. National Entrepreneurship Awards 
  2. Measures to stop acquisition of Tribal Land
  3. Bhoomi rashi portal
  4. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
  5. Indian Science Congress

1 . National Entrepreneurship Award

About the Award

  • The awards aim to recognize and honor outstanding young first-generation entrepreneurs and those who have contributed immensely in building the entrepreneurship ecosystem.
  • This year, a total of 43 awards will be presented, including 39 awards for Young Entrepreneurs in different sectors and 4 awards for Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Builders. The winners will receive a trophy, certificate and cash prizes ranging from Rs. 5 to 10 lakhs.  The awards are classified into three investment categories – below Rs 1 Lakh, between Rs 1 Lakh to 10 Lakhs and between10 Lakhs to Rs 1 Crore; covering small to big first-generation entrepreneurs below the age of 40 years. This is to ensure that entrepreneurs from every socio-economic category take part in the award and they are duly recognised for their meaningful contribution to the economy of the nation
  • To be eligible for these awards, the nominee must be under the age of 40 years; he/she must be a first-generation entrepreneur and must hold 51% or more equity and ownership of the business.
  • There are special awards for women, persons with disability, scheduled caste/ tribes and entrepreneurs from areas with limited opportunities.  The women entrants must individually/collectively own 75% or more of the enterprise.

2 . Issue of Land Acquisition and displacement of tribals

  • Ministry of Rural Development, Department of Land Resources (DoLR), is the nodal Ministry at the Centre, which plays a monitoring role in the field of land reforms.
  • Land and its management fall under the exclusive legislative and administrative jurisdiction of states as provided under the Constitution of India (Seventh Schedule – List II (State List) – Entry No. (18). Therefore, this data is not maintained centrally. 

Constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the rights of tribals regarding land

  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, in section 4 (5) states that save as otherwise provided, no member of a forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes or Other Traditional Forest Dweller shall be evicted or removed from the Forest Land under his occupation till the recognition and verification procedure is complete.
  • Government has enacted the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (RFCTLARR Act, 2013 in short). The purpose of the said Act is to ensure, in consultation with institutions of local self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution, a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and the other affected families and provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be acquired.
  • Under Section 48 of the RFCTLARR Act, 2013, a National Level Monitoring Committee for Rehabilitation and Resettlement has been constituted in the DoLR vide DoLR’s Order No. 26011/04/2007-LRD dated 2nd March, 2015 for the purpose of reviewing and monitoring the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement schemes and plans related to land acquisition under the RFCTLARR, 2013 and National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007.
  • By way of safeguards against displacement special provisions have been made for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under Sections 41 and 42 of the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 which protect their interests. The RFCTLARR Act, 2013 also lays down procedure and manner of rehabilitation and resettlement.
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, also provides that the Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas or development projects and before resettling or rehabilitating persons affected by such projects in the Scheduled Areas; the actual planning and implementation of the projects in the Scheduled Areas shall be coordinated at the State Level.
  • Constitutional provisions under Schedule – V also provide for safeguards against displacement of tribal population because of land acquisitions etc. the Governor of the State which has scheduled Areas is empowered to prohibit or restrict transfer of land from tribals and regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such cases. Land being a State subject, various provisions of rehabilitation and resettlement as per the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 are implemented by the concerned State Governments.

3 . Bhoomi rashi portal

About the Portal

  • The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has recently launched the BhoomiRashi portal.
  • In the past years, acquisition of land for the purpose of National Highway projects, payment of compensation to the land owners etc were done manually by physical movement of documents in the form of files.
  • However, in that procedure some constraints viz. delay in issuing notification, errors in the land/area details etc were being faced. In order to overcome these issues, to cut short delays and avoid parking of public funds with the Competent Authority for Land Acquisition (CALA), Ministry has developed a web based Utility –BhoomiRashi to fully digitize and automate the entire process of land acquisition.

4 . Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

Background

  • The trend of decline in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR), defined as number of girls per 1000 of boys between 0-6 years of age, has been unabated since 1961. The decline from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 and further to 918 in 2011 is alarming.
  • The decline in the CSR is a major indicator of women dis-empowerment. CSR reflects both, pre-birth discrimination manifested through gender biased sex selection, and post birth discrimination against girls. Social construct discriminating against girls on the one hand, easy availability, affordability and subsequent misuse of diagnostic tools on the other hand, have been critical in increasing Sex Selective Elimination of girls leading to low Child Sex Ratio.
  • Since coordinated and convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government has announced Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) initiative. The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme has been introduced in October, 2014 to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR).
  • The Scheme was launched on 22ndJanuary, 2015 at Panipat in Haryana. It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.

First Phase

The 100 districts have been identified on the basis of low Child Sex Ratio as per Census 2011 covering all States/UTs as a pilot with at least one district in each state. The three criteria for selection of districts are:-

  • Districts below the national average (87 districts/23 states);
  • Districts above national average but shown declining trend (8 districts/8 states)
  • Districts above national average and shown increasing trend (5 districts/5 states- selected so that these CSR levels can be maintained and other districts can emulate and learn from their experiences).

Second Phase

The scheme has further been expanded to 61 additional districts selected from 11 States/UT having CSR below 918. To get the list of additional districts covered, click here (70.4KB).

Pan India Expansion of BBBP

The Pan India Expansion of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) covering all 640 districts of the Country was launched on 8th March 2018.

Objectives

  • Prevent gender biased sex selective elimination
  • Ensure survival & protection of the girl child
  • Ensure education of the girl child

Strategies

  • Implement a sustained Social Mobilization and Communication Campaign to create equal value for the girl child & promote her education.
  • Place the issue of decline in CSR/SRB in public discourse, improvement of which would be a indicator for good governance.
  • Focus on Gender Critical Districts and Cities low on CSR for intensive & integrated action.
  • Mobilize & Train Panchayati Raj Institutions/Urban local bodies/ Grassroot workers as catalysts for social change, in partnership with local community/women’s/youth groups.
  • Ensure service delivery structures/schemes & programmes are sufficiently responsive to issues of gender and children’s rights.
  • Enable Inter-sectoral and inter-institutional convergence at District/Block/Grassroot levels.

5 . Indian Science Congress

Major achievements of Indian science in 2018

  • Production of aviation grade biofuel
  • Divya Nayan – a machine for visually impaired; 
  • Inexpensive devices for diagnosis of cervical cancer, TB and dengue
  • A real-time landslide warning system in the Sikkim-Darjeeling region.

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