PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Laser Guided Anti Tank Guided Missile
- Centre of Excellence for Satellite & Unmanned Remote Vehicle Initiative (CoE–SURVEI)
- Initiative to harness potential of Ocean resources
- Initiatives undertaken by Govt to manage flood
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Laser-Guided Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM)
Context: Indigenously developed Laser-Guided Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) were successfully test-fired from Main Battle Tank (MBT) Arjun by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Army at KK Ranges in Maharashtra’s Ahmednagar
Anti Tank Missiles
- Anti-Tank missiles (ATMs) are guided missiles designed primarily to destroy or damage heavily armoured vehicles and tanks. They’re guided missiles that use various guiding algorithms like wire-guided missiles, laser guide guided missiles, etc.
- These are ‘fire-and-forget’ missiles where the operator can retreat right after firing as there is no more guidance required.
About the Indigenously developed Laser-Guided ATGMs
- The laser-guided ATGM is designed to be fired from tanks. Its range is limited to 1.5 to 5 km, it locks and tracks the targets with the help of laser designation to precisely strike the target.
- The missile uses a ‘tandem’ High Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) warhead. ‘Tandem’ refers to the missiles using more than one detonation in order to effectively penetrate the protective armours.
- This missile has the capacity of piercing armoured vehicles that use specially designed armour plates to counter the impact of projectiles.
- This Laser-Guided ATGM has been developed by two facilities of the DRDO’s Armament and Combat Engineering Cluster i.e. Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) in association with Instruments Research & Development Establishment.
- The ATGM has been developed with multi-platform launch capability and is currently undergoing technical evaluation trials from 120 mm rifled gun of MBT Arjun.
Arjun Main Battle Tank
- Main Battle Tank (MBT) Arjun is a multi-laboratory programme of DRDO with CVRDE as the lead Laboratory.
- It is a state-of-the-art tank with superior fire power, high mobility, and excellent protection.
- The superior armour defeating capability of the indigenously developed Fin Stabilized Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot (FSAPDS) ammunition; 120 mm calibre rifled gun and computer-controlled integrated fire control system give MBT ARJUN an edge over contemporary world tanks.
- Arjun MBT Mk I has been named as “Desert Ferrari” by tank experts.
2 . Centre of Excellence for Satellite & Unmanned Remote Vehicle Initiative (CoE–SURVEI)
PIB Release : https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848285
Context: Defence Minister has called upon Central and State Government Departments to ensure foolproof management of land for India to become a global manufacturing hub, while addressing a webinar organised to disseminate Geographic Information System (GIS)-based applications, developed by Centre of Excellence for Satellite & Unmanned Remote Vehicle Initiative (CoE–SURVEI), across the Central & State Government departments, Municipal Bodies and Development Authorities for wider use and adaptability.
- The CoE-SURVEI was set up by Directorate General Defence Estates (DGDE), Ministry of Defence to promote the use of emerging technologies in land surveys, analysis of data & land management.
- The goal is to leverage the latest technologies in survey by using satellite imagery, drone imagery geospatial tools to achieve effective land management and urban planning.
- Collaborating with the private sector, the CoE-SURVEI is moving fast towards becoming a one-stop centre to meet the land survey, analysis and management related needs of our country.
- The applications developed by CoE-SURVEI include those on Change Detection, Land Use Analysis and 3D Imagery Analysis.
Key Functions of the Applications developed by COE – SURVEI
- The Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based Change Detection Software detects unauthorised constructions & encroachments on defence land. The application, which uses National Remote Sensing Centre’s satellite imagery. Through the software, it is to identify changes on ground that are of permanent nature, enabling them to check if such changes are authorised or without due sanction of the competent authority. It helps to initiate necessary administrative action in time against unauthorised constructions or encroachments. Earlier, such unauthorised constructions and encroachments were detected through physical verification.
- The Land Use Analysis software, developed with active participation of Nascent Infotechnologies Pvt Ltd, can analyse any place located in any part of the country through GIS and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies. The tool will prove to be helpful for many Government and State departments, ensuring optimum utilisation of existing land.
- It also developed tools for 3D imagery analysis and visualisation of hilly areas.
3 . Initiatives to harness the potential of Ocean resources
PIB Release : https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848358
Context: Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has taken many initiatives to harness the potential of Ocean resources.
Various initiatives taken by the government to harness the potential of Ocean resources:
- Under the schemes “Ocean—Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)” and “Deep Ocean Mission (DOM)” of MoES, resource inventories for energy, fisheries, and minerals have been taken up.
- Government of India signed a 15 year contract with International Seabed Authority (ISA) for exploration of polymetallic nodules from Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) in 2002. Extensive survey and other developmental activities have been carried out in 75000 sq km area retained by India in CIOB.
- MoES has undertaken exploration and other developmental activities related to polymetallic sulphides under a 15 years contract signed in 2016 with International Seabed Authority (ISA) for exploration of polymetallic sulphides in the allotted area of 10,000 sq km along Central Indian Ridge (CIR) & Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) region of the Indian Ocean.
- National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) under MoES has developed, demonstrated and operated unmanned remotely operated systems to harness ocean resources.
- Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE) of MoES explored the deep-sea living resources under Marine Living Resources Programme (MLRP). The programme covers the regular monitoring of the Indian ecosystems covering pelagic to deep sea realms vis-à-vis documenting the taxonomic information and development of technology for harnessing resources.
- Geological Survey of India (GSI) under Ministry of Mines has delineated prospective offshore areas within Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India for marine mineral resources like lime mud, heavy mineral placers [ilmenite, monazite, rutile, sillimanite, garnet, zircon], and construction sand.
- Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying has taken several initiatives over the years for development of marine fisheries in sustainable manner
4 . Initiatives undertaken by Govt to manage flood
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848467
Context: Central Water Commission (CWC) has taken many initiatives for flood management.
Flood Forecasting by CWC:
- Presently, CWC issues flood forecasts for 332 forecasting stations.
- As per flood forecasting network of CWC, during the last 3 years, in addition to flood prone States of Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, extreme floods were witnessed in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Telangana due to excess rainfall in these States combined with extremely heavy rainfall in short duration.
- Flood Forecasting by CWC uses all the latest technology including remote-sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Internet, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in development/ running/ formulation and calibration of mathematical models and for providing inundation alerts.
- CWC is issuing 5-day advisory flood forecast at 332 flood and inflow forecasting stations using state-of-art rainfall run off mathematical modelling tools based on rainfall forecast by IMD. These forecasts help in better management of floods by concerned agencies and departments
Other initiatives by government:
- Flood Hazard Atlases have been prepared by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in respect of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- ISRO has developed long term cumulative flood maps for the States/UT of Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The flood inundation details as derived from Satellite data are also made available to the stakeholders through the National Database for Emergency Management (NDEM) and Bhuvan Geoportals.
- The flood management & anti-erosion schemes are planned, investigated and implemented by the State Governments with their own resources as per priority within the State.
- The Union Government supplements the efforts of the States by way of technical guidance and promotional financial assistance for flood management in critical areas.
- To strengthen the structural measures of flood management, Ministry had implemented Flood Management Programme (FMP) during XI & XII Plan for providing central assistance to States for works related to flood control, anti-erosion, drainage development, anti-sea erosion, etc. which subsequently continued as a component of “Flood Management and Border Areas Programme” (FMBAP) for the period from 2017-18 to 2020-21 and has been further extended up to September 2022.
5 . Facts for Prelims
- The National Anti-Doping Bill 2022, prohibits athletes, athlete support personnel, and other persons from engaging in doping in sport. Violation of anti-doping rules may result in disqualification of results including forfeiture of medals, points and prizes, ineligibility to participate in a competition or event for a prescribed period, and financial sanctions.
- Currently, anti-doping rules are implemented by the National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA), which was established as a society. The Bill provides for constituting NADA as a statutory body headed by a Director General appointed by the central government. Functions of the Agency include planning, implementing and monitoring anti-doping activities, and investigating anti-doping rule violations.
- The National Board for Anti-Doping in Sports will be established to make recommendations to the government on anti-doping regulations and compliance with international commitments on anti-doping. The Board will oversee the activities of NADA and issue directions to it. The Board will constitute a National Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel for determining consequences of anti-doping rule violations. Further, the Board will constitute a National Anti-Doping Appeal Panel to hear appeals against decisions of the Disciplinary Panel.
- Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), NavIC is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary.
- IRNSS will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is provided to all the users and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users.
- The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.
Some applications of IRNSS are:
- Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Navigation
- Disaster Management
- Vehicle tracking and fleet management
- Integration with mobile phones
- Precise Timing
- Mapping and Geodetic data capture
- Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travellers
- Visual and voice navigation for drivers
- North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC), headquartered at Shillong, established in 2000, is a joint initiative of North Eastern Council (NEC) and Dept. of Space (DOS), to provide space technology inputs and services for the development of the North Eastern Region.
- NESAC is engaged in executing remote sensing application projects for natural resources management & infrastructure development, satellite communication-based applications in education; health & disaster management support, and training & capacity building in space technology & applications.
Network Planning Group – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848298
Network Planning Group constituted under the institutional framework of ‘PM GatiShakti National Master Plan’ with heads of Network Planning Division of all connectivity infrastructure ministries and departments is responsible for unified planning and integration of the proposals.
NPG’s role is to ensure:
- Integration of networks.
- Enhance optimisation through modification/expansion/new network creation.
- Avoid duplication of works for holistic development of any region.
- Reduction logistics costs through micro-plan detailing.
PM Gati Shakti
- PM Gati Shakti — national master plan for multi-modal connectivity aims to develop infrastructure to reduce logistic costs and boost the economy. Gati Shakti will bring ministries including railways and roadways together for integrated planning and coordinated implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects.
- It was announced in October 2021 with an aim to break departmental silos and bring in more holistic and integrated planning and execution of projects with a view to addressing the issues of multi-modal and last-mile connectivity.
Indian Institute of Heritage – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848399
- Government have decided to set up ‘Indian Institute of Heritage’ (IIH) as a Deemed to be University as per UGC (Institutions deemed to be Universities) Regulations, 2019 at Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh.
- It will be one of its kind in the country providing higher education and research in the fields of Indian heritage and conservation and Government have no plan to create more such institutions in the country. Indian Institute of Heritage will be a world-class university that would focus on the conservation and research in India’s rich tangible heritage, while offering research, development and dissemination of knowledge, excellence in the education of its students and activities associated with heritage that contribute to the cultural, scientific and economic life of India. This would be a standalone Institution of its type in the country.
Central Groundwater Authority
- Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation constituted under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986.
- It has the mandate of regulating ground water development and management in the country. In 23 States/ Union Territories ground water development is being regulated by Central Ground Water Authority. The remaining States/ Union Territories are regulating ground water development through ground water legislation enacted by them or through Government Orders.
- Central Ground Water Authority grants No Objection Certificates (NOCs) for Ground water abstraction to Industries, Infrastructure units and Mining projects. Central Ground Water Authority has been entrusted with the responsibility of regulating and controlling ground water development and management in the country and issuing necessary directives for the purpose.
Udyam Sakhi Portal – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1848263
- The Udyam Sakhi Portal was launched in March 2018 to provide information regarding the financial schemes, policies and programmes of the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) to existing and prospective women entrepreneurs. The portal helps women to start, build and grow their businesses.
- The Udyam Sakhi Portal is a platform for providing information relating to
- Financial Schemes of Ministry of MSME /other Central Ministries, such as Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP); Credit Guarantee Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE); MUDRA; etc. P
- Policies and Programmes of Ministry of MSME & other Central Ministries.
- Preparation of Business plan;
- Details of Nodal offices / supporting organisations of Ministry of MSME in the respective States and the Country;
- Information about exhibitions, trade fairs & international events organised/supported by Ministry of MSME, etc.