PIB Analysis : 24th July

PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE

  1. Steps taken by Govt to strengthen IPR Regime in the country
  2. Merger / amalgamation of National Institute of Miners’ Health with ICMR-National Institute of Occupational Health
  3. Fair and Remunerative Price
  4. Radiation Technology for Sewage Treatment
  5. National Indicator Framework (NIF)

1 . Steps taken by Govt to strengthen IPR Regime in the country

Initiatives undertaken by Govt

  • India has a well-established legislative, administrative and judicial framework to safeguard IPRs, which meets its international obligations while utilizing the flexibilities provided in the international regime to address its developmental concerns. India has a Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) compliant, robust, equitable and dynamic IPR regime.
  • Agricultural, natural or manufactured goods are registered as Geographical Indications (GI) by the Geographical Indications Registry as per the provisions of the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999.

Steps taken by the Govt to strengthen the IPR regime in the country

  • The National IPR Policy, 2016 was adopted on 12.05.2016 as a vision document to guide future development of IPRs in the country.
  • The administration of Copyright Act, 1957 and Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Design Act, 2000, along with their associated Registries, has been transferred to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
  • Subsequently, under the Finance Act, 2017, the Copyright Board has also been merged in the Intellectual Property Appellate Board.
  • The Patents Rules, 2003 and the Trademarks Rules, 2002 have been amended whereby the IP processes have been re-engineered to streamline them and make them more user-friendly.
  • Manpower in the Intellectual Property offices has been ramped up significantly with fresh recruitments. This augmentation of manpower has already had a salutary effect on the examination and disposal of patent and trademark applications. The examination time for trademark applications has come down from the earlier 13 months to just 1 month. The disposal of patent applications has increased by more than twofold in 2018-19 vis-à-vis 2015-16.
  • IPR awareness and training programmes are held for academic institutions, industry associations and enforcement agencies. 
  • Special provisions have been made for startups and MSMEs.
  • The Government has entered into an agreement with WIPO for establishment of Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISC).
  • The Commercial Courts set up under the Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act, 2015 also deal with IP disputes.
  • India has acceded to a number of multilateral treaties and agreements in the past two years, such as WIPO Copyright Treaty, WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty, Nice Agreement concerning the international classification of goods & services for the purposes of registration of marks, the Vienna Agreement establishing an international classification of the figurative elements for marks and Locarno Agreement establishing an international classification for industrial designs.

2 . Merger / amalgamation of National Institute of Miners Health with ICMR-National Institute of Occupational Health

Context : The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved to dissolve National Institute of Miners’ Health (NIMH), an autonomous Institute under Ministry of Mines (MoM) and merge / amalgamate with ICMR-National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH), Ahmedabad, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoH&FW)


  • The merger / amalgamation of NIMH with NIOH will prove beneficial to both the Institutes in term of enhanced expertise in the field of occupational health besides the efficient management of public money.


  • NIMH was set up by Government of India in 1990 and registered as a Society under the Karnataka Societies Registration Act, 1960.
  • The Institute conducts applied research in occupational health and hygiene and specializes in providing technical support services to mining and mineral based industry with special reference to metalliferous sector and endeavors for safe mines and healthy miners through research & development.
  • The focus areas of NIOH include a vast array of areas related to occupational health which also includes, occupational medicine and occupational hygiene.
  • In the context of review of working and performance of autonomous institutes, Expenditure Management Commission recommended, inter-alia, that- “Organisations with similar objectives can be considered for merger to encourage synergy in operations and reduction in cost”. Accordingly, recommended merger of NIMH with NIOH.

3 . Fair & Remunerative Price / Pricing of Sugar

About Fair & Remunerative Price

  • The pricing of sugarcane is governed by the statutory provisions of the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 issued under the Essential Commodities Act (ECA), 1955.
  • Prior to 2009-10 sugar season, the Central Government was fixing the Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) of sugarcane and farmers were entitled to share profits of a sugar mill on 50:50 basis.
  • As this sharing of profits remained virtually unimplemented, the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 was amended in October, 2009 and the concept of SMP was replaced by the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane.
  • A new clause ‘reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits’ was inserted as an additional factor for working out FRP and this was made effective from the 2009-10 sugar season. Accordingly, the CACP is required to pay due regard to the statutory factors listed in the Control Order, which are :
    • the cost of production of sugarcane;
    • the return to the grower from alternative crops and the general trend of prices of agricultural commodities;
    • the availability of sugar to the consumers at a fair price;
    • the price of sugar;
    • the recovery rate of sugar from sugarcane;
    • the realization made from sale of by-products viz. molasses, bagasse and press mud or their imputed value
    • reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits


  • Under the FRP system, the farmers are not required to wait till the end of the season or for any announcement of the profits by sugar mills or the Government.
  • The new system also assures margins on account of profit and risk to farmers, irrespective of the fact whether sugar mills generate profit or not and is not dependent on the performance of any individual sugar mill.

4 . Radiation Technology for Sewage Treatment

Context : Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in collaboration with Amdavad Municipal Corporation (AMC), Ahmedabad has set up a Technology Demonstration Pilot Project “Sewage Sludge Hygienisation Plant” at Shahwadi, Ahmedabad


  • Large amount of sewage sludge is produced in India every day. The sludge is infectious and can spread diseases. It also has essential micro and macro nutrients, especially carbon, useful for soil and crop production.
  • Radiation Technology can be used to hygienise the sludge reliably and affordably and protect health and environment. Addition of useful microorganisms to the hygienised sludge can convert it to a value added manure

About the Technology

  • Ionizing radiation emitted by radiation source such as Cobalt-60 interacts with the critical molecules like DNA, proteins and water present in the cell and result in the inactivation of microorganisms.
  • As a result of Irradiation, besides pathogens, other unwanted constituents like weeds, chemicals, etc. are also degraded, making the sludge safer for use
  • Based on microbiological inactivation, Radiation Technology is already established world over for sterilizing medical products, food safety and food preservation. Sludge hygienisation can be carried out in the similar manner

Advantages of Radiation Technology

  • Process is simple, economic, effective, reproducible and scalable.
  • Easy to integrate with conventional sewage treatment facilities.
  • Process is fully automatic to avoid manual handling of contaminated sludge.
  • Based on the process of radiation sterilization which is well established world over and in India.
  • Degrades chemical contaminants and makes sludge safer for use.

Benefits to the farmers/people

  • Increased crop yield – direct benefit to the farmers.
  • Improved soil conditions – soil conservation & restoration.
  • Reduced health risks associated with sludge, reduces costs of health care system.
  • Reduced demand of water due to higher water holding capacity of the sludge.


  • Radiation technology has sound scientific basis and is a practical technology to economically hygienise sewage sludge for agriculture application.
  • The technology and radiation source both are available in our country. Irradiation facility can be utilised to treat whole city sludge at one place in a fully automatic process.
  • The hygienised sludge can benefit farmers and protect environment and human health. The technology has high potential in contributing towards meeting the objectives of Clean India Mission (the Swachh Bharat mission).

5 . National Indicator Framework


  • In September 2016, MoSPI developed a consolidated list of possible national indicators based on the available information. A national consultation workshop was organized with the Central Ministries / Departments and State Governments to discuss the proposed indicators. The Ministries / Departments were also requested to examine the suggested possible national indicators and add / delete / modify / suggest national indicators for the SDG targets concerned. Furthermore a public consultation was also made.
  • Based on the suggestions received in the national consultation process from concerned Ministries/Departments and other stakeholders, National Indicator Framework (NIF) consisting of 306 statistical indicators has been prepared by MoSPI.
  • NIF will be the backbone of monitoring of SDGs at the national level and will give appropriate direction to the policy makers and the implementers of various schemes and programmes.

Key Features / Characteristics of National Indicator Framework

  • Largest ever Monitoring Framework in the country. National Indicator Framework consists of 306 statistical indicators. This is the largest monitoring framework in the country and will be dependent on a statistical system for flow of information.
  • It has been developed after extensive consultations with NITI Aayog, Central Ministries, State Governments and other stakeholders.
  • The framework consists of nationally defined indicators responding to national priorities and needs.
  • National acceptability was an important criteria used in deciding the indicators.
  • The indicators directly respond to the goals and targets.
  • Attempt made to cover all components of the targets.
  • Data sources and periodicity included.
  • Data disaggregation to be decided by the respective Ministries.
  • Scope of improving the Framework by adding/deleting indicators with improvement in Statistical System.
  • High Level Steering Committee (HLSC) to periodically review and refinement of National Indicator Framework for monitoring SDGs.

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