Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- DPT 3 Immunisation
- Section 39A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951
- Kakatiya Rulers and Rudragiri hilllock
- Facts for Prelims
1 . DPT3 IMMUNISATION
Context: The coverage rate for DPT3, the third dose of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccines, in India rose to an all-time of 93% in 2022, surpassing the previous pre-pandemic best of 91% recorded in 2019, and also marking a sharp increase from the 85% recorded in 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO)
National Immunisation coverage-WHO and UNICEF
- The WHO and UNICEF estimates for national immunisation coverage for 2022, showed that in the WHO South-East Asia Region, the coverage rate for DPT3 recovered to the pre-pandemic level of 91%, a sharp increase from the 82% recorded in 2021. The region also witnessed a 6% improvement in the coverage of the measles vaccine, rising to 92% in 2022 from 86% in 2021.
- The number of zero-dose children (those that have not received even the first dose of DPT vaccine) halved to 2.3 million in 2022 from 4.6 million in 2021. Similarly, the number of partially vaccinated children (those that have received at least one dose of DPT vaccine but did not complete the primary series of three doses) reduced to 6.5 lakh in 2022 from 1.3 million in 2021.
- Indonesia reported a DPT3 coverage of 85% in 2022, the same as in 2019, but rising sharply from the 67% recorded in 2021. Bhutan recorded 98% and the Maldives 99%, surpassing their pre-pandemic rates. Bangladesh with 98% and Thailand 97% demonstrated consistency in routine immunisation coverage throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, the report said
What is DTP?
- D’ stands for Diphtheria, ‘T’ stands for Tetanus and ‘P’ stands for Pertussis. These three are serious diseases caused by bacteria.
- Transmission- Diphtheria and Pertussis are spread from one person to another while Tetanus enters the body through cuts and wounds, which may not appear dangerous and are often unnoticed or neglected.
What are the symptoms and harmful effects of DTP?
- Diphtheria: It causes a thick covering in the back of the throat. It can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure and even death in severe cases. Tetanus: It causes painful tightening of the muscles usually all over the body. Tetanus can lead to locking of the jaw as a result the victim cannot open his mouth or swallow. Deaths because of Tetanus are around 10%.
- Pertussis (whooping cough or black cough): It causes severe coughing spells that it is hard for infants to eat, drink or even breathe. These spells can last for weeks. Pertussis can lead to Pneumonia, convulsions, Brain Damage and Death.
About DPT Vaccine
- The DPT vaccine or DTP vaccine is a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
- Significance of DPT 3 Immunisation– coverage with three dosage of the DPT vaccine. DTP3 immunisation is the indicator of the performance of countries’ routine immunization services
What are the Initiatives taken by the government to promote immunisation?
Universal Immunization Programme
- Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest public health programmes targeting close of 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually.
- It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and largely responsible for reduction of vaccine preventable under-5 mortality rate.
- Under UIP, immunization is providing free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases:
- Nationally against 9 diseases – Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B
- Sub-nationally against 3 diseases – Rotavirus diarrhoea, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Japanese Encephalitis; of which Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine are in process of expansion while JE vaccine is provided only in endemic districts.
- A child is said to be fully immunized if child receives all due vaccine as per national immunization schedule within 1st year age of child.
- The two major milestones of UIP have been the elimination of polio in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in 2015.
- Mission Indradhanush (MI) was launched in December 2014 and aims at increasing the full immunization coverage to children to 90%.
- Under this drive focus is given on pockets of low immunization coverage and hard to reach areas where the proportion of unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children is highest.
- A total of six phases of Mission Indradhanush have been completed covering 554 districts across the country.
- It was also identified as one of the flagship schemes under Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (16,850 villages across 541 districts) and Extended Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (48,929 villages across 117 aspirational districts).
- While the first two phases of Mission Indradhanush resulted in 6.7% increase in full immunization coverage in a year, a recent survey carried out in 190 districts covered in Intensified Mission Indradhanush (5th phase of Mission Indradhanush) shows 18.5% points increase in full immunization coverage as compared to NFHS-4 survey carried out in 2015-16.
2 . Section 39A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 – National and State level Political parties
Context: The Election Commission (EC) has made the process of allotting airtime to political parties for campaigning on Akashvani and Doordarshan entirely online.
About the News
- Allotment of time to political parties on All India Radio and Doordarshan during election will now be online.
- The Election Commission of India, has amended the existing scheme for the use of Government-owned electronic media by political parties. This has been done by introducing a provision to issue digital time vouchers through an Information Technology (IT) platform.
- With this facilitation, the political parties will not be required to send their representatives to ECI/CEO Offices for collection of the time vouchers physically during elections. This step reflects the Commission’s commitment to leveraging technology for the betterment of the electoral process and ease of all stakeholders.
- Recognizing the advancements in technology, the Commission has been providing IT based options for interface with political parties. Recently, the Commission also introduced a web portal for online filing of financial accounts by political parties with the Election Commission.
Section 39A of the R.P. Act, 1951
- The scheme, which was initially notified on 16th January 1998, holds a statutory basis under Section 39A of the R.P. Act, 1951. It was formulated after extensive consultations with recognized National and State Parties and is aimed at ensuring equitable access to government-owned electronic media during elections for campaigning.
- Under this Scheme, an equitable base time is allotted to each National Party and Recognized State Party of the state concerned uniformly on DD & AIR and the additional time to be allotted to the parties is decided on the basis of the poll performance of the parties in the last assembly elections from the respective States/UT or in the last general Elections to Lok Sabha, as the case may be.
- The actual date and time during which the above telecasts/broadcasts will be made by the authorised representatives of any party is predetermined, by a lot, by the Prasar Bharati Corporation in consultation with ECI and in the presence of political party representatives.
- The introduction of an IT-based platform for the processing and distribution of time vouchers to entitled political parties allows for a more efficient and streamlined process, enhancing accessibility and ease of use for the political parties.
How does a party get recognised as a national party?
- The Election Commission reviews the poll performance of recognised parties after every State Assembly election or general election to the Lok Sabha. The rules for recognition as a national party are specified by the Commission in para 6B of the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968.
- A party becomes eligible to be accorded national status if it fulfil one of the following conditions:
- (a) if it is recognised as a state party in at least four States,
- (b) if it secures 6% of the total votes polled in four States in the last Lok Sabha or Assembly elections, and in addition, gets four of its members elected to the Lok Sabha, or
- (c) if it wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different States.
- Besides this, the Symbols Order of 1968 was amended in 2016 to give parties one additional “pass over”. As per this amendment, deemed to have been in force since January 1, 2014, if a national or State party fails to fulfil the eligibility criteria in the next general elections (March 2014 Lok Sabha polls in this case) or the assembly election after the election in which it received recognition, it will continue to be recognised as a national or State party, meaning it will not be stripped of its status. However, whether it will continue to be recognised after any subsequent election would again have to be determined by the eligibility criteria.
- For example- The NCP lost its recognition in three States (Goa, Manipur, and Meghalaya) where it did not secure enough assembly votes between 2017 and 2018. It is currently a State party in only two States, Maharashtra, where it got 16.71% of the votes in the 2019 Assembly elections, and Nagaland, where it made inroads earlier this year.
What are the criteria to be recognised as a state party?
- For recognition as a State party, it has to secure at least 6% of the valid votes polled and two seats in Assembly polls or one in Lok Sabha polls. There are three other alternatives for eligibility-
- (a) in General Elections or Legislative Assembly elections, the party has to win 3% of seats in the legislative assembly of the State (subject to a minimum of 3 seats),
- (b) in a Lok Sabha General Election, the party has to win 1 Lok Sabha seat for every 25 Lok Sabha seats allotted for the State, or
- (c) in a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party has to poll 8% of votes in a State.
What are the benefits of recognition as national and State parties?
- A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol, free broadcast time on State-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations.
- Candidates put up by registered but unrecognized political parties meanwhile are allotted election symbols by the Returning Officers of the concerned constituencies after the last date for withdrawal of candidature, as per availability. Thus, the party cannot use a single poll symbol across the country
3 . Kakatiya Ruler and Rudra Giri Hillocks
Context: Rudragiri hillock, located in the village of Orvakallu, Atchampet mandal, in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, boasts a celebrated historical past and remarkable archaeological monuments.
- Rudragiri, nestled amidst the Eastern Ghats, features five naturally formed rock shelters at its foothills, facing westward.
- These shelters served as living quarters for people during the Mesolithic age around 5000 B.C., and they bear witness to the luminous rock paintings of that era.
- This site unveils a fascinating combination of prehistoric rock paintings from the Mesolithic period and exquisite artwork from the Kakatiya dynasty.
- Rudragiri caves – These caves showcase the artistic brilliance of the Kakatiya period. The paintings, adorned with a variety of colours derived from white kaolin and different pigments, depict captivating scenes from the epic Ramayana. Despite the impact of nature’s wrath, fragments of these paintings offer valuable insights into their creation during the 13th century A.D.
- Two natural caves at the southern end of the hillock also exhibit exceptional murals from the renowned Kakatiya kingdom.
- The first cave, starting from the southern end of the hillock, presents a narrative mural portraying the intense battle between the Vanara brothers — Vali and Sugriva.
- In the middle cave, a grand sketch of Hanuman, accompanied by sacred symbols of the conch (Sankha) and the fire altar (Yagna Vedi). Hanuman is depicted carrying the Sanjivani hill in his hand, symbolising his mission to save Lakshmana’s life.
- The third cave houses the prehistoric rock paintings from the Mesolithic era. the Kakatiya artist chose the same rock shelter to superimpose the elegant figure of Hanuman, who is portrayed in a unique ‘Anjali’ posture, folding his hands in a divine offering.
About Kakatiya Dynasty
- Kakatiya Dyansty is an Andhra Dyansty that emerged in the 12th and the 13th centuries
- They ruled from Warangal (Telangana) from AD 1083-1323. Before the establishment of Orugallu/Warangal as the capital, Hanamakonda was the first capital of the Kakatiyas.
- Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries.
- They assumed sovereignty under Prataparudra I in 1163 CE by suppressing other Chalukya subordinates in the Telangana region
- The dynasty saw powerful leaders like Ganapathi Deva and Rudramadevi.
- Ganapati Deva (r. 1199–1262) significantly expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers. Ganapati Deva was succeeded by Rudrama Devi (r. 1262–1289) who is one of the few queens in Indian history. She successfully repelled the attacks of Yadavas (Seuna) of Devagiri into the Kakatiyan territory.
- The great Italian traveller Marco Polo visited the Kakatiya Kingdom during Rudramadevi’s tenure and made note of her administrative style; admiring her extensively.
- Ganapati Deva is the first king who introduced the worship of Kakati Devi into the coastal region of Andhra and outside the dominions of his kingdom
- In 1303, Alauddin Khalji, the emperor of the Delhi Sultanate invaded the Kakatiya territory which ended up as a disaster for the Turks. But after the successful siege of Warangal in 1310, Prataparudra II was forced to pay annual tribute to Delhi.
- Another attack by Ulugh Khan in 1323 saw stiff resistance by the Kakatiyan army, but they were finally defeated. The demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime, before Musunuri Nayaks united the various Telugu clans and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate.
- They were known for construction of a network of tanks for irrigation and drinking water and thereby gave a big boost to the overall development of the region.
- There are a number of Hindu temples that wrer built under the patronage of Kakatiya kings like Ganapati Deva, Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra of Kakatiya dynasty.
- Thousand Pillar Temple or Rudreshwara Swamy Temple – Telangana. It is a star-shaped, triple shrine (Trikutalayam) – Vishnu, Shiva and Surya.
- Golconda Fort in Hyderabad (Telangana) was also constructed by the Kakatiya rulers.
- The Koh-i-Noor Diamond, which is now among the jewels set in the British Crown, was mined and first owned by the Kakatiya Dynasty.
- Kakatiya Thoranam was built by Rudramadevi’s father in the 12th Century. This ornate arch is said to have many similarities with the gateways at the Sanchi Stupa and is also the emblem of Telangana.
- Pakhal lake in Warangal was built by Ganapathi Deva.
- The Kakatiya rule finally came to an end in 1323 A.D. when Warangal was conquered by the Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the then Sultan of Delhi.
4 . Facts for Prelims
- Kharif fasal are a type of seasonal crops mainly grown during the monsoon season in India, which usually starts around June and lasts till September. These crops are suited to India’s climatic conditions during this time, which include high temperatures, rainfall and humidity.
- According to Indian cultivation and season of kharif crops, include rice, maize, jowar, millet/bajra, finger millet/ragi, arhar, soyabean, groundnut, cotton, mung, etc. in the crop category.
High court Judge criteria of Selection
- The post of the Judge of a High Court has importance under India’s Constitution and the incumbent is supposed to be not only fair, impartial and independent, but also intelligent and diligent.
- The general eligibility criterion is A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and
- (a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or
- (b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.
- There is no fixed minimum age for the judges of the High court.