PIB Analysis for UPSC Civil Services Exam
- Compulsory license
- Archaeological Survey of India
- Indo – US 2+2 Dialogue
- Initiatives to improve teaching quality in Higher Education
- Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries
1 . Compulsory Licensing
What is Compulsory Licensing
- Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself. It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO’s agreement on intellectual property — the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement. It is mainly provided in the Pharmaceutical sector
- Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health confirms that countries are free to determine the grounds for granting compulsory licences, and to determine what constitutes a national emergency.
- The patent owner still has rights over the patent, including a right to be paid for copies of the products made under the compulsory licence.
Compulsory Licensing in India
- Compulsory licences are granted according to the provisions of the Patents Act, 1970 and the term ‘Mandatory Licence’ is not used under the Act.
- Till date, one Compulsory Licence has been granted by the Controller of Patents under Section 84 of the Patents Act 1970 to M/s. NATCO Pharma for Indian Patent No. 215758 (Carboxyaryl substituted diphenyl ureas) which was granted to M/s. Bayer Corporation
- The drug covered under this patent is “Sorafenibtosylate” and sold under the brand name “NEXAVAR”, isused for the treatment of kidney and liver cancer.
2 . Archaeological Survey of India
- The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency attached to the Ministry of Culture that is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
- It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who also became its first Director-General
- Conducting archaeological explorations and excavations;
- Maintenance, conservation and preservation of protected monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance;
- Chemical preservation of monuments and antiquarian remains;
- Architectural survey of monuments;
- Epigraphical and numismatic studies;
- Setting up and re-organization of Site Museums;
- Training in Archaeology;
- Bringing out archaeological publications;
- Archaeological expeditions outside India ;
- Horticulture operation in and around ancient monuments and sites;
- Implementation and regulation of – The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958;
- The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, etc.
3 . Indo – US 2+2 Dialogue
- The ‘2+2’ dialogue is a meeting between the India Ministers for External Affairs and Defence with the US Secretaries of State and Defense
- “2+2” dialogue was meant to replace the Strategic and Commercial Dialogue between the foreign and commerce ministers of the two countries that was held during the previous Obama administration.
- First 2+2 Dialogue happened in India in September
- Next 2+2 Dialogue will happen in 2019 in USA
Details about First 2+2 Dialogue
- Recognizing their two countries are strategic partners, major and independent stakeholders in world affairs, the Ministers committed to work together on regional and global issues, including in bilateral, trilateral, and quadrilateral formats.
- The two sides further decided to establish secure communication between the Minister of External Affairs of India and the U.S. Secretary of State, and between the Minister of Defense of India and the U.S. Secretary of Defense, to help maintain regular high-level communication on emerging developments.
Strengthening the Defense and Security Partnership
- The Ministers reaffirmed the strategic importance of India’s designation as a Major Defense Partner (MDP) of the United States and committed to expand the scope of India’s MDP status and take mutually agreed upon steps to strengthen defense ties further and promote better defense and security coordination and cooperation.
- They welcomed the inclusion of India by the United States among the top tier of countries entitled to license-free exports, re-exports, and transfers under License Exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA-1)
- They welcomed the signing of a Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) that will facilitate access to advanced defense systems and enable India to optimally utilize its existing U.S.-origin platforms.
- The Ministers also announced their readiness to begin negotiations on an Industrial Security Annex (ISA) that would support closer defense industry cooperation and collaboration.
- The two sides committed to the creation of a new, tri-services exercise and to further increase personnel exchanges between the two militaries and defense organizations.
- The Ministers reviewed the recent growth of bilateral engagements in support of maritime security and maritime domain awareness, and committed to expand cooperation. Toward that end, the Ministers committed to start exchanges between the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT) and the Indian Navy, underscoring the importance of deepening their maritime cooperation in the western Indian Ocean.
- The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to continue to encourage and prioritize co-production and co-development projects through the Defense Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI), and to pursue other avenues of defense innovation cooperation. In this regard, they welcomed the conclusion of a Memorandum of Intent between the U.S. Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) and the Indian Defence Innovation Organization – Innovation for Defence Excellence (DIO-iDEX).
Partners in the Indo-Pacific and Beyond
- Both sides committed to work together and in concert with other partners toward advancing a free, open, and inclusive Indo-Pacific region, based on recognition of ASEAN centrality and on respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, rule of law, good governance, free and fair trade, and freedom of navigation and overflight.
- The two sides expressed support for an Afghan-led, Afghan-owned peace and reconciliation process
- The two sides pledged to work together to counter North Korea’s weapons of mass destruction programs and to hold accountable those countries that have supported them.
- The United States welcomed India’s accession to the Australia Group, the Wassenaar Arrangement, and the Missile Technology Control Regime and reiterated its full support for India’s immediate accession to the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
Promoting Prosperity and People-to-People Ties
- Both sides committed to further expanding and balancing the trade and economic partnership consistent with their leaders’ 2017 joint statement, including by facilitating trade, improving market access, and addressing issues of interest to both sides. In this regard, both sides welcomed the ongoing exchanges between the Ministry of Commerce of India and the Office of the United States Trade Representative and hoped for mutually acceptable outcomes.
- Both sides looked forward to full implementation of the civil nuclear energy partnership and collaboration between Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and Westinghouse Electric Company for the establishment of six nuclear power plants in India.
- Observing the strong ties of family, education, and business, and the spirit of entrepreneurship and innovation that unite their people, the Ministers highlighted the unmatched people-to-people ties between their countries and recognized the benefits to both nations and the world from these ties, including the free flow of ideas and collaboration in health, space, oceans, and other areas of science and technology.
4 . Initiatives to improve teaching quality in Higher Education
- Diksha– It is a platform for teachers which enables capacity building of all categories of teachers. It helps over 50 lakh teachers in improving the quality of education. Teachers upload their own material on the portal, which also offer online courses, allow sharing of best content, monitor progress and introduce energized text books with QR Code.
- Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQUIP)- This is a quality improvement program in technical education. In phase III, hill states of J&K, Himachal and Uttarakhand, 8 North-eastern States, Andaman Nicobar, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand and Assam has got Rs.2,600 crore. This ensures bridging the regional gaps in technical education. 1200 IIT and NIT graduates have opted for 3 years teaching in educationally backward regions. They have resumed their duties in 53
- government engineering colleges where faculty vacancies were large. Thus 1,00,000 students get quality education which they were deprived off till recently.
- Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN) – Under GIAN, 700 professors from 58 countries have so far conducted about 1120 courses in specialized topics for students in Indian Higher Educational institutions. More than 40,000 students and associated Indian Faculty has benefited from this international teaching exposure.
- Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission for Teachers Training (PMMMNMTT) – Under this scheme in-service training programs for more than 1,00,000 college and university teachers have been organized. Newly appointed teachers undergo six months pedagogical training, so they can make good rapport with students and the quality improves.
- INTER UNIVERSITY CENTRES (IUCS) : To improve the standards of higher education and research, the UGC establishes Inter-University Centres for Teachers Education within the university system under Clause 12(ccc) of the UGC Act.
5 . Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI)
- Under the Scheme, financial assistance is provided for development of Khadi, coir and village Industries clusters.