PIB Analysis : 9th and 10th September

PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. National Animal Disease Control Programme
  2. Asian Development Bank
  3. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
  4. United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)
  5. Sixth India-China Strategic Economic Dialogue
  6. Facts for Prelims : ANGAN, BEE, Motihari-Amlekhganj (Nepal) pipeline

1 . National Animal Disease Control Programme


Context : In one of the major efforts towards doubling the Farmers Income, Prime Minister Narendra Modi shall be launching the National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP) for eradicating the Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis in the livestock

About the Scheme

  • With 100 Percent funding from the Central Government, of Rs 12,652 Crores for a period of five years till 2024, the programme aims at vaccinating over 500 Million Livestock including cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs against the FMD.
  • The programme also aims at vaccinating 36 Million Female Bovine Calves annually in its fight against the Brucellosis disease.
  • The Programme has two components – to control the diseases by 2025 and eradication by 2030.

2 . Asian Development Bank


Context : The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India today signed a $200 million loan to upgrade rural roads to all-weather standards in 34 districts of Maharashtra State to improve road safety and better connect rural areas with markets and services.

About Asian Development Bank

  • The Asian Development Bank was conceived in the early 1960s as a financial institution that would be Asian in character and foster economic growth and cooperation in one of the poorest regions in the world.
  • ADB assists its members, and partners, by providing loans, technical assistance, grants, and equity investments to promote social and economic development
  • ADB in partnership with member governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects in developing member countries that create economic and development impact.

 As a multilateral development finance institution, ADB provides:

  • loans
  • technical assistance
  • grants

Operational Priorities

  • addressing remaining poverty and reducing inequality
  • accelerating progress in gender equality
  • tackling climate change, building climate and disaster resilience, and enhancing environmental sustainability
  • making cities more livable
  • promoting rural development and food security
  • strengthening governance and institutional capacity
  • fostering regional cooperation and integration

Where does ADB get its funding?

  • ADB raises funds through bond issues on the world’s capital markets. We also rely on our members’ contributions, retained earnings from our lending operations, and the repayment of loans. We also provide loans and grants from a number of special funds

3 . Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority


Background

  • Many development and industrial projects such as erection of dams, mining, and construction of industries or roads require diversion of forest land. Any project proponent, government or private must apply for forest clearance from Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), before the conversion of land take place. This proposal is to be submitted through the concerned forest department of the state government. If clearance is given, then compensation for the lost forest land is also to be decided by the ministry and the regulators.
  • Due to certain discrepancies in the implementation of compensatory afforestation, some NGOs had approached The Hon’ble Supreme Court for relief. The Hon’ble Supreme Court on 10th July 2009 issued orders that there will be a Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) as National Advisory Council under the chairmanship of the Union Minister of Environment & Forests for monitoring, technical assistance and evaluation of compensatory afforestation activities.

The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015

  • The Bill establishes the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of India, and a State Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of each state.
  • These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other project specific payments.  The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
  • These Funds will be primarily spent on afforestation to compensate for loss of forest cover, regeneration of forest ecosystem, wildlife protection and infrastructure development.
  • The Bill also establishes the National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authorities to manage the National and State Funds.

About Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management & Planning Authority

  • The CAF is a nationally constituted authority that presides over a corpus of ₹66,000 crore.
  • This is money paid by developers who have razed forest land for their construction projects, and the idea is that such land destroyed needs to be made good by regenerating forest elsewhere on non-forest land.
  • The amount to be paid depends on the economic value of the goods and services that the razed forest would have provided. These include timber, bamboo, firewood, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, water recharge, and seed dispersal.
  • Industrialists pay this money and this is eventually transferred to the States concerned to carry out afforestation.
  • Until now, a Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority was in charge of the funds.
  • However a new Act, the CAF Act 2016, that came into being after over a decade since it was devised, now establishes an independent authority to execute the fund. However, it was not until August that the rules governing the management of the fund were finalised.

Objectives of CAMPA

  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) are meant to promote afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.
  • National CAMPA Advisory Council has been established as per orders of The Hon’ble Supreme Court with the following mandate:
    • Lay down broad guidelines for State CAMPA.
    • Facilitate scientific, technological and other assistance that may be required by State CAMPA.
    • Make recommendations to State CAMPA based on a review of their plans and programmes.
    • Provide a mechanism to State CAMPA to resolve issues of an inter-state or Centre-State character.

State CAMPA

  • The State CAMPA would presently receive funds collected from user agencies towards compensatory afforestation, additional compensatory afforestation, penal compensatory afforestation, Net Present Value (NPV) and all other amounts recovered from such agencies under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and presently lying with the Adhoc CAMPA.
  • The State CAMPA would administer the amount received from the Adhoc CAMPA and utilize the funds collected for undertaking compensatory afforestation, assisted natural regeneration, conservation and protection of forests, infrastructure development, wildlife conservation and protection and other related activities and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • State CAMPA would provide an integrated framework for utilizing multiple sources of funding and activities relating to protection and management of forests and wildlife. Its prime task would be regenerating natural forests and building up the institution engaged in this work in the State Forest Department including training of the forest officials of various levels with an emphasis on training of the staff at cutting edge level (forest range level). In short, the department would be modernized to protect and regenerate the forests and wildlife habitat.
  • The guidelines also talk about establishment of an independent system for concurrent monitoring and evaluation of the works implemented in the States utilizing the funds available.
  • In sum, the prime task of State CAMPA would be regenerating natural forests and building up the institution engaged in this task in the State Forest Department.

4 . United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)


About the Convention

  • The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international “treaty”, or agreement.
  • It is sometimes called the CRPD, or the Disability Convention. Countries that sign the Convention agree to make sure that the dignity, human rights and freedoms of all disabled people are respected, promoted and protected
  • The Convention does not create new rights, but says that countries should not discriminate against people with disabilities, and sets out what countries should do to make sure that disabled people can enjoy all their human rights. These rights include:
    • Equality before the law without discrimination
    • Right to life, liberty and security of person
    • Equal recognition before the law, and legal capacity
    • Freedom from torture; Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse;
    • Respect for physical and mental integrity; Freedom of movement, and nationality;
    • Right to live in the community; Freedom of expression and opinion;
    • Respect for privacy, home and the family; Right to education; Right to health;
    • Right to work; Right to an adequate standard of living;
    • Right to take part in political and public life; Right to take part in cultural life
  • The Government is responsible for making sure that the rights contained in the Convention are put into practice.

Responsibility of the Govt

  • Make sure that buildings and services are accessible to disabled people – including workplaces, schools, medical facilities and transport.
  • Provide information intended for the general public in accessible formats and technologies such as Braille or sign language.
  • Ensure the rights of people with disabilities to equal pay for equal work, equal employment opportunities and safe and healthy working conditions.

India and CPRD

  • India is a signatory of the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). It ratified this Convention on 01-10-2007 in pursuance of Article 35 of the Convention. India submitted its First Country Report on Status of Disability in India in November 2015.
  • Various initiatives taken by the Government in the recent past for inclusion and empowerment of PwDs in line with the obligations under UNCRPD includes enactment of the Comprehensive RPwD Act, 2016, launch of Accessible India Campaign, establishment of National Institute of Mental Health Rehabilitation (NIMHR) to address issues concerning psycho-social disability, establishment of Centre for Disability Sports, achievements in distribution of aids and assistive devices, etc.

5 . India-China Strategic Economic Dialogue


About Strategic Economic Dialogue

  • Set up between erstwhile Planning Commission and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), China during the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao to India in December 2010, the SED has since then served as an effective mechanism for enhancing bilateral practical cooperation. NITI Aayog after its formation has taken the Dialogue forward giving it a greater momentum.
  • Under the aegis of the SED, senior representatives from both sides come together to constructively deliberate on and share individual best practices and successfully identify sector-specific challenges and opportunities for enabling ease of doing business and facilitating bilateral trade and investment flows.
  • Six standing Joint Working Groups with Co-Chairs ( above the rank of Joint Secretary ) are appointed by both sides to address pertinent economic and commercial issues across infrastructure, energy, high-tech, resource conservation, pharmaceuticals and policy coordination in a structured and outcome-oriented manner by ensuring regular interaction and continued exchanges between respective counterparts.

Structure

  • NITI Aayog (earlier Planning Commission) on the Indian side and National Development and Reforms Commission (NDRC) on the Chinese side lead the SED Mechanism wherein an annual Dialogue is held annually alternately at the capital cities of the two countries.

6 . Facts for Prelims


ANGAN (Augmenting Nature by Green Affordable New-habitat)

  • ANGAN is an international conference focussed on Energy Efficiency in Building Sector began here today. The Conference is being organised by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power, Government of India in collaboration with GIZ under the Indo German Technical Cooperation.

BEE

  • The BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of India. It assists in developing policies and strategies with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy.
  • BEE coordinates with designated consumers, designated agencies, and other organizations to identify and utilize the existing resources and infrastructure, in performing the functions assigned to it under the Energy Conservation Act.

Motihari-Amlekhganj (Nepal) pipeline

  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and Prime Minister of Nepal, Right Hon’ble K.P. Sharma Oli today jointly inaugurated South Asia’s first cross-border petroleum products pipeline from Motihari in India to Amlekhgunj in Nepal through video conference.
  • 69-km Motihari-Amlekhgunj pipeline, having a capacity of 2 million metric ton per annum, will provide cleaner petroleum products at affordable cost to the people of Nepal. 

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