PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Solid Fuel Dutched Ramjet
- CUTLASS EXPRESS
- 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals (CMS
- National Deworming day
1 . Solid Fuel Dutched Ramjet
Context : Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight tested the second indigenously developed ‘Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet (SFDR)’ propulsion based missile system
How Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet works
- SFDR uses a ramjet propulsion system to react with the solid propellant as air, that acts as oxidizer flows through a solid propellant duct.
- The design of the SFDR propulsion allows for throttling up and down, enabling the missile to increase the speed as it reaches the terminal phase of the flight, or when sharp turns are required in pursuit of highly maneuvering targets.
- Compared to conventional rockets that must carry a propellant and oxidizer – Ramjet, like a jet engine, uses the air as an oxidizer thus eliminates the weight of that fuel. Therefore, such missile can carry more fuel or use a smaller propulsion unit.
- With more fuel stored on board, longer burn time is achieved, resulting in higher velocity, that enabling missiles to fly farther and maintain good kinematic performance through the endgame, being able to chase a target through a series of high G maneuvers.
- Relying on solid propellant the system avoids flameout risk through such maneuvers, that jets engines or ramjets are subjected to.
- SFDR propulsion is a key technology for the development of extended range missiles such as surface-to-air and long-range air-to-air missiles
- The major difference between this missile and the regular air-to-air missiles is the air breathing ramjet propulsion technology, which helps propel the missile at high supersonic speeds (above Mach 2) for engaging targets at long ranges
Uses of SFDR for India
- Possible uses for the Indian SFDR are in future variants of missiles, including an advanced version of the ASTRA beyond visual range AAM (BVRAAM) expected to extend the Astra Km 175 km range to 150 km in the Mk-3 version.
- According to the DRDO, the SFDR has a range of 120 km with a speed range of 2.3-2.5 Mach. Unbound by the diameter of aerial weapons, a ground-launched SFDR would accelerate a missile over 250 km.
2 . CUTLASS EXPRESS
Context : INS Trikand, a front-line warship of the Indian Navy, participated in a multinational training exercise ‘CUTLASS EXPRESS – 19’
About Cutlass Express
- The aim of the exercise was to improve law enforcement capacity, promote regional security and progress inter-operability between the armed forces of the participating nations for the purpose of interdicting illegal maritime activity in the Western Indian Ocean.
- During the exercise, Naval, Coast Guard and Marine Police personnel from a number of East African countries were jointly trained by mentors from USA, India, and Netherlands, with support of international organisations like the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Combined Maritime Force (CMF) and European Naval Forces (EUNAVFOR)
3 . 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals (CMS )
Context : The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of United Nations Environment Programme, is going to be hosted by India
About Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals
- As an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
- As the only global convention specializing in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes, CMS complements and co-operates with a number of other international organizations, NGOs and partners in the media as well as in the corporate sector.
- Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I of the Convention.
- CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them. Besides establishing obligations for each State joining the Convention, CMS promotes concerted action among the Range States of many of these species.
- Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention. For this reason, the Convention encourages the Range States to conclude global or regional agreements.
- In this respect, CMS acts as a framework Convention. The agreements may range from legally binding treaties (called Agreements) to less formal instruments, such as Memoranda of Understanding, and can be adapted to the requirements of particular regions. The development of models tailored according to the conservation needs throughout the migratory range is a unique capacity to CMS.
- It is also called as Bonn convention
India and Bonn Convention
- India has been a Party to the CMS since 1983.
- ndia has also signed non legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian Cranes (1998), Marine Turtles (2007), Dugongs (2008) and Raptors (2016).
- India is temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur Falcons, Bar headed Gheese, Black necked cranes, Marine turtles, Dugongs, Humpbacked Whales, etc. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e, the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species. India has also launched the National Action Plan for conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.
4 . National Deworming Day
Context : The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) conducted its eighth round of National Deworming Day (NDD)
- As per WHO, 64% of the Indian population less than 14 years are at risk of
Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH) infections.
About National Deworming Day
- This program is implemented with an objective to reduce the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH) or parasitic intestinal worms so that they are no longer a public health problem.
- Launched in 2015 through a single fixed day approach, the NDD program in this round, targets to reach 24.44 crore children and adolescents in 30 states/UTs, in the age group of 1-19 years.
- The program is implemented with the Ministries of Women and Child Development and Human Resource Development, where the anganwadi workers and teachers administer the deworming medicine to children and adolescents at the anganwadis and schools.
- ASHA workers support the efforts through community mobilization and sensitization of communities about the ill effects of worm infestations
- The NDD program is a cost-effective program at scale that continues to reach crores of children and adolescents with deworming benefits through a safe medicine Albendazole.
- Deworming has shown to reduce absenteeism in schools; improve health, nutritional, and learning outcomes for children; and increase the likelihood of higher-wage jobs later in life as per global evidence
- NDD falls under the purview of the Extended Gram Swaraj Abhiyan, and is also committed to improving the nutritional uptake in all children and adolescents and has immensely contributed to the cause of Anemia Mukt Bharat and Poshan Abhiyaan, under the National Nutrition Strategy, formulated by Niti Aayog
5 . Prime Minister Jan ArogyaYojana [PMJAY]
About Prime Minister Jan ArogyaYojana [PMJAY]
- PMJAY is a centrally sponsored scheme.
- PMJAY provides health coverage up to Rs. 5 lakh per family per year for secondary and tertiary hospitalization to around 10.74 crore poor and vulnerable families (approx. 50 crore beneficiaries).
- PMJAY is an entitlement-based scheme. This scheme covers poor and vulnerable families based on deprivation and occupational criteria as per SECC data.
- PMJAY provides cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiary at the point of service in any (both public and private) empanelled hospitals across India. In other words, a beneficiary from one State can avail benefits from an empanelled Hospital anywhere in the Country.
- Under PMAJY, the States are free to choose the modalities for implementation. They can implement the scheme through insurance company or directly through the Trust/ Society or mixed model.
- There is no restriction on family size, ensuring all members of designated families specifically girl child and senior citizens get coverage.
- At the national level, the National Health Authority (NHA) has been set up to implement the scheme.