PIB Analysis : 4th June

PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. World Environment Day 2019
  2. Tamil Nadu Health System Reform Programme
  3. Gram Samriddhi Yojana
  4. Swachh Survekshan (SS) Survey
  5. Autonomous District Council
  6. Jan Shikshan Sansthan

1 . World Environment Day 2019

Context : On the eve of World environment Day, Union Environment Minister launches #selfiewithsapling campaign

About World Environment Day

  • World Environment Day is the United Nations day for encouraging worldwide awareness and action to protect environment. Since it began in 1974, the event has grown to become a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated in over 100 countries.
  • The theme : Each World Environment Day is organized around a theme that draws attention to a particularly pressing environmental concern. The theme for 2019 is “Air pollution”.
  • The host : Every World Environment Day has a different host country, where the official celebrations take place. The focus on the host country helps highlight the environmental challenges it faces and supports worldwide efforts to address them. This year’s host is China.

About the Theme

  • World Environment Day 2019 urges governments, industries, communities and individuals to come together to explore renewable energy, green technologies and improve air quality in cities and regions across the world.
  • Air pollution is the biggest environmental health risk. Airborne pollutants are responsible for about one third of deaths from stroke, chronic respiratory disease, and lung cancer, as well as one quarter of deaths from heart attack. Air pollution is also fundamentally altering our climate, with profound impacts on the health of the planet.

Some Air Pollution Facts

  • 92 percent of people worldwide do not breathe clean air.
  • Air pollution costs the global economy $5 trillion every year in welfare costs
  • Ground-level ozone pollution is expected to reduce staple crop yields by 26 percent by 2030.

India’s efforts in reducing Air Pollution

  • India has formulated and launched the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP).It is a long term time bound national level strategy to tackle the increasing pollution problem across the country.
  • The objective of NCAP is comprehensive plan for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution besides augmenting the air quality monitoring network.
  • The tentative national level target is reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by 20% – 30% by 2024.The focus of this year WED would be on the identified 102 Non attainment cities.

2 . Tamil Nadu Health System Reform Programme

Context : The Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) and the World Bank today signed a $287 million loan agreement for the Tamil Nadu Health System Reform Programme. The programme aims to improve the quality of health care, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and fill equity gaps in reproductive and child health services in Tamil Nadu.

About the Programme

  • The programme will promote population-based screening, treatment and follow-up for NCDs, and improve monitoring and evaluation.
  • Patients will be equipped with knowledge and skills to self-manage their conditions. Lab services and health provider capacity will also be strengthened to address mental health.
  • To tackle road injuries, the programme will improve in- hospital care, strengthen protocols, strengthen the 24×7 trauma care services and establish a trauma registry.
  • Another key aim of this programme is to reduce the equity gaps in reproductive and child health.
  • Special focus will be given to nine priority districts, which constitute the bottom quintile of the RCH indicators in the state and have a relatively large proportion of tribal populations.

The Tamil Nadu Health System Reform Program will support the state government to:

  • develop clinical protocols and guidelines;
  • achieve national accreditation for primary, secondary, and tertiary-level health facilities in the public sector;
  • strengthen physicians, nurses and paramedics through continuous medical education;
  • strengthen the feedback loop between citizens and the state by making quality and other data accessible to the public.

3 . Gram Samriddhi Yojana

About Gram Samriddhi Yojana

  • The scheme is related to food processing enterprises to ensure doubling of farmers income and employment opportunities in rural areas
  • The scheme will be implemented with help of World Bank
  • The programme will focus on micro enterprises with capitalisation of less than 10 lakh rupees.
  • Maximum cap of subsidy to be given to a unit will be Rs 10 lakh, apart from interest subsidy, if they avail of loans. “There is a provision for getting subsidy on bank interest by 3% to 5%
  • The scheme will be run at the cluster level where food processing units or individual players can apply for the subsidy online. 
  • The scheme aims at development of modern infrastructure to encourage entrepreneurs to set up food processing units, upgrade technology in existing unit, improve management of the units and give technical support
  • Gram Samridhi Yojana also aims to provide common facility centres and business incubators in rural areas. The incubator will provide infrastructure and services to support the growth of new food businesses. It will provide equipment and programs to help a businessmen or an entrepreneur launch a new product through development, market launch and growth in sales

4 . Swachh Survekshan (SS) Survey

Context : Swachh Survekshan league to be conducted in 3 quarters of 2019 to ensure sustainability of cleanliness outcomes in Urban India

About Swachh Survekshan Survey

  • The objective of the Swachh Survekshan (SS) survey, which is conducted by an independent third party, is to encourage large scale citizen participation, ensure sustainability of initiatives taken towards garbage free and open defecation free cities, provide credible outcomes validated by third party certification, institutionalize existing systems through online processes and create awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities a better place to live in.  
  • Additionally, the survey also intends to foster a spirit of healthy competition among towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens, towards creating cleaner cities.
  • The first edition of the annual cleanliness survey, ‘Swachh Survekshan-2016’ survey for the rating of 73 cities was conducted in January 2016, followed by ‘Swachh Survekshan-2017’ conducted in January-February 2017 ranking 434 cities.
  • The third round of Swachh Survekshan in 2018 was a quantum leap of scale – conducted across 4,203 cities in 66 days, and became the largest ever Pan India Sanitation Survey in the world, impacting around 40 crore people. 
  • The 4th edition, Swachh Survekshan 2019 covered 4237 cities in a record time of 28 days and was a fully digitized and paperless survey. 
  • While SS 2016 had seen Mysuru emerge as the cleanest city in India, Indore has retained the title of the Cleanest City in the last three years.

About SS League 2020

  • Swachh Survekshan League 2020 (SS League 2020) has been introduced with the objective of sustaining the on ground performance of cities along with continuous monitoring of service level performance when it comes to cleanliness.  
  • SS League 2020 will be conducted in 3 quarters, i.e. April- June, July – September and October- December 2019 and will have a weightage of 2000 marks for each quarter to be evaluated on the basis of monthly updation of SBM-U online MIS by cities along with citizen’s validation on the 12 service level progress indicators through outbound calls
  • These two parameters will together determine the quarterly ranking of cities. Ranks will be assigned in two categories, namely, cities with population of one lakh and above and cities with population of less than 1 lakh. 
  • The performance of cities in SS League 2020 will be crucial to their ranking in Swachh Survekshan 2020 due to the 25% weightage of the quarterly assessments to be included in the annual survey in January 2020. 

5 . Autonomous District Council

Autonomous District Council

  • 243M (1) of the Indian constitution made special provision that nothing in the part IX of the constitutions (provisions for creating Panchayat) shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in clause (2), of the Article 244.
  • The Sixth Schedule makes provision that these tribal areas will be autonomous districts and be governed by Autonomous District Councils
  • The functions of ADCs as defined in schedule 6 of the constitution included
    • making laws on land
    • management of forests except reserved forests
    • appointment of traditional chiefs and headmen
    • inheritance of property, marriage, divorce, social customs, to administer justice and make rules regulating the constitution of village courts and their powers
    • to undertake development works like establishment and constructions of markets, fisheries, roads, waterways and to make regulations on trading by persons not being local schedule tribe

The main Revenue Sources of ADCs as specified by Paragraph 8 of the Sixth Schedule were:

  • taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment
  • taxes on animal, vehicles and boats
  • taxes on the entry of goods into a market and sale therein, and tolls on passenger and goods carried on ferries
  • taxes for the maintenance of school, dispensaries or roads.

6 . Jan Shikshan Sansthan

About Jan Shikshan Sansthan

  • The JSSs are imparting vocational skill training programmes at the door step of the beneficiaries with a minimum cost and infrastructure.
  • JSSs are unique in sense that they do not provide only vocational skills but also include an element of life skills which can help the beneficiary in day to day life.
  • The Jan Shikshan Sansthans are not working in isolation but also conducts convergence programmes with different departments.
  • The Scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthan [JSS] formerly known as Shramik Vidyapeeth is a unique creation of Government of India with the challenging mandate of providing vocational skills to non-literate, neo-literates as well as school drop outs.
  • The Scheme is being implementing with public and private partnership since last five decades for the upliftment of women, SC, ST, OBC and Minority in rural and urban slums.
  • JSSs are providing vocational training at doorstep of the beneficiary in the unreached areas.
  • The first Jan Shikshan Sansthan (Shramik vidyapeeth) was established in Worli in March, 1967 and was commissioned by the Bomaby city Social Education Committee, a voluntary organization engaged in the field of adult education for several years.
  • In the year 2000, the scheme has been renamed as Jan Shikshan Sansthan.

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