PIB Analysis : 2nd August

PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE

  1. Pashmina Products
  2. Toll Operate Transfer
  4. Exception from BS VI norms

1 . Pashmina Products

Context : Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has published an Indian Standard for identification, marking and labelling of Pashmina products to certify its purity.

About Pashmina Products

  • The Changthangi or Pashmina goat, is a special breed of goat indigenous to the high altitude regions of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir. They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, known as Pashmina once woven.
  • The Textiles are handspun and were first woven in Kashmir. The Changthangi goat grows a thick, warn undercoat which is the source of Kashmir Pashmina wool – the world’s finest cashmere measuring between 12-15 microns in fiber thickness.
  • These goats are generally domesticated and reared by nomadic communities called the Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh. The Changthangi goats have revitalized the economy of Changthang, Leh and Ladakh region.

Benefits of BIS Identification

  • BIS certification of Pashmina will go a long way in discouraging counterfeit or substandard products presently mislabeled and sold as genuine Pashmina in the market.
  • It is a step in the right direction and will ensure better prices for the goat herding community in Ladakh as well as for the local handloom artisans producing genuine Pashmina products, currently a disadvantaged lot due to rampant marketing malpractices.
  • The nomadic Pashmina herders live in the hostile and tough terrain of Changthang and are solely dependent on Pashmina for their livelihood. At present, there are 2400 families rearing 2.5 lakh goats. This initiative of hallmarking Pashmina will protect the interests of these families, motivate the younger generation to continue in this profession as well as encourage more families to take up this occupation.
  • Ladakh produces 50 MT of the finest grade of Pashmina in the world (12-15 microns) and this initiative will provide further impetus towards value addition of Pashmina in Ladakh. 

2 . Toll Operate Transfer

About Toll Operate Transfer

  • Government of India has approved Toll Operate and Transfer (TOT) model under which the Public funded projects operational for two years shall be put to bid wherein the right of collection and appropriation of fee shall be assigned for a pre determined concession period (30 years) to Concessionaires (Developers/Investors) against upfront payment of a lump sum amount to NHAI. 
  • Operation and Maintenance (O&M) obligation of such projects shall be with the concessionaire till the completion of the concession period. Projects to be undertaken in the TOT model are to be treated as Public-private-partnership(PPP)projects.                                        



  • SANKALP is an outcome-oriented centrally sponsored programme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) with a special focus on decentralised planning and quality improvement. It focuses on the overall skilling ecosystem covering both Central & State agencies.
  • SANKALP is supported by World Bank. SANKALP aims to implement the mandate of the National Skill Development Mission (NSDM).
  • Under SANKALP four key result areas have been identified viz:
    • Institutional Strengthening (at National, State & District level)
    • Quality Assurance Quality Assurance of skill development programs
    • Inclusion of marginalised population in skill development
    • Expanding Skills through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).                   

4 . Exception from BS VI norms

About the release

  • The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has issued notification exempting the armoured and other specialised vehicles of Indian armed forces and paramilitary forces from the new stringent vehicular emission norms (BS-VI) which are set to take effect from 1st April, 2020. The Ministry has also granted exemption to these vehicles from BS-IV compliance.
  • The exemption has been granted because these vehicles operate in remote and inhospitable terrains with most challenging operational and environmental conditions.Due to security challenges and requirements of specialized operations, the development of suitable engine compliant with the above norms would require considerable time. Further, it is difficult to maintain ideal transportation and storage conditions of fuel in these conditions.

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