PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Schemes for Increasing Agriculture Income
- Digital Technology in Agriculture
- Translocation of Cheetah
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Schemes for Increasing Agriculture Income
Context: Average monthly income per agricultural household increased to Rs.10,218 in 2018-10 as compared to Rs.6426 in 2012-13.
Schemes Introduced by Govt for Increasing Agricultural Income
- Supplementary income transfers under Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) Scheme,
- Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana (PM-KMY) for providing old age pension,
- Crop insurance under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY),
- Increase in Minimum Support Price (MSPs) for all Kharif & Rabi crops,
- Soil Health Cards for rationalizing use of fertilizers,
- ‘Per drop more crop’ initiative through drip/sprinkler irrigation for optimal utilization of water, reducing cost of inputs and increasing productivity,
- Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) for promoting organic farming,
- e-NAM initiative for transparent and competitive online trading platform,
- Agro-forestry through ‘Har Modh Par Ped’ for additional income,
- National Bamboo Mission to promote bamboo plantation on non-forest government as well as private land and emphasis on value addition, product development and markets
- New procurement policy under Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA) for ensuring remunerative prices for produce,
- Bee-keeping under Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) to increase productivity of crops through pollination and increase in honey production as an additional source of income
- Ensuring flow of adequate institutional agriculture credit and benefit of interest subvention
- Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) offering production loan to even dairy & fishery farmers besides agricultural crops
- Better access to irrigation under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
- Formation and promotion of 10,000 FPOs
- Special attention for creation of infrastructure through Agri Infrastructure Fund (AIF) with a size of Rs. 100,000 crore
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), which aims to evolve and implement strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to the changing climate.
- Focus on application of digital technology at all stages of agricultural value chain
- Adoption of drone technologies in agriculture which has a potential to revolutionize the Indian agriculture, etc.
- Since agriculture is a State subject, all the above schemes / programmes are implemented in close coordination with the State Governments.
- Government supports these schemes by providing higher budgetary allocation, non-budgetary financial resources such as creating Corpus Funds like Micro Irrigation Fund, Agriculture Infrastructure Funds, PM Matasya Sampada Yojana, Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund and formation of FPOs, Gramin Agriculture Markets etc.
- According to current Economic Survey, agriculture and allied sectors grew at a positive growth rate of 3.6 per cent during 2020-21.
- Due to implementation of these schemes there is record production in foodgrain as well as in horticulture. Country has witnessed emphatic growth in export of agri and allied commodities.
2 . Digital Technology in Agriculture
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847506
Context: The Committee on Doubling Farmers’ Income (DFI) in its Report has appreciated the role of Digital Technology, which can play a transformational role in modernizing and organizing how rural India performs its agricultural activities.
Various Government Initiatives :
- Government has finalized the core concept of India Digital Ecosystem of Agriculture (IDEA) framework which would lay down the architecture for the federated farmers’ database. The IDEA would serve as a foundation to build innovative agri-focused solutions leveraging emerging technologies to contribute effectively in creating a better Ecosystem for Agriculture in India. This Ecosystem shall help the Government in effective planning towards increasing the income of farmers in particular and improving the efficiency of the Agriculture sector as a whole.
- National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A) : Under National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A), funds are released to the State(s)/UT(s) for project involving use of modern technologies viz. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Robotics, Drones, Data Analytics, Block Chain etc.
- Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) : The scheme aims at ‘reaching the unreached’ by bringing to the small and marginal farmers in the core and giving the benefits of farm mechanization, by Promoting ‘Custom Hiring Centers’ , creating hubs for hi-tech & high value farm equipments, distribution of various agricultural equipments, creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities, and ensuring performance- testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country.
- National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities. Digital services are provided to traders, farmers, Farmers Producer Organizations (FPO), Mandis through various modules of e-NAM platform such as FPO trading module, warehouse based trading module.
- PM KISAN Scheme, Under PM – KISAN scheme funds are directly transferred into the bank accounts of the eligible farmers under Direct Benefit Transfer mode. Farmers can do their self-registration through the Farmers Corner in the portal. PM-KISAN Mobile App was launched to broaden the reach of the scheme where farmers can view the status of their application, update or carry out corrections of name based on their Aadhaar card and also check history of credits to their bank accounts.
- Integrated Scheme for Agricultural Marketing schemes (AGMARKNET) to promote creation of agricultural marketing infrastructure by providing backend subsidy support to State, cooperative and private sector investments Services are provided through (AGMARKNET) portal which is a G2C e-governance portal that caters to the needs of various stakeholders such as farmers, industry, policy makers and academic institutions by providing agricultural marketing related information from a single window. It facilitates web- based information flow, of the daily arrivals and prices of commodities in the agricultural produce markets spread across the country.
- Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF): To mobilize a medium – long term debt finances facility for investment in viable projects for post-harvest management Infrastructure and community farming assets through incentives and financial support in order to improve agriculture infrastructure in the country. Financial assistance is provided digitally in the form of Interest Subvention and Credit Guarantee for setting up post-harvest management Infrastructure to beneficiaries such as Farmers, Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS), Farmer Producers Organisations (FPOs), Self Help Groups (SHG), State Agencies/APMCs.
- National Mission on Horticulture: It Promotes holistic development of Horticulture sector (including bamboo & coconut) HORTNET project is a web enabled work flow-based system for providing financial assistance under MIDH. It is a unique intervention to accomplish e-Governance in NHM where-in total transparency has been envisaged in all the processes of workflow i.e., online application filing, authentication, processing and online payment to the beneficiary’s bank account through DBT.
- National Project on Soil Health and Fertility: To issue soil health cards to farmers of the country, so as to provide a basis to address nutrient deficiencies in fertilization practices. Soil Health Card Portal is availablewhere farmers can track soil samples.
- Development of Kisan Suvidha mobile application to facilitate dissemination of information to farmers on the critical parameters viz., Weather; Market Prices; Plant Protection; input Dealers (Seed, Pesticide, Fertilizer) Farm Machinery; Soil Health Card; Cold Storages & Godowns, Veterinary Centres and Diagnostic Labs. With market information, farmers are better informed about markets to sell produce, prevailing market prices and quantity demanded in the market. Thus, they can make informed decisions to sell produce at the right price and right time.
3 . One Nation one ration card
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847386
Context: The Department of Food and Public Distribution is observing week-long activities to celebrate the 3 years of successful launch of “One Nation One Ration Card” (ONORC) Scheme which was launched on 9th August, 2019, as a pilot project in four states.
About the scheme:
- ONORC is a technology driven scheme which is being implemented by the Central Government for the nation-wide portability of ration cards under National Food Security Act (NFSA).
- This system allows all NFSA beneficiaries, particularly the migrant beneficiaries, to claim either full or part of their entitled food grains from any Fair Price Shop (FPS) in the country through existing ration card with biometric/Aadhaar authentication in a seamless manner.
- The system also allows their family members back home, if any, to claim the balance foodgrains on the same the ration card.
- It is now implemented in all 36 States/UTs across the country. Assam, the last state to come onboard, joined the plan in June 2022 and thus completing the pan-India roll out of the plan. Food security is now portable throughout the country.
- The Scheme is one-of-its-kind Citizen Centric initiative in the country. Presently, the system covers nearly all the (~80 Crore) NFSA beneficiaries (almost the entire NFSA population). Moreover, on an average, about ~3 Crore portability transactions per month are being recorded under the scheme.
Objective of the Scheme
- The objective of this beneficiary centric high-impact program is to empower all NFSA beneficiaries to be Atma Nirbhar for their food security anywhere in the country.
- Over 77 crore portable transactions recorded in One Nation One Ration Card Scheme (ONORC).
- The scheme has proved to be a tremendous value-added service to each NFSA beneficiary during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly migrant beneficiary. It facilitated them to avail the benefit of subsidised foodgrains with flexibility from any location during the lockdown/crisis period.
- Since inception, about 77.88 Crore portable transactions have taken place under the ONORC, nearly 3 Crore portability transactions per month.
- A specially customized Android Mobile App on ONORC “Mera Ration” has also been launched for the benefit of all NFSA beneficiaries. The application provides multiple functionality and makes portability of ration easier, specifically for migrant NFSA beneficiaries. Moreover, the application is now available in 13 languages.
- Besides, a 5-digit ‘14445’ toll-free number is also available in most States/UTs under ONORC.
4 . Translocation of Cheetah
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847459
Context: Indian Oil signs MoU with National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) for transcontinental relocation of ‘cheetah’ in its historical range in India.
About the project
- Under this project, a source population of 8-10 Cheetahs will be flown in from Namibia and South Africa and will be introduced at Kuno National Park, Madhya Pradesh.
- It is a national project involving National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), Govt. of India and the State Govt. of Madhya Pradesh.
- This is in continuation with the MoU signed on 20th July 2022 between Government of India and Government of the Republic of Namibia on wildlife conservation and sustainable biodiversity utilization, for establishing the cheetah into the historical range in India
- NTCA is the nodal agency authorized by MoEF&CC for funding, supervision and hand holding.
- Indian Oil will contribute its CSR funds to NTCA, which shall co-ordinate with the State Govt. of Madhya Pradesh and other agencies involved in the project.
- Indian Oil is the first corporate which has come forward to support the “Project Cheetah” under CSR, as the project has not only national importance but is also essential for balancing the ecosystem
- Indian Oil adopted Indian Single Horned Rhino as its mascot last year and, since then, has been at the forefront of India’s Rhino conservation endeavors.
About ‘Project Cheetah
- ‘Project Cheetah’ is one-of-a-kind projects in which a species is being restored in the country by bringing it from out of the country (from South Africa / Namibia). It is noteworthy that the subspecies of Cheetah which got extinct in India was Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) and the subspecies being introduced back in the country is African Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Research has shown that genes of these two subspecies are the same.
- The Cheetah introduction project in Kuno National Park involves creating a 500-hectare predator proof enclosure for a ‘soft release’ of the feline. Introduction would commence in a phased manner with few individuals after construction of the soft release enclosure and augmentation of protection, while other actions are under way. The first batch of Cheetah would be soft released in the enclosure with GPS / GSM or GPS / Satellite transmitters.
5 . Facts for Prelims
- Lovely Choubey, Pinki, Rupa Rani Tirkey, and Nayanmoni Saikia, have won gold in Lawn Bowls in the finals of the Commonwealth Games (CWG) 2022.
- Lawn Bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a ‘jack’ or a ‘kitty’.
- The matches are played on a Lawn Bowls Green within a rink area- there are usually six rinks per green.
- The competitors take turns bowling, aiming to ensure that they are closure to the jack than any of those of their opponents. The points in Lawn Bowls are awarded for each bowl that is closest to the jack.
Quality Control of Ayush Drugs – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847448
- Enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to Quality Control and issuance of drug license of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathic drugs, is vested with the State drug Controllers/ State Licensing Authorities appointed by the concerned State/ Union Territory Government.
- The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 provides for the regulatory guidelines for issue of license to manufacture Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medicines and the regulatory guidelines for issue of license to manufacture Homoeopathic medicines.
- It is mandatory for the manufacturers to adhere to the prescribed requirements for licensing of manufacturing units & medicines including proof of safety & effectiveness, compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as perthe Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 and quality standards of drugs given in the respective pharmacopoeia.
- Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy (PCIM&H), a subordinate office under Ministry of Ayush lays down Pharmacopocial Standards and Formulary specifications for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy (ASU&H) drugs within the ambit of Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940, which serve as official compendia for ascertaining the quality of the drugs included therein.
- Further, PCIM&H as an appellate drug testing laboratory receives the samples from Government agencies as per Drugs & Cosmetics Act & Rules there under for ascertaining their quality.
- Pingali Venkayya, a freedom fighter and the designer of India’s National Flag was a follower of Gandhian principles, and it was upon the request of Mahatma Gandhi that he designed the Indian National Flag with saffron, white and green colors with chakra in the middle.
Registration of cooperative societies – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847459
- A cooperative society is usually a voluntary organization formed by the underprivileged or the weaker sections. Such a society is a free and voluntary association that aims at the betterment of its members. This kind of body is formed by like-minded people driven by common goals.
- Complaints are received against many of the multi-State cooperative societies for violation of MSCS Act or Rules or non- repayment of deposits on maturity.
- The Co-operative societies with members from one state are registered under the provisions of concerned State Cooperative Societies Act and are regulated by the concerned State Registrars of the Cooperative Societies. The details of such societies including multipurpose cooperative societies registered under the State Cooperative Act is maintained by the concerned State Registrar of Cooperative Societies.
- Cooperative societies including multipurpose cooperative societies with members from more than one state are registered by the Central Registrar of Cooperative Societies under the Multi State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act, 2002. A total of 1509 multi state co-operative societies are registered under the provisions of Multi State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act, 2002 and function as autonomous cooperative organizations accountable to their members.
Atal Pension Yojana – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847551
- APY is a Government of India Scheme which was launched on 9th May, 2015.
- It is open to all citizens of India between 18-40 years of age, having a savings bank account in a bank or post-office.
- APY is a voluntary, periodic contribution-based pension scheme, under which the subscriber would receive the pension after attaining the age of 60 years. Each subscriber under APY shall receive a Central Government guaranteed minimum pension of Rs. 1000 per month or Rs. 2000 per month or Rs. 3000 per month or Rs. 4000 per month or Rs. 5000 per month, after the age of 60 years until death, depending on the contribution chosen.
- On death of subscriber, same pension to spouse as the subscriber is guaranteed by Government of India, until the death of the spouse. After the demise of both the subscriber and the spouse, the nominee of the subscriber shall be entitled to receive the pension wealth, as accumulated till age 60 of the subscriber, the Minister stated.
ABHA numbers – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847489
- The National Health Authority (NHA) under its flagship scheme Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) is building a comprehensive digital health ecosystem for the country.
- Since nationwide launch in September 2021, ABDM has achieved significant growth with over 23 crore ABHA numbers ( Health ID), 1.14 Lakh health facilities registered in the Health Facility Registry (HFR), 33 thousand healthcare professionals under the Healthcare Professionals Registry (HPR), 6.6 lakh ABHA app downloads and 3.4 Lakh health records linked to ABHA of individuals.
- With more individuals, healthcare professionals like doctors, nurses, paramedics and health facilities like hospitals, nursing homes, wellness centres, clinics, diagnostic labs, pharmacies joining ABDM, digitization of health records at their point of creation is now possible.
- For digitization of old health records, individuals can use the ABHA app or any other personal health record (PHR) app to scan and save their records. By linking these digital records to their ABHA, individuals will be able to connect with professionals and facilities digitally and get quality and affordable health services irrespective of geographic distance.
Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1847435
- The Government of India implements Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy under POSHAN Abhiyaan with the target for reducing anaemia in the six population groups – Children (6-59 months), Children (5-9 years), Adolescents girls and boys (10-19 years), Pregnant women, Lactating women and Women of Reproductive Age (WRA) group (15-49 years) in life cycle approach.
- Some of the major interventions by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) to address anaemia under AMB include:
- Prophylactic Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation.
- Intensified year-round Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) Campaign and delayed cord clamping.
- Testing of anaemia using digital methods and point of care treatment.
- Addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis.
- Convergence and coordination with line department and other ministries.
- Engaging National Centre of Excellence and Advanced research on Anaemia Control for capacity building of health care providers.
- Monitoring progress in States/UTs using Anaemia Mukt Bharat Dashboard.