PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Center of Excellence for Studies in Classical Telugu (CESCT)
- United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Arbitration Rules
- World Economic Forum
- Youth Co: Lab
- Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar
- Commission on Sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes
- Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-141 b
- Impact of Smart cities Mission
- Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
- Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia
- National Data Analytics Platform
- Facts For Prelims
1 . Center of Excellence for Studies in classical Telugu
About the Center
- The Center of Excellence for Studies in Classical Telugu (CESCT) was set up under the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore after Telugu was recognized as a Classical Language in 2008.
- Telugu was declared as a classical languages as it fulfilled the following criteria set by the Government –
- High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history overperiod of 1500-2000 years;
- A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
- The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community;
- The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
- Tamil was the first language in India to be accorded the classical language status in 2004.
- Subsequently, Centre for Excellence of Classical Tamil which was functioning in the campus of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore was shifted to Chennai on request from Tamil Nadu government in 2008.The institute is now known as the Central Institute of Classical Tamil (CICT).
- Sanskrit, Kannada, Malayalam and Odia are the other language that have been declared as classical languages in India by the government.
2 . United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Arbitration Rules
Context : An International Arbitration Tribunal has dismissed all claims brought against Republic of India in entirety. The arbitration arose out of the cancellation of Letters of Intent for the issuance of telecommunications licences to provide 2G services in five telecommunications circles in India by reason, inter alia, of India’s essential security interests. Tribunal constituted in accordance with the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Arbitration Rules 1976, seated at the Hague, Netherlands, and proceedings administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Hague, Netherlands, rendered its Award in the arbitration
- The United Nations Commission on International Trade and Law is the core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law.
- UNCITRAL’s business is the modernization and harmonization of rules on international business.
About UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1976
- The UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules provide a comprehensive set of procedural rules upon which parties may agree for the conduct of arbitral proceedings arising out of their commercial relationship and are widely used in ad hoc arbitrations as well as administered arbitrations.
- The Rules cover all aspects of the arbitral process, providing a model arbitration clause, setting out procedural rules regarding the appointment of arbitrators and the conduct of arbitral proceedings, and establishing rules in relation to the form, effect and interpretation of the award.
- At present, there exist three different versions of the Arbitration Rules:
- the 1976 version
- the 2010 revised version
- the 2013 version which incorporates the UNCITRAL Rules on Transparency for Treaty-based Investor-State Arbitration.
Details of the Laws
- The UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules were initially adopted in 1976 and have been used for the settlement of a broad range of disputes, including disputes between private commercial parties where no arbitral institution is involved, investor-State disputes, State-to-State disputes and commercial disputes administered by arbitral institutions.
- In 2006, the Commission decided that the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules should be revised in order to meet changes in arbitral practice over the last thirty years. The revision aimed at enhancing the efficiency of arbitration under the Rules without altering the original structure of the text, its spirit or drafting style.
- The UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (as revised in 2010) have been effective since 15 August 2010. They include provisions dealing with, amongst others, multiple-party arbitration and joinder, liability, and a procedure to object to experts appointed by the arbitral tribunal. A number of innovative features contained in the Rules aim to enhance procedural efficiency, including revised procedures for the replacement of an arbitrator, the requirement for reasonableness of costs, and a review mechanism regarding the costs of arbitration. They also include more detailed provisions on interim measures.
- With the adoption of the UNCITRAL Rules on Transparency in Treaty-based Investor-State Arbitration (the “Rules on Transparency”) in 2013, a new article 1, paragraph 4 was added to the text of the Arbitration Rules (as revised in 2010) to incorporate the Rules on Transparency for arbitration initiated pursuant to an investment treaty concluded on or after 1 April 2014. The new paragraph provides for utmost clarity in relation to the application of the Rules on Transparency in investor-State arbitration initiated under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. In all other respects, the 2013 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules remain unchanged from the 2010 revised version.
3 . World Economic Forum
- Professor Klaus Schwab founded what was originally called the European Management Forum, as a non-profit foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland. It drew business leaders from Europe, and beyond, to Davos for an Annual Meeting each January.
- Initially, Professor Schwab focused the meetings on how European firms could catch up with US management practices. He also developed and promoted the ‘stakeholder’ management approach, which based corporate success on managers taking account of all interests: not merely shareholders, clients and customers, but employees and the communities within which they operate, including government.
- Professor Schwab’s vision for what would become the World Economic Forum grew steadilly as a result of achieving ‘milestones’. Events in 1973, namely the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate mechanism and the Arab-Israeli War, saw the Annual Meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues. Political leaders were invited for the first time to Davos in January 1974.
- Two years later, the organization introduced a system of membership for ‘the 1,000 leading companies of the world
- In 1987, the European Management Forum became the World EIn 2015, the Forum was formally recognised as an international organization. It is now on the next phase of its journey as the global platform for public-private cooperation.
- Economic Forum and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for dialogue.
About World Economic Forum
- As per the Swiss Host-State Act, WEF was designated as an NGO with ‘other international body’ status by the Swiss Federal Government.
- Over the years World Economic Forum has emerged as the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation.
- The WEF is chaired by Founder and Executive Chairman Professor Klaus Schwab and is guided by a Board of Trustees that is made up of leaders from business, politics, academia and civil society.
- The Managing Board is chaired by the WEF’s President and acts as the executive body of the World Economic Forum.
- A new centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution was announced by the WEF on October 10, 2016, which will provide a platform for interaction, insight and impact on the scientific and technological changes that will soon change the way we live, work and relate to one another.
- The World Economic Forum (WEF) is also funded by 1,000 member companies that are global enterprises having more than five billion dollars in turnover. These enterprises have a leading role to play and rank among the top companies within their industry and/or country.
The World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos is a leading forum where participants come together to address the most pressing issues on the global agenda in an exceptional atmosphere featuring inter-disciplinary, informal and direct interactions among peers.
The Forum holds four major annual meetings:
1. The World Economic Forum Annual Meeting, held in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, shapes global, regional and industry agendas at the beginning of the calendar year.
2. The Annual Meeting of the New Champions, the Forum’s annual meeting on innovation, science and technology, is held in the People’s Republic of China.
3. The Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils, held in the United Arab Emirates, brings together the world’s leading knowledge community to share insights on the major challenges facing the world today.
4. The Industry Strategy Meeting brings together Industry Strategy Officers to shape industry agendas and explore how industries can shift from managing change to pioneering change.
In addition, regional meetings and national strategy days provide focused engagement on the issues dominating regional and local agendas.
- The theme of the 2020 meeting is Stakeholders for a Cohesive and Sustainable World.
4 . Youth Co: Lab
Context : Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) NITI Aayog and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sunday hosted a three day long Youth Co:Lab -national innovation challenge here in Delh
About Youth Co Lab
- Co-created in 2017 by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Citi Foundation, Youth Co:Lab aims to establish a common agenda for Asia-Pacific countries to invest in and empower youth to accelerate implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through leadership, social innovation and entrepreneurship.
- By developing 21st century skills, catalysing and sustaining youth-led start-ups and social enterprises across the region, Youth Co:Lab is positioning young people front and centre in order to solve the region’s most pressing challenges.
Youth Co: Lab India
- With presence in over 20 countries in Asia and the Pacific, Youth Co:Lab was launched in India last year in October, in collaboration with Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog.
- Youth Co: Lab launched in collaboration by AIM and UNDP earlier, aims at fostering technology, promoting youth leadership and social entrepreneurship in India.
- As a part of the first phase of Youth Co: Lab’s national innovation challenge, a series of innovation challenges were held in four cities– Jyothy Foundation (Bengaluru), AIC – Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini Foundation (Mumbai), AIC – Prestige Inspire Foundation (Indore) and AIC – Mahamana Foundation For Innovation and Entrepreneurship – IM-BHU (Varanasi)
5 . Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar
About Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar
- The Government of India has been conferring the National Award on Children for their exceptional achievement in the fields of innovation, scholastic, sports, arts, culture, social service, music or any other field deserving recognition.
- Under this scheme, awards will be given in two categories ie Bal Shakti Puruskar to individuals and Bal Kalyan Puraskar for institutions/individuals working for children .
6 . Commission on Sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes
Context : The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, has approved the extension of the term of the Commission to examine the issue of Sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes, by six months that is up to 31.7.2020.
The Cabinet has also approved addition of following Term of Reference to the existing Terms of Reference of the “Commission” – “iv. to study the various Entries in the “Central List of OBCs and recommend correction of any repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies and errors of spelling or transcription.”
- The Commission was constituted under article 340 of the Constitution with the approval of President on 2nd October, 2017.
- The Commission, headed by Justice (Retd.) Smt. G. Rohini commenced functioning on 11th October, 2017 and has since interacted with all the Stats/UTs which have subcategorized OBCs, and the State Backward Classes Commissions.
- The Commission has come to the view that it would require some more time to submit, its report since the repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies and errors of spelling or transcription etc appearing in the existing Central List of OBCs need to be cleared. Hence the Commission has sought extension and also addition in its existing Terms of Reference.
- The Communities in the existing list of OBCs which have not been able to get any major benefit of the scheme of reservation for OBCs for appointment in Central Government posts & for admission in Central Government Educational Institutions are expected to be benefitted upon implementation of the recommendations of the Commission. The Commission is likely to make recommendations for benefit of such marginalized communities in the Central List of OBCs.
- The expenditure involved are related to the establishment and administration costs of the Commission, which would continue to be borne by the Department of Social Justice and Empowerment.
- All persons belonging to the castes/communities which are included in the Central List of SEBCs but which have not been able to get any major benefit of the existing scheme of reservation for OBCs in Central Government posts & for admission in Central Government Educational Institutions would be benefitted.
Implementation strategy and targets
- Orders for extension of the term of the Commission and addition in its Terms of Reference will be notified in the Gazette ‘in the form of an Order made by the President, after receipt of the approval of the Hon’ble President to the same.
7 . Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-141 b
Context : India has successfully achieved the complete phase out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-141 b, which is a chemical used by foam manufacturing enterprises and one of the most potent ozone depleting chemical after Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) .(HCFC)-141 b is used mainly as a blowing agent in the production of rigid polyurethane (PU) foams.
About the News
- India had proactively and successfully taken the challenge of complete phase out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-141 b, which is a chemical used by foam manufacturing enterprises by 1.1.2020.
- On 31 December, 2019, as part of the Government’s commitment for moving towards environment friendly technologies, in a significant first, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) brought out a notification in the Gazette of India through which the issuance of import license for HCFC-141b is prohibited from 1st January, 2020 under Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Amendment Rules, 2019 issued under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- HCFC-141b is not produced in the country and all the domestic requirements are met through imports. With this notification, prohibiting the import of HCFC-141 b, the country has completely phased out the important ozone depleting chemical. Simultaneously, the use of HCFC-141 b by foam manufacturing industry has also been closed as on 1st January, 2020 under the Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Amendment Rules, 2014.
Uses of HCFC 141 b and how elimination plan was implemented
- Nearly, 50 % of the consumption of ozone depleting chemicals in the country was attributable to HCFC-141 b in the foam sector.
- The Ministry adopted a structured approach to engage with foam manufacturing enterprises for providing technical and financial assistance in order to transition to non-ODS and low GWP technologies under HCFC Phase out Management Plan (HPMP).
- Around 175 foam manufacturing enterprises have been covered under HPMP out of which, 163 enterprises are covered under stage II of HPMP.
- The complete phase out of HCFC 141 b from the country in foam sector is among the first at this scale in Article 5 parties (developing countries) under the Montreal Protocol.
- The implementation of HPMP through regulatory and policy actions, implementation of technology conversion projects has removed around 7800 Metric Tonnes of HCFC 141-b from the baseline level of 2009 and 2010 of the country.
- The phase out of HCFC-141b from the country has twin environmental benefits viz.
- Assisting the healing of the stratospheric ozone layer
- Towards the climate change mitigation due to transitioning of foam manufacturing enterprises at this scale under HPMP to low global warming potential alternative technologies.
About the Foam Sector
- The polyurethane foam sector has links with important economic sectors related to buildings, cold storages and cold chain infrastructure, automobiles, commercial refrigeration, domestic appliances such as refrigerators, water geysers, thermo ware, office and domestic furniture applications, specific high value niche applications etc.
- In India, the foam manufacturing sector is mix of large, medium and small enterprises having varying capacities, with preponderance of MSMEs. Many of the MSMEs operate largely in the informal sector.
8 . Impact of Smart Cities Mission
- Development initiatives under the Mission have catalyzed business in several sectors such as ICT solutions, mobility, water and waste management, energy and environment etc.
- 100 Integrated Command and Control Centres will augment public safety with 50,000 cameras, of which more than 12,000 linked with 45 ICCCs already installed/operational
- More than 32,000 km of fibre optic cable laid to improve delivery of services to citizens
- More than 40,000 cycle trips per day already being generated for enhanced use of bikes/cycles as mode for public transport, promotion of environment-friendly non-motorized transport, and improved last mile connectivity
- 19,000 KW of solar and 15,000KW of wind energy generation capacity has already been installed resulting in reduced GHG emission and dependence on fossil fuel.
- Waste Processing Plants with capacity of nearly 650 TPD has been completed under the Mission
- More than 700 Smart Classrooms across various Smart Cities have been implemented to provide improved education to students
- 84,000 metres of Smart Streets completed For improved safety through better walking and crossing facilities for pedestrians
- More than 100 open air gyms have been installed in various cities across the country to improve the health and fitness of citizens.
9 . Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY)
About Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
- Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY) with an aim to uplift the urban poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development. Keeping in view the objective of Make in India, Skill Development is essential for socio economic betterment.
- Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana was launched under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA).
- Government of India has provisioned Rs.500 crore for the scheme.
- The scheme is integration of the National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) and National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM).
- National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) is renamed as Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-(DAY-NULM) and in Hindi as – Rashtriya Shahri Aajeevika Mission.
Main Highlights of the Scheme
- Employment through Skill Training and Placement – An expenditure of Rs.15, 000 per person is allowed on training of urban poor which is Rs.18, 000 in North-East and J&K. Moreover, Training urban poor to meet the enormous demand from urban citizens by imparting market-oriented skills through City Livelihood Centers.
- Social Mobilization and Institution Development – It will be done through formation of Self-Help Groups (SHG) for training members and hand holding, an initial support of 10, 000 is given for each group. Assistance of Rs.50, 000 is provided to Registered Area Level Federations.
- Subsidy to urban poor – An interest subsidy of 5% – 7% for setting up individual micro-enterprises with a loan of up to 2 lakh and for group enterprises with a loan limit of up to Rs.10 lakhs.
- Shelters for urban homeless – Cost of construction of shelters for urban homeless is fully funded under the Scheme.
- Other means – Development of vendor markets and also the promotion of skills for the vendors through setting up infrastructure and special projects for the rag picker and differently abled etc.
10 . Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia (FEMBoSA)
Context : Election Commission of India is going to host the 10th annual meeting of the Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia (FEMBoSA)
- FEMBoSA was established at the 3rd Conference of Heads of Election Management Bodies (EMBs) of SAARC Countries held at New Delhi from April 30 to May 2, 2012 through a unanimously adopted resolution on 1st May, 2012 to establish the Forum.
- The Conference also unanimously adopted the Charter of the Forum.
- The annual FEMBoSA meeting is held by rotation among the members.
- The last (9th) annual meeting of FEMBoSA was held in Dhaka in September 2018. Besides ECI, the other 7 members are EMBs from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- The FEMBoSA represents a very large part of the democratic world and is an active regional association of the election management bodies of South Asia.
- The objectives of the Forum are to promote contact among the EMBs of the SAARC countries; share experiences with a view to learning from each other and cooperate with one another in enhancing the capabilities of the EMBs towards conducting free and fair elections.
11 . National Data and Analytics Platform (NDAP)
Context : NITI Aayog released its vision for the National Data and Analytics Platform (NDAP)
- The platform aims to democratize access to publicly available government data.
- It will host the latest datasets from various government websites, present them coherently, and provide tools for analytics and visualization. NDAP will follow a user-centric approach and will enable data access in a simple and intuitive portal tailored to the needs of a variety of stakeholders.
- NDAP will spearhead the standardization of formats in which data is presented across sectors and will cater to a wide audience of policymakers, researchers, innovators, data scientists, journalists and citizens.
- The development of NDAP will take place over a period of one year. The first version of the platform is expected to be launched in 2021. The process will follow a user-centric approach, and will incorporate feedback received from various users and stakeholders throughout the course of its development.
12 . International Maritime Organization
About International Maritime Organization
- IMO is the global standard-setting authority for the safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping. Its main role is to create a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that is fair and effective, universally adopted and universally implemented.
- IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations
- IMO measures cover all aspects of international shipping – including ship design, construction, equipment, manning, operation and disposal – to ensure that this vital sector for remains safe, environmentally sound, energy efficient and secure.
13 . Facts for Prelims
Integrated Check post
- Jogbani – Biratnagar is an important trade point between India and Nepal. The ICP is equipped with modern facilities.
- The second Integrated Check Post at Jogbani – Biratnagar was built with Indian assistance to facilitate trade and people’s movement across India-Nepal border.
- UNAIDS provides the strategic direction, advocacy, coordination and technical support needed to catalyse and connect leadership from governments, the private sector and communities to deliver life-saving HIV services. UNAIDS is leading the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Shri Sukumar Sen
- Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India. He conducted the first two General Elections to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies, thereby putting India firmly on the mapof democracy
- The Tele-Law initiative was launched on April 20, 2017 with an aim to provide legal advices in the villages through Common Service Centres.
- A Pilot project started in 1800 CSCs in 11 States in UP, Bihar, North Eastern States and UT of Jammu and Kashmir. This scheme has been expanded to 115 Aspirational Districts in 100 days programme of the Government of India.
- A dedicated website on Tele-Law is maintained by the Department of Justice which has been designed with support from CSC eGovernance and has translated in to 22 languages.
- A Tele-Law mobile application is available for the PLVs to pre-register Tele-Law cases.
- A Tele-Law Dashboard is also developed with decentralized features for login and registration of cases and view the status of cases added for Panel Lawyers, Para Legal Volunteers etc.
- Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel Shri Dharmendra Pradhan today launched a scheme of SAIL to promote Voluntary Philanthropist Activities (VPA) by its employees.
- The scheme called “SAIL Employee Rendering Voluntarism and Initiatives for Community Engagement (SERVICE)” will promote and facilitate philanthropist activities by the employees in a structured manner.
- The Minister also launched a portal for the employees to register for the scheme. The dedicated interactive “SAIL SERVICE” portal for implementation of this Scheme shall act as a platform for enabling faster interaction and communication amongst the various stakeholders. It shall eventually be developed as a repository of knowledge management in this regard.