PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Global Engagement Scheme
- NEP 2020
- Antarctic Treaty System, Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP), and Convention on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and SCAR
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Global Engagement Scheme
Context: ‘ The Ministry of Culture aims at disseminating Indian Folk Arts and Culture abroad through signing of Cultural Agreements & Cultural Exchange Programme and their implementation by concerned agencies with mutual discussions through diplomatic channel. The sanction of the president is accorded to the continuation of the scheme for the promotion of international cultural relations beyond 31 march, 2021 for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 under the revised name ‘Global Engagement Scheme’.
About the scheme:
- The Ministry of Culture operates Global Engagement Scheme under which Festivals of India are organized in other countries showcasing folk art and other cultural events as exhibitions, dance, music, theatre, food fest, literary fest, film fest, yoga etc.
- In addition to this, Ministry of Culture also works in coordinated manner with Ministry of External Affairs.
- Under this scheme, Ministry of Culture also gives Grant-in-aid to Indo- Foreign Friendship Cultural Societies for organizing programmes and activities including folk art and other cultural activities for their promotion abroad.
- The Government of India has set up seven Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs) with headquarters at Patiala, Nagpur, Udaipur, Prayagraj, Kolkata, Dimapur and Thanjavur to protect, preserve and promote various forms of folk art and culture throughout the country.
- The folk artists from all over India are engaged to perform in the festivals and Programmes organized by these ZCCs regularly in all States/Union Territories of India.
- Besides, the folk artists are also sent abroad to perform in Festivals of India. Incentives like Dearness allowance, honorarium, board & lodging, local & international travel are provided to these artists by the respective ZCCs and Ministry of Culture.
2 . New Education Policy 2020
Context: National Education Policy 2020 has been announced on 29.07.2020. NEP, 2020 aim to increase the GER to 100% in preschool to secondary level by 2030 whereas GER in Higher Education including vocational education from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035.
About the National Education Policy 2020:
- The National Education Policy 2020 proposes various reforms in school education as well as higher education including technical education. A number of action points/activities for implementation in school education as well as higher education are mentioned in the National Education Policy 2020.
Salient features of NEP 2020
- Ensuring Universal Access at All Levels of schooling from pre-primary school to Grade 12;
- Ensuring quality early childhood care and education for all children between 3-6 years;
- New Curricular and Pedagogical Structure (5+3+3+4);
- No hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams;
- Establishing National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy;
- Emphasis on promoting multilingualism and Indian languages; The medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother tongue/local language/regional language.
- Assessment reforms – Board Exams on up to two occasions during any given school year, one main examination and one for improvement, if desired;
- Setting up of a new National Assessment Centre, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development);
- Equitable and inclusive education – Special emphasis given on Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs);
- A separate Gender Inclusion fund and Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups;
- Robust and transparent processes for recruitment of teachers and merit based performance;
- Ensuring availability of all resources through school complexes and clusters;
- Setting up of State School Standards Authority (SSSA);
- Exposure of vocational education in school and higher education system;
- Increasing GER in higher education to 50%;
- Holistic and Multidisciplinary Education with multiple entry/exit options;
- NTA to offer Common Entrance Exam for Admission to HEIs;
- Establishment of Academic Bank of Credit;
- Setting up of Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs);
- Setting up of National Research Foundation (NRF);
- ‘Light but Tight’ regulation;
- Single overarching umbrella body for promotion of higher education sector including teacher education and excluding medical and legal education- the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI)-with independent bodies for standard setting- the General Education Council; funding-Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC); accreditation- National Accreditation Council (NAC); and regulation- National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC);
- Expansion of open and distance learning to increase Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER).
- Internationalization of Education
- Professional Education will be an integral part of the higher education system. Stand-alone technical universities, health science universities, legal and agricultural universities, or institutions in these or other fields, will aim to become multi-disciplinary institutions.
- Teacher Education – 4-year integrated stage-specific, subject- specific Bachelor of Education
- Establishing a National Mission for Mentoring.
- Creation of an autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, administration. Appropriate integration of technology into all levels of education.
- Achieving 100% youth and adult literacy.
- Multiple mechanisms with checks and balances will combat and stop the commercialization of higher education.
- All education institutions will be held to similar standards of audit and disclosure as a ‘not for profit’ entity.
- The Centre and the States will work together to increase the public investment in Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest.
- Strengthening of the Central Advisory Board of Education to ensure coordination to bring overall focus on quality education.
Other initiatives related to education:
Scheme Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT)
- The Central Sector Scheme Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT) was launched in 2014 to address comprehensively all issues related to Teacher Training/ Capacity Building and Professional Development of Teachers.
- Under the components, the total 95 Centres were established throughout the country through which faculties/Teachers have been trained. Currently, The Standing Finance Committee has appraised the Scheme and recommended for continuation till 2025-2026 with the total outlay of Rs. 493.68 crore.
- Under the PMMMNMTT Scheme Centres are established on the basis of the proposals received from education institutions, their screening by Screening Committee and approval by Project Approval Board.
3 . Antarctic Treaty System, Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP), and Convention on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and SCAR
Context : Dr Jitendra Singh said, India, being an active member of Antarctic Treaty System, Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP), and Convention on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and SCAR reaffirms its commitment to conserve and preserve the Antarctic continent including the surrounding ocean through scientific studies and actions. He also added India has extended support for protecting the Antarctic environment and for co-sponsoring the proposal of the European Union for designating East Antarctica and the Weddell Sea as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).
Antarctic Treaty System
- The Antarctic Treaty was signed between 12 countries in Washington on 1st December 1959 for making the Antarctic Continent a demilitarized zone to be preserved for scientific research only.
- Antarctic Treaty System is the whole complex of arrangements made for the purpose of regulating relations among states in the Antarctic.
- Its purpose is to ensure in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord.
- These agreements are legally binding and purpose-built for the unique geographical, environmental and political characteristics of the Antarctic and form a robust international governance framework for the region.
Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP)
- The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed in Madrid on October 4, 1991 and entered into force in 1998. It designates Antarctica as a “natural reserve, devoted to peace and science
- Article 11 of the Environment Protocol establishes the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP)
- The functions of the Committee shall be to provide advice and formulate recommendations to the Parties in connection with the implementation of this Protocol, including the operation of its Annexes, for consideration at Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and to perform such other functions as may be referred to it by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings.”
- The Committee also provides advice in the context of the Protocol on: the effectiveness of measures; the need to update and improve measures; environmental impact assessments, procedures for situations requiring urgent action, the Antarctic Protected Area system, inspection procedures, and the state of the Antarctic environment.
- The Committee holds annual meetings in the framework of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM). Every contracting party to the Protocol may appoint a delegate to the ATCM. Observers and invited experts also attend the sessions. The CEP’s work includes exchange among the Contracting Parties in the framework of Intersessional Contact Groups (ICG).
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
- The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was established by international convention in 1982 with the objective of conserving Antarctic marine life. This was in response to increasing commercial interest in Antarctic krill resources, a keystone component of the Antarctic ecosystem and a history of over-exploitation of several other marine resources in the Southern Ocean.
- CCAMLR is an international commission with 26 Members, and a further 10 countries have acceded to the Convention. Based on the best available scientific information, the Commission agrees a set of conservation measures that determine the use of marine living resources in the Antarctic.
- The key institutional components of CCAMLR are:
- the CAMLR Convention which entered into force on 7 April 1982
- a decision-making body, the Commission
- a Scientific Committee which advises the Commission using the best available science
- Conservation measures and resolutions
- CCAMLR’s Membership and provisions for international cooperation and collaboration
- a Secretariat based in Hobart, Tasmania, that supports the work of the Commission.
Scientific Community on Antarctic Research (SCAR)
- The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is a thematic organisation of the International Science Council (ISC), and was created in 1958. .·
- SCAR is charged with initiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic region (including the Southern Ocean), and on the role of the Antarctic region in the Earth system. ·
- SCAR provides objective and independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings and other organizations such as the UNFCCC and IPCC on issues of science and conservation affecting the management of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and on the role of the Antarctic region in the Earth system.
- The National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, is hosting the SCAR Open Science Conference 2022. The theme of the conference is “Antarctica in a Changing World”.
4 . Facts for Prelims
Nagar Van Yojana
- The Pilot Scheme of Nagar Van Yojana (NVY) envisages developing 400 Nagar Vans and 200 Nagar Vatikas in the country during the period of 2020-21 to 2024-25 with an objective to significantly enhance the tree outside forests and green cover, enhancement of biodiversity and ecological benefits to the urban and peri-urban areas apart from improving quality of life of city dwellers.
- The total estimated cost of Nagar Van Yojana is Rs.895 crore for the period of 2020-21 to 2024-25 for implementation from the National Funds under Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
- A total of 173 projects have been sanctioned till 2021-22in 26 States including Andhra Pradesh.
- Various greening activities undertaken through Nagar Van Yojana along with other Afforestation efforts are envisaged for improving the green cover in the country.
Air Service Agreement
- A bilateral air service agreement or air transport agreement (ATA) is a treaty between two nations which specifies traffic rights for operation of international air services between the two countries.
- One of the first air service agreements was between the United States and the United Kingdom. Signed in 1946, named as Bermuda agreement- it defined trans-Atlantic routes and which airports and seaports flights could be operated from; defined where these flights could stop; and also defined what fares could be charged on these routes.
- The ASAs are concluded bilaterally, usually on the basis of reciprocity and fair/equal opportunity, and provide the legal framework for scheduled air services between two countries.
- Under these ASAs, traffic rights and capacity entitlements are exchanged between the countries on the basis of market requirements. The ASAs clearly specify the “entitlements” of the designated airline(s) of both countries in terms of frequency of operations, number of seats, points of call etc.
- Once such an agreement is signed, each country is free to allocate the bilateral rights to its respective airlines. In India, the government owns these entitlements and subsequently allocates them to an airline upon request.
- Even after such flying rights are allocated to an airline, it must have slots at both the airports in order to start flight operations. A slot is a date and time at which an airline’s aircraft is permitted to depart or arrive at an airport. The slots are allocated by a committee that consists of the Civil Aviation Ministry and DGCA officials, airport operators and airlines, among others.
- Indian-designated carriers are free to mount operations from any city but a foreign carrier is not, which creates a demand-supply gap which can impact prices. The travel industry has been urging the government for quite some time that foreign carriers be allowed to operate from cities other than metro airports.
- India has signed bilateral Air Service Agreement (ASA) with 116 foreign countries.
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
- Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) and Companies are incorporated under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs as per the provisions of LLP Act, 2008 and Companies Act, 2013.
- It is a partnership in which some or all partners have limited liability. It therefore exhibits elements of partnerships and corporations.
- It allows for a partnership structure where each partner’s liabilities are limited to the amount they put into the business. In an LLP, one partner is not responsible or liable for another partner’s misconduct or negligence.
- Limited liability means that if the partnership fails, then creditors cannot go after a partner’s personal assets or income.
- During FY 2021-22, 1,67,080 companies were registered as compared to 1,55,377 in the previous year.
- INS Tarkash is the 5th Talwar-class frigate constructed for the Indian Navy, built at the Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad, Russia.
- INS Tarkash is a state-of-the-art platform and has a weapon-sensor fit that enables her address threats in all dimensions.
- The ship is part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet and functions under the operational command of the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command.
School Innovation Council (SIC)
- SIC is an initiative taken by the Ministry of Education’s Innovation Cell (MIC)
- SIC was launched on 1 July 2022 and has been introduced to all schools of all the states.
- It is a council of teachers, students, and experts from industry and academia to conduct round the year activities for students and teachers on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, monitored through the SIC portal of the MIC, to record the influence at the ground level.
- SIC will enable mindset change, awareness, and training onIdeation, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, design thinking, Intellectual Property Rights, start-up finance, and HR among teachers and students.
- It will also enable the ranking system for schools on the level of innovation-oriented activities.
- To implement the SIC council in all schools across the nation, SIC portal has been developed where schools can register themselves.
Safety of Dams
- The Dam Safety Act 2021 provides a comprehensive frame work for proper surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of all the large dams of the country for ensuring their safe functioning and to avoid dam failure related disasters.
- The Act also provides for empowered institutional framework for dam safety both at the level of Centre and States and will also help in standardizing and improving uniform dam safety practices across the country.
- Responsibility for safety of dams, including its operation and maintenance rests primarily with dam owners which are mostly the State Governments and Central/State Public Sector Units.
- Every owner of the specified dam shall prepare an Emergency Action Plan for each of their specified dam to deal with any emergency conditions arising at the dams.
- Dam Safety Act 2021 is having the provision for setting up empowered institutional framework for dam safety both at the Central and State level. At national level, Central Government has constituted the National Committee on Dam Safety which shall discharge functions to prevent dam failure related disasters and maintain standards of dam safety and evolve dam safety policies and recommend necessary regulations.
- Further as per the provisions of the Dam Safety Act 2021, State Governments are mandated to constitute the State Committee on Dam Safety which shall ensure proper surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of all specified dams in that State and ensure their safe functioning.