PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
- Ekam Fest
- Preservation and Promotion of Languages, Folk Dance, Art and Culture of Tribals
- Dholavira, Group of Monuments at Mandu and Forts and monuments by Delhi Sultanate
- Jeevan Kaushal Curriculum
- Black Carbon
- Flow Diverter Stents Technology
- National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
About Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
- The Union Government initiated a major reform in Public Financial Management in 1976. The Audit and Accounts functions were separated by relieving the Comptroller and Auditor General of his responsibility of preparation of Union Government accounts.
- The accounting function was brought directly under the control of the Executive. Consequently, the Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS) was established.
- The ICAS was carved out from the Indian Audit & Accounts Service (IA & AS), initially through the promulgation of an Ordinance amending the C & AG’s (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Amendment Act, 1976.
- Later on, the Departmentalization of Union Accounts (Transfer of Personnel) Act, 1976 was enacted by Parliament and assented to by Hon’ble President of India on 8th April, 1976. The Act was deemed to have come into force with effect from 1st March, 1976. Accordingly, the ICAS is celebrating March 1 every year as the “Civil Accounts Day”.
- Since its inception the Indian Civil Accounts Organization has steadily grown in stature and now plays an important role in strengthening of governance through excellence in the management of public finances of the Union Government.
- The mission of the organization is to administer an effective, credible and responsive system for budgeting, payment, accounting and pension disbursements.
- The aim has been to provide a world class and robust Government –wide integrated financial information system.
- Besides, the organization has strived to develop a new paradigm of Internal Audit for improved transparency and accountability. The organization has accorded top priority to the promotion of professional integrity and competence through a dedicated and motivated work force.
- The Indian Civil Accounts Organization has been committed to the leveraging of IT for enhancing the efficiency of the payment, accounting, internal auditing and financial reporting systems of the Government of India.
- The Public Financial Management System (PFMS), launched in 2009, is the flagship project of the organization show casing this aspect.
About Public Finance Management System
- The Government has positioned the PFMS as a key decision support system not only for tracking of flow of funds to the last beneficiary or implementation level but also to ensure just –in –time release of funds through an effective management of fund float.
- The Government is looking at PFMS for facilitating effective monitoring and control of unspent balances or parking of funds to check blockade of Government money. In fact, PFMS is now being used as the core IT platform for regular activities of CGA, such as payments, receipts, accounting, expenditure control, management of provident fund and pensions etc.
- The feather in the cap for PFMS is the implementation of Central Sector Scheme, PM –KISAN Yojana which was announced in the Interim Budget presented in Parliament in February 2019.
2 . Ekam Fest
About Ekam Fest
- Ekam Fest is a week long Exhibition-cum-Fair “EKAM Fest” organised by National Handicapped Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC) under M/o Social Justice & Empowerment
- EKAM Fest is an effort for promoting entrepreneurship and knowledge among Divyangjan community, generating awareness among society about potentialities of PwDs & providing a major marketing opportunity to PwDs entrepreneurs.
- NHFDC Foundation is making efforts for development of a brand and platform for marketing of products of these determined entrepreneurs. Accordingly, name of the brand has been arrived at Ekam (Entrepreneurship, Knowledge, Awareness, Marketing).
- The word Ekam also represents the inclusiveness, oneness and unity which appropriately describe the efforts being put in by NHFDC to develop the marketing platform and aggregation of the products through promotion of entrepreneurship, knowledge sharing, Awareness creation and marketing initiatives amongst the Divyangjan.
The Ekam Fest stalls will see the following broad products category:
- Home Décor and Lifestyle
- Stationery and Eco Friendly products
- Packed Food and Organic Products
- Toys and Gifts
- Personal Accessory –Jewellary, Clutch Bags
The new initiatives of NHFDC will be showcased in the Fest. A few are highlighted below:
- NHFDC Swavalamban Kendra (NSK): NHFDC has taken an initiative to establish PWD owned micro skill training Centers throughout the country for skill training of PwDs. These NSKs will have a capacity to provide quality skill training to around 120 PwDs per year NSK. The PwD owner of the NSK is expected to earn around Rs 20,000 per month.
- Safe Cabs in Delhi and Indore: NHFDC has made arrangement with Sakha Cabs where the PwD owned commercial vehicles will be driven by the Women drivers to provide safe taxi option for the women, children and senior citizen commuters. Such Sfe cabs are already in operation at New Delhi and Indore Airport. The vehicles here are financed by NHFDC under its scheme.
- Safe Drinking Water E Carts: NHFDC has recently agreed to finance E-carts fitted with RO water dispensing vending machines. These carts will sell water in paper glasses maintaining the hygiene. The carts will be supported in operation by Bharat Jal. The PwD owner is expected to earn Rs 10,000/- to Rs 15,000/- per month in the operation of these carts.
- NHFDC is an Apex corporation under the aegis of Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and is working since 1997.
- It is registered as a company not for profit and provides financial assistance to the Divyangjan/Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan/PwDs) for their economic rehabilitation and provides number of skill development programmes to empower them to grow & sustain their enterprises.
- To empower the Divyang and marginalized groups of the society more closely, NHFDC has taken a step forward and established NHFDC Foundation, this year.
- Recognizing the absence of a connect with the market which hinders fair prices and volumes in sale of the unorganized tiny Divyang entrepreneurs, NHFDC Foundation is making efforts for development of a brand and platform for marketing of products of these determined entrepreneurs.
3 . Preservation and Promotion of Languages, Folk Dance, Art and Culture of Tribals
Zonal Cultural Centres
- To preserve & promote various forms of folk art and culture of the tribals throughout the country including West Bengal, the Government of India has set up seven Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCCs) with headquarters at Patiala, Nagpur, Udaipur, Prayagraj, Kolkata, Dimapur and Thanjavur.
- These ZCCs organize various cultural activities and programmes all over the country on regular basis. These ZCCs under Ministry of Culture are also implementing a number of schemes for promoting the folk/tribal art and culture, details of which are annexed
- Sahitya Akademi, an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, encourages the preservation and promotion of languages, especially the unrecognized and tribal languages. The Akademi periodically organizes language conventions throughout the country in this regard.
- No funds are provided directly to States/UTs. However, annual grant-in-aid is provided to all the ZCCs for organizing various cultural activities and programmes in their member States including West Bengal. The grant-in-aid provided to the ZCCs during the last three years and the current year is as under:
Schemes being implemented by Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCCs)
- Award to Young Talented Artists: The Scheme “Young Talented Artists” is carried out to encourage and recognize the young talents especially in the field of rare art forms. Talented youngsters of the age group of 18-30 years are selected and given a onetime cash award of Rs. 10,000/-.
- Guru Shishya Parampara: This scheme envisages transmitting our valued traditions to the coming generations. Disciples are trained under veterans in art forms which are rare and vanishing. Rare and vanishing art forms of the region are identified and eminent exponents are selected to carry out the training programmes in ‘Gurukula’ tradition. The monthly remuneration for Guru – Rs. 7,500/-, Accompanist – Rs. 3,750/- and Pupils – Rs. 1,500/- each for the period of six month to maximum 1 year for one scheme. The names of the Gurus are recommended by the State Cultural Affairs Departments.
- Theatre Rejuvenation: To promote theatre activities including stage shows and Production oriented workshops, etc. Honorarium Up to Rs. 30,000/- per show excluding TA & DA is paid. The groups finalized on the basis their credentials as well as the merit of project submitted by them.
- Research & Documentation: To preserve promote and propagate vanishing visual and performing art forms including folk, tribal and classical in the field of music, dance, theatre, literature, fine arts etc. in print/ audio – visual media. The art form is finalized in consultation with state Cultural Department.
- Shilpgram: To promote folk and tribal art and crafts of the zone by organizing seminar, workshops, exhibitions, craft fairs, design development and marketing support to the artisans living in the rural areas.
- Octave: To promote and propagate the rich cultural heritage of North East region comprising of eight States namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura to the rest of India.
- National Cultural Exchange Programme (NCEP): It can be termed as the lifeline of the Zonal Cultural Centers. Under this scheme, various festivals of performing arts, exhibitions, yatras etc are organized in member States. Artists from other zones/states are invited to participate in these programmes. Participation of artists from the Zone in festivals held in other parts of the country are also facilitated. Zonal centres also participate in Major festivals happening in member States by arranging performances during these festivals where large number of audience get chance to enjoy and understand art forms of other regions. These festivals provide opportunity to taste and understand various cultures of our country.
4 . Dholavira & Group of Monuments at Mandu
Context : Government of India has submitted two nomination dossiers namely ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020. Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has submitted the proposal of ‘Group of Monuments at Mandu’ in the year 2019. The dossier was further forwarded to World Heritage Centre (WHC) for completeness check. Inputs received from WHC have been conveyed to the State Government for further incorporation.
Dholavira: A Harappan City
- Dholavira is one of the two largest Harappan sites in India, and 5th largest in the subcontinent. It passed through all the stages of the Harappan culture from circa 2900 BC to 1500 BC, while most others saw only the early or late stages.
- After the peak of the civilization Dholavira was temporarily abandoned, after which it seems that the settlers returned with a markedly de-urbanized culture. There are hints that they willingly chose to simplify their lives, rather than try to ride the collapse of their once glorified civilization. Here, on the ruins, you will have a chance to contemplate what progress and civilization mean and what, if anything, is truly permanent.
- Dholavira, known locally as Kotada (which means large fort), sprawls over 100 hectares of semi-arid land at the north-west corner of the island of Khadir, one of the islands in the Great Rann of Kutch that remain above the flood-plains in months when the rest of the desert is submerged by the monsoon. Dholavira has two seasonal nallahs, or streams: Mansar in the north, and Manhar in the south.
- The site was unearthed by the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) in 1967, but has been systematically excavated only since 1990.
- Artifacts include terracotta pottery, beads, gold and copper ornaments, seals, fish hooks, animal figurines, tools, urns, and some imported vessels that indicate trade links with lands as far away as Mesopotamia.
- Also found were 10 large stone inscriptions, carved in Indus Valley script, perhaps the world’s earliest signboard. These are among the most important discoveries about the Indus Valley Civilization, but remain tantalizingly undeciphered.
- The remains show an imposing citadel in the center, with a middle and lower town, each fortified separately, built with pleasingly smoothed structures of sun-dried brick and stone masonry, and with remarkable town planning. Well laid out lanes lead outward systematically from the citadel, with a well-constructed underground drainage system for sanitation. There is a large stadium with a complex structure and seating arrangement.
- Dholavira has one of the world’s earliest water conservation systems ever excavated. Satellite pictures show a reservoir underground, an expertly constructed rainwater harvesting system extending from the walls of the city, without which the settlement would not have thrived in the sparse rainfall of the desert.
- The excavation found a decline of the civilization in the 5th of 7th stages, after which were signs of a temporary desertion of the site. Settlers returned later in the late Harappan stage, with a change in their pottery, influenced by cultures found at sites in Sindh, South Rajasthan and other parts of Gujurat, but they did not bring the return of the civilization. Their houses, for example, were built in an entirely new form that was circular (bhungas), and the material signs were strikingly deurbanized and simplified. Perhaps the last stage of the powerful civilization had become aware of its future, and was preparing itself for a gradual end.
Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate
- The ‘Monuments of the Deccan Sultanate’ is a serial property comprising of four component constitute the most representative, most authentic and best conserved examples of Deccani Sultanate monuments in India.
- The series demonstrates the exemplary convergence of national and international styles of Islamic architecture and their intersections with the prevalent Hindu architecture of the period southern Indian in present day Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh,
- The contributions of Deccan Sultanate to the arts and architecture of India is impressive with iconic Indo Islamic monuments constructed in Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur and Hyderabad.
- These sites emerged as important medieval fortifications and walled cities of the Deccan Sultanates with a vigorous new architectural style of the sultanate that emerged from encounters with the Deccan Hindu heartland of the period.
- Individually, each of the components of Deccan Sultanate cover important aspects of Sultanate history with Gulbarga evolving as the first capital of Bahmani Kingdoms in mid 14th Century CE including its impressive fortifications, Jami Masjid and royal tombs; Bidar as the next Bahmani capital in mid 15th Century CE; further evolution of the Deccani Sultanate style by Adil Shahi dynasty in the monuments at Bijapur such as the Gol Gumbaj that stands as the 2nd largest dome in world history; and the final diversification and manifestation of the style in the Qutub Shahi monuments of Golconda fort, tombs and the Charminar at Hyderabad.
Group of Monuments at Mandu
- The group of monuments of Mandu are situated in Indore
- There are 61 monuments including fort wall protected and declared as monuments of national importance. The most significant ones are described below- :
- Caves and Temples: The rock-cut caves known as Lohani caves were probably excavated in or about the eleventh century A.D. The area around them yielded 80 sculptures. Some Saiva temples appear to have existed near the caves which were destroyed for use in the Muslim buildings. To the south of the cave stands a monolithic pillar about 5 meters high probably attached to a temple originally.
- Dilawar Khan’s Mosque: The earliest Indo-Islamic building at Mandu is Dilawar Khan’s mosque. It consists of a central courtyard, enclosed by colonnade all around and mehrab on the west. The prayer hall has ceiling in Hindu style and its architecture is considerably influenced by Hindu workmanship.
- Hindola Mahal: This building is “T” – shaped in plan, with a main hall and a transverse projection. On both sides of the hall are six arched openings. This hall originally had a massive vaulted roof. The side walls are strengthened with massive sloping buttresses which have given the name “swinging” (Hindola) palace to the building. Architecturally, the palace is assigned to the end of the fifteenth century A.D.
- Jahaz Mahal: It is known as “Ship Palace” as it is on the narrow strip of land between the waters of the Munj and Kapur tanks. The ground floor of the building consists of three large halls, with corridors in betwen the narrow rooms at the extreme ends. Its spacious terrace, approached by a lengthy flight of steps is adorned with domed pavilions.
- Tomb of Hoshang Shah: The tomb is square in plan, with well-proportioned and artistic arched openings on three sides supporting the marble dome above. The mausoleum stands on a square marble platform. The walls are 9.6 m high from the plattorm. The interior of the tomb is 14.9 sq. m. Externally, the dome is flat and heavy, adorned with small domed turrets at the four corners. The finial of the dome is crowned with a crescent, a feature which seems to have been imported to Mandu. The tomb is influenced by Hindu style of architecture.
- Jami Masjid: This majestic building was started by Hoshang Shah and completed by Mahmud Khalji in A.D.1454. On plan it is 97.4 sq.m with a huge dome on the porch and approached by a flight of thirty steps. The facade of the plinth has been arranged into a verandah, 1.8m deep, with arched openings. The interior of the mosque consists of a spacious hall about 13.7 sq.m with jali screens on the sides.
- Madrasa or Ashrafi Mahal: The bnildings here belong to two different stages of construction. The earlier representing a college or Madrasa, attached to the Jami Masjid, is a great quadrangle enclosed on all sides by a number of small cells for students. At the four corners of the quadrangle were round towers, three of which are still extant. Amongst these the north-eastern tower was later raised seven storeys high by Mahmud Khalji to commemorate his victory over the Rana of Mewar in Rajasthan. The basement of this tower is 9.8 m high. Here the tomb of Mahmud Khalji was erectod on the western projection of the quadrangle. The interior of this tomb is 19.9 sq.m. It was repaired during the time of the Mughal emperor Akbar.
- Malik Mughith’s Mosque: Malik Mughith, the father of Mahmud Khalji, built the mosque in A.D.1432. The plan of this building consists of a central court and other usual parts.
- Dai-Ki-Chhoti Bahen-Ka-Mahal: It is a tomb octagonal in plan with arched openings on four sides
- Baz-Bahadurts Palace: The palace is approached by broad steps with landings at intervals. The passage through the gateway is covered with rooms for the guards on both sides and with a vaulted ceiling. The passage further leads to the outer court of the palace with its main doorway in front. The main portion of the palace consists of a spacious open courtyard with halls and rooms on all the four sides and a cistern in its centre.
- Rupmati’s Pavilion : The building has undergone two or three stages of construction in different periods. On the terrace of the original portion there are pavilions, square in plan at the base and crowned with hemispherical domes, fluted both outside and inside. It is said that Rupmati came here daily from the palace nearby to have a view of river Narmada, which is seen from here on a clear sunny day. The style of the arches and pillars show that the pavilions were probably built a century earlier than Rupmati’s time.
- Darya Khan’s Tomb: The most interesting feature of this building are the small domes at the four corners surrounding the main dome in the centre. The interior is a square with arches built across the corners to support the dome above. The tomb was built for Darya Khan in A.D.1510-26
5 . Jeevan Kaushal curriculum
The objectives of the Jeevan Kaushal curriculum are:
- To enhance one’s ability to be fully self aware by helping oneself to overcome all fears and insecurities and to grow fully from inside out and outside in;
- To increase one’s knowledge and awareness of emotional competency and emotional intelligence at place of study/work;
- To provide opportunity for realising one’s potential through practical experience;
- To develop interpersonal skills and adopt good leadership behaviour for empowerment of self and others;
- To set appropriate goals, manage stress and time effectively; and
- To manage competency-mix at all levels for achieving excellence with ethics.
6 . Black Carbon
Context : The already receding Gangotri glacier seems to have more bad news in store. Black carbon concentration in the region increases by 400 times during summer, according to a study.
About Black Carbon
- Black carbon is the sooty black material emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. It comprises a significant portion of particulate matter or PM, which is an air pollutant.
- Black carbon is a global environmental problem that has negative implications for both human health and climate.
- Inhalation of black carbon is associated with health problems including respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even birth defects.
- Black carbon also contributes to climate change causing changes in patterns of rain and clouds.
- The Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) aerosols contribute significantly towards global warming due to its light-absorbing nature.
About the Study
- Scientists from Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, (WIHG), an autonomous institution under Department of Science & Technology, in a study conducted at Chirbasa station near Gangotri Glacier, for the Year 2016, found that black carbon (BC) concentration in this region has changed drastically during summer.
Main Reasons & Effects
- It was revealed by investigating the occasional high values of black carbon extricated, that the seasonal cycle of increase was significantly influenced by the emissions resulting from agriculture burning (in western part of the country), forest fires (along the Himalayan slopes) in summer, and to some extent by the contribution from long-range transport of pollutants in winter, depending the prevailing meteorological conditions.
- It can trigger glacial melt because of the light-absorbing nature of black carbon.
- Presence of Black carbon in the eco-sensitive zone, such as the Himalayan glacier valleys, is a matter of serious concern and needs to be meticulously monitored. However, baseline data on Black carbon is rarely available from most of the glaciated Himalayan region.
7 . Flow Diverter Stents Technology
Context : The research team of Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology (SCTIMST),Thiruvanthapuram, an Institute of National Importance under the Department of Science and Technology has developed an innovative intracranial flow diverter stent for the treatment of aneurysms of the blood vessels of the brain. It is ready for transfer and further testing in animals, followed by human trials.
- Flow diverters stents when deployed in the artery in the brain bearing the aneurysms, divert blood flow away from the aneurysm, thus reducing the chances of its rupture from the pressure of blood flow.
- Intracranial aneurysm is a localized ballooning, bulging or dilation of arteries in the brain caused by progressive weakening of the inner muscles of the wall of the blood vessels.
- Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysm can result in bleeding into the space around the brain resulting condition called a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to paralysis, coma or death.
- The Surgical treatment of an aneurysm involves opening the skull and a clip on the neck of aneurysm, so that it is cut off from the path of blood flow.
- There are three non surgical, minimally invasive endovascular treatments of aneurysms of the brain. In two of these procedures, the aneurismal sacis filled with platinum coils or occluded using high viscosity liquid polymer which solidifies when released into the sac thus sealing the sac. All these techniques have some limitation or the other.
About Flow Diverter Stents
- A more attractive third minimally invasive option is deploying a flow diverter stent to bypass the segment of the blood vessel which has the aneurysm.
- Flow diverters have the advantages of being flexible and adaptable to the shape and course of the vessel. Also flow diverters promote healing of the vessel wall by removing the constant stress of blood flow on it.
- The Chitra flow diverter is designed to have better grip on the walls of arteries of complex shapes in order to reduce the risk of migration of the device. The unique design is in its weave also makes this stent resistant to kinking or twisting, when it is placed in tortuous arteries and those with complex shapes. Even a 180 degrees bend does not occlude the lumen of the stent.
- Portion of the wires is made radio opaque for better visibility in X –Rays and fluoroscopy thus aiding accurate delivery of the diverter in the blood vessel.
- Nitinol, a super elastic alloy with shape memory was acquired from National Aero Space Laboratories, Bengaluru (CSIR-NAL). When the device is deployed at the site, it is released from its crimped locked position and assumes the desired and originally designed shape because of the shape memory property of Nitinol. The flow diverter is delivered to the aneurysm in the brain using a delivery system. The delivery system has also been developed by the team
- The imported Flow diverter stents costs Rs 7-8 lakhs and is not manufactured in India. With the availability of the indigenous technology from SCTIMST and Nitinol from NAL, a well established industry should be able to manufacture and sell at a much lower price.
8 . National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme
About National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS)
- It was launched with the objective of providing Apprenticeship Training to 50 lakh youth by 2020.
- Under the scheme, the Government will share 25% of the prescribed stipend subject to a maximum of Rs 1500/- per month per apprentice with the employers.
- It has a user friendly on-line portal designed to facilitate easy processing of the entire apprenticeship cycle.
- State Apprenticeship Advisers (SAAs) and Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship (RDAIs) act as implementing agencies in their respective state/Regions.
- To improve the industry connect, Directorate General of Training (DGE&T), M/o Skill Development & Entrepreneurship has adopted the German model of Vocational Education system in India by Introducing Dual System of Training (DST).
- Dual System combines practical training in the industry and theoretical training along with foundation practical in ITI (s) which leads to better ITI — Industry linkage.
- Under this, ITIs (industrial training institutes) are required to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with industries under information to the respective State.
9 . Facts for Prelims
- RaIDer-X, a new explosive detection device was unveiled at the National Workshop on Explosive Detection (NWED-2020) in Pune.
- RaIDer-X has the capability to detect explosives from a stand-off distance.
- The data library can be built in the system to expand its capability to detect a number of explosives in pure form as well as with contaminants.
- Bulk explosives in concealed conditions can also be detected by the device.
- RaIDer-X has been co-developed by High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Pune and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Central Accident Database Management System
- The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has launched an Integrated Road Accident Database (IRAD) System.
- The primary purpose of IRAD is to enhance road safety, and thus endeavours to generate various types of insights through the Analytics Dashboard, Trend Analysis, etc. and therefore, decision making by Apex Authorities.
- The project will be piloted in six states.
Discovery of Ink to Curb Fake Printing of Passports and Counterfeiting of Currency Notes
- CSIR-National Physical Laboratory has developed a bi-luminescent security ink which glows in red and green colours when illuminated by two different excitation sources at 254 nano meters (nm) and 365 nm, respectively.
- The ink was prepared in a batch of 1kg and given to Bank Note Press (BNP), Dewas, a unit of Security Printing Minting Corporation of India Ltd. (SPMCIL), New Delhi. The ink is found comparable to the standards that are in use.
- The formulation can be used to check the authenticity of passports, Government documents, tamper evident labels, identity cards, etc.
- The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India has launched the Incredible India Tourist Facilitators (IITF) Certification Programme, a Pan-India online learning program that is open to all, subject to fulfillment of eligibility criteria, and can be undertaken from anywhere in the country. The Programme aims at creating a pool of trained professionals for facilitating the visit of tourists at destinations across the country.
- There are two categories of IITF Certification Programme i.e Basic & Advanced (Heritage & Adventure) with an optional specialization programme of fluency in spoken foreign language other than English.
- The programme will help in enhancing the overall experience of the tourists, who would benefit from the knowledge of the local tourist facilitators and it will also help in creating employment opportunities even in the remotest parts of the country.
- Ports Review Meeting is called Chintan Baithak