PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Exercise Mitra Shakti -VII: 2019
- Controller General of Accounts
- Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat
- Exercise Hand in Hand
- Armed Forces Flag Day Fund
- Tiger corridors in Country
- National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan
- Facts for Prelims : Van Dhan Vikas Karykram, Navy Gets its First Woman Pilot, OFB, Federation of Indian Petroleum Industry (FIPI), SATAT Scheme
1 . Exercise Mitra Shakti VII 2019
Context : The seventh edition of Exercise MITRA SHAKTI- 2019 commenced on 01 December at Aundh Military Station, Pune.
About the Exercise
- Mita Shakti is a joint exercise between India and Sri lanka
- It is aimed at enhancing interoperability and operational efficiency amongst the armies of both India and Sri Lanka when deployed as part of United Nations peace keeping forces
- The objective of the exercise is to build and promote positive relations between armies of India and Sri Lanka through focus on sub unit level training on counter insurgency and counter terrorism operations in urban and rural environment under United Nations mandate.
- The joint training exercise also signifies the strength of India-Sri Lanka relations in the field of military cooperation and engagement, which is vital for refining the interoperability and operational preparedness.
- The joint exercise is designed for incorporating the current dynamics of United Nations peace keeping operations through practical and comprehensive discussions and tactical exercises.
- The primary focus of the joint training exercise will remain on field craft, battle drills and procedures as also the ability to operate jointly with seamless interoperability.
2 . Controller General of Accounts
Context : Soma Roy Burman takes charge as new Controller General of Accounts
About Controller General of Accounts
- The Controller General of Accounts (CGA), in the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, is the Principal Accounting Adviser to Government of India and is responsible for establishing and maintaining a technically sound Management Accounting System.
Functions of CGA
- The Office of CGA prepares monthly and annual analysis of expenditure, revenues, borrowings and various fiscal indicators for the Union Government. Under Article 150 of the Constitution, the Annual Appropriation Accounts (Civil) and Union Finance Accounts are submitted to Parliament on the advice of Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Along with these documents, an M.I.S Report titled ‘Accounts at a Glance’ is prepared and circulated to Hon’ble Members of Parliament.
- It further formulates policies relating to general principles, form and procedure of accounting for the Central and State Governments.Administer the process of payments, receipts and accounting in Central Civil Ministries/ Departments. Prepares, consolidates and submits the monthly and annual accounts of the Central Government through a robust financial reporting system aimed at effective implementation of the Government fiscal policies
- It also coordinates and assists in the introduction of Management Accounting Systems in Ministries/ Departments with a view to optimizing the utilization of Government resources through efficient cash management and an effective Financial Management Information System (FMIS).
- Through its Internal Audit Units in the respective Ministries/Departments,it is responsible for maintaining the requisite technical standards of Accounting in the Departmentalized Accounting offices and for monitoring of financial performance and effectiveness of various programs, schemes and activities of the civil ministries.
- It also administers banking arrangements for disbursements of Government expenditures and collection of government receipts and interacts with the Central Bank for reconciliation of cash balances of the Union Government.
- The O/o CGA is also responsible for coordination and monitoring the progress of submission of corrective/remedial action taken notes (ATNs) on the recommendations contained in Public Accounts Committee’s (PAC) reports as well as the Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG) reportsthrough its web based Audit Para Monitoring System (APMS).
3 . Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat
About Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat
- Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat” was announced by Hon’ble Prime Minister on 31st October, 2015 on the occasion of the 140th birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
- Through this innovative measure, the knowledge of the culture, traditions and practices of different States & UTs will lead to an enhanced understanding and bonding between the States, thereby strengthening the unity and integrity of India.
- All States and UTs will be covered under the programme.
- There will be pairing of States/UTs at national level and these pairings will be in effect for one year, or till the next round of pairings.
- The State/UT level pairings would be utilized for state level activities. District level pairings would be independent of the State level pairings.
- The activity will be very useful to link various States and Districts in annual programmes that will connect people through exchanges in areas of culture, tourism, language, education trade etc. and citizens will be able to experience the cultural diversity of a much larger number of States/UTs while realising that India is one.
Objectives of Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat
The broad objectives of the initiative are as follows:-
- To CELEBRATE the Unity in Diversity of our Nation and to maintain and strengthen the fabric of traditionally existing emotional bonds between the people of our Country;
- PROMOTE the spirit of national integration through a deep and structured engagement between all Indian States and Union Territories through a year-long planned engagement between States;
- To SHOWCASE the rich heritage and culture, customs and traditions of either State for enabling people to understand and appreciate the diversity that is India, thus fostering a sense of common identity;
- TO ESTABLISH long-term engagements and
- TO CREATE an environment which promotes learning between States by sharing best practices and experiences.
- To celebrate the idea of India as a nation wherein different cultural units across varied geographies coalesce and interact with each other, this glorious manifestation of diverse cuisine, music, dance, theatre, movies & films, handicrafts, sports, literature, festivals, painting, sculpture etc. will enable people to imbibe the innate chord of binding and brotherhood.
- To make our people aware about the seamless integral hull of the Modern Indian State spread across a landmass of 32 lakh sq. km, on whose firm foundations, the geo-political strength of the country is ensured benefitting one and all.
- To impress upon people at large about the increasing inter-connectedness between the constituents of various cultural & economic zones which is so vital for the spirit of nation building.
- To induce a sense of responsibility & ownership for the nation as a whole through these close cross-cultural interactions as it intends to build up the inter-dependence matrix unequivocally.
- To further promote inter-state travel for boosting business activities of various hues.
- To create a learning ecosystem between the various stakeholders of the partnering states so that they benefit from the best practices of one another by establishing a State to State Connect.
4 . Exercise Hand in Hand
About Exercise Hand in Hand
- India-China joint training exercise is known as HAND-IN-HAND
- This years exercise with the theme counter terrorism under United Nations mandate is scheduled to be conduct at Umroi, Meghalaya
- It will be 14 day long training exercise. The exercise is planned at the company level with respective Battalion Headquarters controlling the training.
- The aim of the exercise is to practice joint planning and conduct of counter terrorist operations in semi urban terrain.
- Two tactical exercises are scheduled during the training; one on counter terrorism scenario and the other on Humanitarian and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations.
5 . Armed Forces Flag Day Fund
About Armed Forces Flag Day Fund
- The Indian Armed Forces Flag Day is observed every year on December 7 since 1949.
- It is a day to honour the soldiers, airmen and sailors of India who fought on the borders to safeguard the country.
- On Indian Armed Forces Flag Day, funds are collected for the welfare of war-widows, children of martyrs, war-disabled soldiers, and ex-servicemen.
- The Armed Forces Flag Day Fund (AFFDF) is used for the welfare of the Armed Forces personnel.
- The fund collected on the Flag Day is also used for the welfare of serving personnel and ex-servicemen and also to rehabilitate battle causalities.
- Small flags are also distributed on this day in return for donations.
- All the contributions to the Armed Force Flag Day Fund are exempted from the income tax.
- A variety of programmes are organised by the Indian Army, the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy to showcase their efforts towards national security.
6 . Tiger corridors in Country
Tiger Corridors in India
Shivalik Hills & Gangetic Plains
|(ii) Corbett-Dudhwa||Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal|
|(iii) Dudhwa-Kishanpur-Katerniaghat||Uttar Pradesh, Nepal|
Central India & Eastern Ghats
|(i) Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav||Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan|
|(ii) Bandhavgarh-Achanakmar||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh|
|(iii) Bandhavgarh-Sanjay Dubri-Guru Ghasidas||Madhya Pradesh|
|(iv) Guru Ghasidas-Palamau-Lawalong||Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand|
|(v) Kanha-Achanakmar||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh|
|(vi) Kanha-Pench||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra|
|(vii) Pench-Satpura-Melghat||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra|
|(viii) Kanha-Navegaon Nagzira-Tadoba-Indravati||Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh|
|(ix) Indravati-Udanti Sitanadi-Sunabeda||Chhattisgarh, Odisha|
|(xi) Nagarjunasagar-Sri Venkateshwara National Park||Andhra Pradesh|
|(i) Sahyadri-Radhanagari-Goa||Maharashtra, Goa|
|(ii) Dandeli Anshi-Shravathi Valley||Karnataka|
|(v) Nagarahole-Bandipur-Mudumalai-Wayanad||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(vi) Nagarahole-Mudumalai-Wayanad||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(vii) Parambikulam-Eranikulam-Indira Gandhi||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(viii) Kalakad Mundanthurai-Periyar||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|(i) Kaziranga-Itanagar WLS||Assam, Arunachal Pradesh|
|(ii) Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong||Assam|
|(v) Kaziranga-Papum Pane||Assam|
|(vi) Manas-Buxa||Assam, West Bengal, Bhutan|
|(vii) Pakke-Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Manas||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam|
|(viii) Dibru Saikhowa-D’Ering-Mehaong||Assam, Arunachal Pradesh|
|(ix) Kamlang-Kane-Tale Valley||Arunachal Pradesh|
|(x) Buxa-Jaldapara||West Bengal|
3 pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions
- Material and logistical support: Funding support through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out of source areas. These are solicited by tiger reserves through an Annual Plan of Operation (APO) every year which stems out from an overarching Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP), mandated under Section 38 V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Inter alia, activities such as payment of ex-gratia and compensation, periodic awareness campaigns to sensitize, guide and advise the general populace on man-animal conflict, dissemination of information through various forms of media, procurement of immobilization equipment, drugs, training and capacity building of forest staff to deal with conflict events are generally solicited.
- Restricting habitat interventions: Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching TCP. In case tiger numbers are at carrying capacity levels, it is advised that habitat interventions should be limited so that there is no excessive spill over of wildlife including tigers thereby minimizing man-animal conflict. Further, in buffer areas around tiger reserves, habitat interventions are restricted such that they are sub-optimal vis-à-vis the core/critical tiger habitat areas, judicious enough to facilitate dispersal to other rich habitat areas only.
- Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs): The National Tiger Conservation Authority has issued following three SOPs to deal with man-animal conflict which are available in public domain:
- To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated landscapes
- To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
- For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at the landscape level.
- The three SOPs inter alia include the issue of managing dispersing tigers, managing livestock kills so as to reduce conflict as well as relocating tigers from source areas to areas where density of tiger is low, so that conflict in rich source areas does not occur.
- In technical collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India, the National Tiger Conservation Authority has also published a document titled ‘Eco-Friendly measures to mitigate impacts of Linear infrastructure on wildlife’ to safeguard these corridors from linear infrastructure development besides sensitizing user agencies which inter alia include Indian Railway Traffic Service Probationers, National Highways Authority of India personnel, Indian Railway Engineers, besides others.
7. National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan
About National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan
- The Indian Coast Guard, part of the Ministry of Defence, is the designated national authority for oil spill response in Indian waters under the National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS-DCP) promulgated in 1996 and last updated in 2014.
- The latest edition of the National Plan encompasses preparedness and response for Hazardous & Noxious Substances (HNS) incidents.
- The NOS-DCP comes under the purview of the National Disaster Management Authority, Ministry of Home Affairs.
Objectives of the plan
- To establish an effective system for detection and reporting of spills;
- To establish adequate measures for preparedness for oil and chemical pollution;
- To facilitate rapid and effective response to oil pollution;
- To establish adequate measures for crew, responders, and public health and safety, and protection of the marine environment;
- To establish appropriate response techniques to prevent, control, and combat oil and chemical pollution, and dispose-off recovered material in an environmentally sound manner; and
- To establish record-keeping procedures to facilitate recovery of costs.
- To maintain the evidences for the purpose of identifying the polluter and taking suitable administrative, civil or criminal action against the polluter.
Details of NOS DCP
- The Indian Coast Guard is responsible for maintaining and implementing the NOS-DCP and acts as the Central Coordinating Agency for combating oil pollution in various maritime zones, except in the waters of ports and within 500m of offshore platforms, refineries and associated facilities.
- The Director General Coast Guard (DGCG) is the Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) and would direct the various aspects of pollution response operations assisted by the Seaboard Commander and various regional and district commanders, as appropriate,
- A Crisis Management Group (CMG) for marine oil spill emergencies, chaired by the Defence Secretary, provides management, operational, technical and environmental advice and support to the combat agency, as required.
- DGCG delineates the duties and responsibility of the participating agencies of the CMG. The Director (Environment) at Coast Guard HQ serves as the National On-scene Commander (NOSC) in the event of a spill of national significance. The NOS-DCP also outlines arrangements for spills at regional, district, state and facility level.
- According to the National Plan, oil handling facilities and offshore installations would be expected to handle Tier 1 incidents and respond to spills in their designated area.
- However, the Statutory Agency (Coast Guard or State Government authority) would take over the operation if the spill were beyond the capability of the facility concerned or where the response capability has not been developed, with assistance from other National Plan stakeholders as required.
- In ports, the port operator or relevant State Government authority would be responsible for handling the response, with assistance from other National Plan stakeholders, as required. Tier 1 equipment for pollution response up to 700 tons is required to be held by port facilities and oil terminals and installations.
- For shoreline response, State Governments of coastal states would be responsible for coordinating the district and local administration and operation of the National Plan, as per the provisions of the National Disaster Management Act, 2005.
- The responsibilities of other support agencies are outlined in the NOS-DCP.
- According to the NOS-DCP, mechanical containment and recovery is the primary response option at sea.
- The Coast Guard has issued national guidelines for the use of dispersants and insists on prior approval for their use.
- The eco-sensitivity of the areas are normally taken into consideration before dispersant use can be authorised.
- It is essential that the dispersants are tested and certified by the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa or such recognised laboratory, for use in Indian waters. Bioremediation and in-situ burning arrangements are in their initial stages.
- Under the NOS-DCP, recovered oil is to be stored in temporary pits until it can be transferred to reception facilities.
8 . Facts for Prelims
Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram
- The Government of India has introduced Van Dhan Vikas Karykram under which the Minor Forest Produce gatherers will be given training in scientific method of collection of Minor Forest Produces, their processing, value addition etc.
- The trainees will also be provided with tool kit suitable for the type of Miner Forest Produce collected at that Kendra.
Blue Flag Certification
- The ‘Blue Flag’ beach is an Eco-tourism model endeavouring to provide to the tourists/beach goers clean and hygienic bathing water, facilities/amenities, safe and healthy environment and sustainable development of the area.
- The Ministry has embarked upon a programme for ‘Blue Flag’ Certification for select beaches in the country.
- This Certification is accorded by an international agency “Foundation for Environment Education, Denmark” based on 33 stringent criteria in four major heads i.e. (i) Environmental Education and Information, (ii) Bathing Water Quality, (iii) Environment Management and Conservation and (iv) Safety and Services in the beaches.
- 13 pilot beaches that have been identified for the certification, in consultation with concerned coastal States/UTs, are Ghoghala Beach (Diu), Shivrajpur beach (Gujarat), Bhogave (Maharashtra), Padubidri and Kasarkod (Karnagaka), Kappad beach (Kerala), Kovalam beach (Tamil Nadu), Eden beach (Puducherry), Rushikonda beach (Andhra Pradesh), Miramar beach (Goa), Golden beach (Odisha), Radhanagar beach (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) and Bangaram beach (Lakshadweep).
- Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) can be produced from biomass and organic waste sources including paddy stubble. Compressed Bio-Gas has properties similar to the commercially available natural gas and can be used as an alternative renewable fuel.
- Government of India has launched Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) initiative on 1.10.2018 to promote CBG as an alternative, green transport fuel for efficient management of biomass and organic waste. As part of the SATAT scheme, Public Sector Oil Marketing Companies, Gail (India) Limited and Indraprastha Gas Limited had launched Expression of Interest (EoI) for procurement of CBG from the entrepreneurs at an assured price.
Committees which recommended corporatitation of Ordinance Board Factories
- Several High Level Committees like TKA Nair Committee, Vijay Kelkar Committee & Raman Puri Committee have inter-alia recommended that Ordnance Factories should be converted from a Government Department into a Corporate entity.
Navy Gets its First Woman Pilot
- Sub-Lieutenant Shivangi of the Indian Navy became first naval woman pilot
Federation of Indian Petroleum Industry (FIPI)
- The Federation of Indian Petroleum Industry (FIPI) is an apex Society of entities in the hydrocarbon sector and acts as an industry interface with Government and regulatory authorities.
- It helps in resolution of issues and evolution of policies and regulations. It represents the industry on Government bodies, committees and task forces and has been submitting recommendations to the Government on behalf of the industry on various issues.
- It aims to be the most effective and influential voice of the oil & gas industry to facilitate its development as a globally competitive industry in India that enjoys the respect and trust of the society.
- FIPI, under the aegis of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India provides support in organising Petrotech – an International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition which is the largest Petroleum Industry biennial event in South-East Asia.