PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Micro irrigation
- Restructured National Bamboo Mission
- Broadband readiness Index
- Markandeshwar temple
- Eradicating TB by 2025
- Upliftment of Women of Backward Communities
- Facts for Prelims : Pink Bollworm
1 . Micro Irrigation
Context : The net sown area in the country is 140130 thousand ha and net irrigated area is 68385 thousand ha. As per available information, the area covered under drip irrigation is 4374.53 thousand ha.
About Micro Irrigation
- Micro irrigation is a modern method of irrigation; by this method water is irrigated through drippers, sprinklers, foggers and by other emitters on surface or subsurface of the land. Major components of a micro irrigation system is as follows.
- Water source, pumping devices (motor and pump), ball valves, fertigation equipments, filters, control valves, PVC joining accessories (Main and sub main) and emitters.
- In this system water is applied drop by drop nearer the root zone area of the crop.
The drippers are fixed based on the spacing of crop.
- Drip irrigation is most suitable for wider spacing crops. Micro sprinkler irrigation system is mostly followed in sandy or loamy soils. This system is most suitable to horticultural crops and small grasses. In this method water is sprinkled in a lower height at various directions.
- Portable micro sprinklers are also available. They distribute slightly more water than drippers and micro sprinklers. They spray water in not more than one meter. It is used for preparing nursery and lawns in soils with low water holding capacity.
Advantages of Micro Irrigation
- An Impact evaluation study of Micro Irrigation scheme was carried out by Department of Agriculture Cooperation & Farmers Welfare in 2014 through M/s Global Agri System Ltd. The major findings of the study are as under:
- Irrigation cost is reduced by 20% to 50% with average of 32.3%.
- Electricity consumption is reduced by about 31%.
- Saving of fertilizers in the range of 7% to 42%.
- Average productivity of fruits and vegetables increased by about 42.3% and 52.8%.
- Overall income enhancement of farmers in the range of 20% to 68% with an average of 48.5%.
- Water use efficiency of Micro Irrigation including drip irrigation is as high as 80 to 95% in comparison to only 30-50% in conventional flood irrigation resulting in considerable amount of saving irrigation water under drip irrigation as also evident from the research studies conducted on different crops by centres of All India Coordinated Research Project on Irrigation Water Management in different agro-ecological regions of India.
Govt Schemes for promotion of Micro irrigation Technique
- Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) is implementing Per Drop More Crop component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY-PDMC) which focuses on enhancing water use efficiency at farm level through Micro Irrigation technologies viz. Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation systems.
- Besides, the Department creates awareness about Micro Irrigation by wide publicity through press & print media, publication of leaflets/booklets, organization of workshops, exhibitions, farmer fairs, information on State/Government of India web portals etc.
- In addition, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) imparts training and organizes field demonstrations through Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) to educate farmers for promotion of Micro Irrigation.
2 . National Bamboo Mission
About Restructured National Bamboo Mission
- The restructured National Bamboo Mission (NBM) has been launched in 2018-19 to focus on the development of complete value chain of bamboo sector and link growers with markets.
Major objectives of the Mission
- To increase the area under bamboo plantation in non forest Government and private lands to supplement farm income and contribute towards resilience to climate change as well as availability of quality raw material for industries.
- To improve post-harvest management through establishment of innovative primary processing units near the source of production, primary treatment and seasoning plants, preservation technologies and market infrastructure.
- To promote product development keeping in view market demand, by assisting R&D, entrepreneurship & business models at micro, small and medium levels and feed bigger industry.
- To rejuvenate the under developed bamboo industry in India.
- To promote skill development, capacity building, awareness generation for development of bamboo sector from production to market demand.
- To re-align efforts so as to reduce dependency on import of bamboo and bamboo products by way of improved productivity and suitability of domestic raw material for industry, so as to enhance income of the primary producers.
3 . Broadband readiness Index
Context : Department of Telecom (DoT) and the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop a Broadband Readiness Index (BRI) for Indian States and Union Territories (UT).
- The National Digital Communication Policy (NDCP) 2018 acknowledged the need for building a robust digital communications infrastructure leveraging existing assets of the broadcasting and power sectors including collaborative models involving state, local bodies and the private sector. Accordingly, the policy recommended that a BRI for States and UTs be developed to attract investments and address Right of Way(RoW) challenges across India.
About Broadband Readiness Index
- The BRI consists of two parts. Part I will focus on infrastructure development based on the measurement of nine parameters.
- Part II consists of demand side parameters which will be captured through primary surveys.
- It will include indicators such as percentage of households using computers/ laptops with internet connection, percentage of households with fixed broadband connection, internet users as a percentage of the population, smart phones density, percentage of households with at least one digitally literate member, etc.
- The primary survey will be conducted annually until 2022.
Details of the index
- Index will appraise the condition of the underlying digital infrastructure and related factors at the State/UT level.
- Such an exercise will provide useful insights into strategic choices made by States for investment allocations in ICT programmes.
- In the spirit of competitive federalism, the index will encourage states to cross learn and jointly participate in achieving the overall objective of digital inclusion and development in India.
- The framework will not only evaluate a state’s relative development but will also allow for better understanding of a state’s strengths and weaknesses that can feed into evidence-based policy making.
- The methodology developed as a part of this research will be adapted and used on an annual basis for systematic evaluation of state-performance on metrics set out as the goals for 2022 under the new policy. As a result, ranking and understanding State/UT performance over time will be an important part of the exercise.
- The development of BRI will be a collaborative exercise with stakeholders including State governments and industry associations like the Tower and Infrastructure Providers Association (TAIPA), theInternet Service Providers Association of India (ISPAI) and the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI). This will be a first of its kind exercise that will comprehensively measure the development of telecom infrastructure at the sub national level.
4 . Markandeshwar temple
Context : The restoration work of Markandeshwar temple in Maharashtra by the Archaeological Survey of Indiais in full swing.
About the Markandeshwar Temple
- Known as the “Khajuraho of Vidarbha”,the temple of Markandadeo is situated on the bank of River Wainganga in district Gadchiroli of Maharashtra.
- The temples belong to the Nagara group of temples of North India. On stylistic grounds, their date ranges in between 9-12th centuries CE.
- The temples belong to saiva, vaishnava and sakta faith. Most of the temples have a simple plan, with ardhamandapa, mandapa, antaralaand garbhagriha forming the component of the entire set up.
- The most striking feature of this temple is the largescale destruction caused on the main shrine (garbhagriha)and the very first recordings made by Alexander Cunningham states that – about 200 years ago the shikhara of the main shrine and mahamandapa was struck by a lightning which led to the partial collapse of the shikhara(the finial, north and south facade).
- The then Gond Ruler renovated the temple about 120 years ago, trying to restore the fallen portions as much as possible. This restoration attempt was however not as per the modern conservation standards.
- However, the restoration of the temple by Gond ruler helped in the preservation of the religious character of this temple, which attracts a large gathering of devotees.
5 . Eradicating TB by 2025
Context : The Ministry has developed the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis (2017-2025) with the goal of ending TB by 2025.
- According to the World Health Organization Global TB report 2018, the estimated number of TB cases in India in 2017 was 27,40,000, amounting incidence of 204 per lakh population.
Key focus areas
- Early diagnosis of all the TB patients, prompt treatment with quality assured drugs and treatment regimens along with suitable patient support systems to promote adherence.
- Engaging with the patients seeking care in the private sector.
- Prevention strategies including active case finding and contact tracing in high risk / vulnerable population
- Airborne infection control.
- Multi-sectoral response for addressing social determinants.
- The Government has plans to use artificial intelligence (AI) for addressing various issues in TB like AI assisted TB Smear Microscopy and X-Ray in screening for TB. Also AI is being explored for monitoring treatment adherence and surveillance of TB disease at State and District levels.
6. Upliftment of Women of Backward Communities
- National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC), an organization under the aegis of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has the following two women specific schemes for targeted women whose annual family income is less than Rs. 3.00 lakh per annum:
- Mahila Samriddhi Yojana: To provide Micro Finance to women entrepreneurs of Backward Classes.
- New Swarnima Scheme for Women: Term Loan to inculcate the spirit of self-dependence among the women of Backward Classes
7 . Facts for Prelims
- Pink bollworm is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming