PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Bal Aadhar Initiative
- Revamped National Panchayat Awards
- Coal Gasification
- Indigenously developed equipment’s
- National Curriculum Framework
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Bal Aadhar Initiative
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1852055
Context: The Unique Identification Authority has enrolled more than 79 lakh children in the 0 – 5 age group during the first four months of the current financial year.
Bal Aadhar initiative:
- Children in the age group of 0-5 years are issued Bal Aadhaar.
- Collection of biometric (fingerprints and iris) is a key feature in issuing Aadhaar as the same is required to establish uniqueness based on de-duplication of these biometrics. However, for Aadhaar enrolment of children in the age group of 0-5 years, these biometrics are not collected.
- Aadhaar enrolment of children in the age group of 0-5 years are carried out based on facial image of the child, and biometric authentication of the parent/guardian (having a valid Aadhaar). A proof of relationship document (preferably birth certificate) is collected at the time of enrolment for Bal Aadhaar.
- To differentiate the Bal Aadhaar from normal Aadhaar, it is issued in blue colour, with a remark that this is valid till the child attains the age of 5 years. On attaining the age of 5, the child is required to furnish his or her biometrics at an Aadhaar Seva Kendra to complete a process called mandatory biometric update (MBU).
- The MBU process goes through a de-duplication process. After completion of this process, the child is issued a normal Aadhaar without any change in the Aadhaar number.
- UIDAI and its regional offices have been constantly encouraging residents to come forward and register their children under Bal Aadhaar initiative. Bal Aadhaar works as a facilitator in availing several welfare benefits, and also works as a digital photo identity for children right from birth.
Progress so far
- While 2.64 crore children in the 0-5 age group had Bal Aadhaar by the end of 31 March 2022, this number has increased to 3.43 crore by the end of July 2022.
- Bal Aadhaar registration is progressing very well, with increased speed across the country. Enrolments of children in the 0-5 age group in states like Himachal Pradesh and Haryana have already covered more than 70% of the targeted age group. Registration of children (0-5 age group) has also done exceedingly well in several other states and UTs including Jammu and Kashmir, Mizoram, Delhi, Andhra Pradesh and Lakshadweep.
- Over all, Aadhaar saturation at present is around 94%. Aadhaar saturation among adults is almost 100%. Aadhaar is now a catalyst of both, ease of living and ease of doing business.
2 . Revamped National Panchayat Awards
Context: Union Minister of State for Panchayati Raj, inaugurated the National Write-shop on Preparedness of Roadmap for Revamped National Panchayat Awards in New Delhi. He also released the Operational Guidelines on the Revamped National Panchayat Awards.
- Panchayats play a pivotal role in implementing flagship schemes/programmes for attainment of SDGs.
- Incentivizing the Panchayats in form of awards is an integral part of creating a healthy and competitive ecosystem for holistic implementation of developmental plans. Therefore, Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR) has been incentivizing the best performing Panchayats/States/UTs through National Panchayat Awards under the Incentivization of Panchayats scheme, one of the central components of Centrally Sponsored scheme of revamped Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (RGSA).
- These awards are usually given annually on 24th April, celebrated as National Panchayati Raj Day to commemorate the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 which came into force with effect from 24th April, 1993.
Revamped National Panchayat Awards:
- To nudge PRIs for a systematic planning, implementation, monitoring and accountability towards achieving SDGs at the Panchayat level, the National Panchayat Awards have been revamped to establish a multi-level pyramidical structure of awards competition at Block, District, State/UT and National Level aligning it with 9 Localization of Sustainable Development Goals themes with the aim to:
- Assess the performance of PRIs in attainment of SDGs through 9 identified themes
- Promote competitive spirit among PRIs
- Catalyze the process of ‘Localization of SDGs through PRIs’ and sensitizing the PRIs about significance of attaining LSDG by 2030
- Under the revamped system, the Awards will be given to Gram, Block and District Panchayats in two categories namely,
- Deen Dayal Upadhyay Panchayat Satat Vikas Puraskar (for individual theme-wise performance) and
- Nanaji Deshmukh Sarvottam Panchayat Satat Vikas Puraskar (for aggregate performance under all the themes).
- Thematic Selection Committees for each theme at respective levels will select the awardee Panchayats.
- Apart from this, some special categories of awards will be given to Gram Panchayats (GPs) namely,
- Gram Urja Swaraj Vishesh Panchayat Puraskar for adoption and usage of renewable sources of energy;
- Carbon Neutral Vishesh Panchayat Puraskar for exemplary work towards achieving Net-Zero carbon emissions;
- Nanaji Deshmukh Sarvottam Panchayat Satat Vikas Puraskar for GPs which qualify and get shortlisted for National Panchayat Awards during the subsequent years also;
- Panchayat Kshamta Nirmaan Sarvottam Sansthan Puraskar for Institutions which have provided institutional support to GPs in achieving LSDGs and Best Participating State/UT/District/Block Panchayat.
- Towards the endeavour of a successful implementation of the revamped National Panchayat Awards, MoPR is collaborating with nodal Central Ministries/Departments namely, Rural Development, Health & Family Welfare, Women & Child Development, Drinking Water & Sanitation, Social Justice & Empowerment and Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
- These nodal Ministries would be leading the Thematic Selection Committees for selection of National Level Awards on the concerned themes and the other line Ministries/Departments would be the members of these Committees.
3 . Coal Gasification
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1852295
Context: Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers reviewed the progress of Hindustan Urvarak & Rasayan Limited (HURL)-Sindri and Barauni projects and progress of Talcher Fertilizers Ltd. (TFL), country’s first urea plant based on Coal Gasification technology.
- It is the process of producing syngas, a mixture consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas (CH4), and water vapour (H2O).
- During gasification, coal is blown with oxygen and steam while also being heated under high pressure. During the reaction, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce syngas.
- The process has greater efficiency than conventional coal-burning because it can effectively use the gases twice:
- the coal gases are first cleansed of impurities and fired in a turbine to generate electricity.
- The exhaust heat from the gas turbine can be captured and used to generate steam for a steam turbine-generator.
Concerns and challenges:
- Coal gasification is more water-intensive forms of energy production.
- There are also concerns about water contamination, land subsidence and disposing of waste water safely.
- Coal gasification actually produces more carbon dioxide than a conventional coal-powered thermal power plant.
4 . Indigenously developed equipment’s
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1852259
Context: Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh handed over indigenously-developed equipment and systems to the Indian Army in New Delhi.
Indigenously developed equipments:
- The equipment/systems have been jointly developed by Indian Army in collaboration with Defence Public Sector Undertakings, Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Industry
- The equipment and systems will enhance the operational preparedness of the Indian Army and increase their efficiency. The details of the equipment and systems handed over to the Indian Army are as follow:
- Future Infantry Soldier as a System
- Future Infantry Soldier is being equipped with three primary sub systems.
- The first sub system is the modern state of art assault rifle along with day and night holographic and reflex sights. The sights are mounted on the weapon and also on helmet to enable a 360-degree visibility and accuracy in operational conditions. In addition to the primary weapon system, the soldiers will also be kitted with multi-mode hand grenade which has also been procured indigenously along with multi-purpose knife.
- The second sub system is protection system. This gives protection through a specially designed helmet and a bullet proof jacket.
- The third sub system consists of communication and surveillance system. This F-INSAS system is capable of further upgradation by incorporating real time data connectivity.
- Future Infantry Soldier is being equipped with three primary sub systems.
- Anti-Personnel mine ‘Nipun’: For a long time, the Indian Army has been using vintage NMM 14 mines. Now, a new Indian mine named ‘Nipun’ has been developed. It will enhance the protection provided to the troops on the borders. The mine is more potent and effective than the existing anti-personnel mine.
- Hand Held Thermal Imager (Uncooled): This equipment is for surveillance and detection. It gives visibility in both day and night and in adverse weather conditions to the soldiers to detect enemy movement and activities.
- Commander Thermal Imaging Sight for T-90 tank: This equipment gives enhanced visibility and range to the commanders of armoured columns. Earlier, in T-90 tanks had image intensification systems which had its own limitations and constraints. The limitations have been overcome by use of thermal imaging sight produced by India Optel Limited.
- Downlink Equipment with Recording Facility: This downlink equipment helps the helicopters in carrying out constant reconnaissance and surveillance of the borders and operational areas. While on missions, reconnaissance data observed is recorded in the system and can be accessed only when the helicopter returns to the base.
- Semi Ruggedised Automatic Exchange System Mk-II: Indian Army had exchanges that provided line communications to the operationally deployed units. However, there were limitations in terms of numbers of subscribers and quantum of data that could be communicated. Also, the equipment could not work with latest internet protocol technology. A new system has been developed by the Bharat Electronics Limited, Kotdwar, which overcomes all inadequacies of the older system.
- Upgraded Radio Relay (Frequency Hopping): In challenging forward areas, where no lines or other forms of communication are available, Indian Army has to extend its communication system. With this radio relay system, forward troops are in a position to operate their communication equipment and radio sets at much longer ranges and in greater depths than hither-to-fore. This is an advanced system with frequency hopping technology and very high capacity. It has been developed by Bharat Electronics Limited, Bengaluru.
- Solar Photovoltaic Energy Project: One of the most challenging terrain and operational sectors of the country is the Siachen Glacier. The complete power requirement in the area to operate various equipment was met only through captive generator supply. A solar photo-voltaic plant has been installed to improve the overall energy requirements and obviate dependence on fossil fuels.
- Landing Craft Assault (LCA): There are boats operating in Pangong Tso lake, however, they have limited capabilities. The LCA is much more versatile and has overcome the limitations of launch, speed and capacity. It has enhanced the capability to operate across the water obstacles in Eastern Ladakh. LCA has been indigenously developed by M/s Aquarius Ship Yard Limited, Goa.
- Mini Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS): RPAS removes the operational limitations faced by the Indian Air Force aircraft and the heron Unmanned Aerial Vehicles at tactical level. It empowers the Indian Army by removing the restricted capability for surveillance, detection and reconnaissance at the infantry battalion and mechanised units level.
- Infantry Protected Mobility Vehicle (IPMV):IPMV provides mobility and more protection to a large number of infantry soldiers posted at the Northern Borders. It has been made by M/s Tata Advance Systems Limited.
- Quick Reaction Fighting Vehicle (Medium): The second vehicle along with the Infantry Mobility Protected Vehicle for enhanced mobility of our troops in Eastern Ladakh is the Quick Reaction Fighting Vehicle (Medium). It facilitates quick deployment of troops and will enable much faster reaction. The vehicles have been procured from Tata Advanced Systems Ltd. These are tailor made vehicles with high mobility, enhanced firepower & protection. It will facilitate in creating moral ascendency in our Northern Borders.
- Future Infantry Soldier as a System
5 . National Curriculum Framework
PIB Release – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1852262
Context: Ministry of Education has invited suggestions of the public through an online public consultation survey for the formulation of National Curriculum Framework and subsequently design of syllabus, textbooks and other instructional materials.
National Curriculum Framework:
- The Government of India announced the National Education Policy (NEP), 2020 which recommends quality improvement of the system of education through the development of a National Curriculum Framework (NCF).
- A dynamic National Curriculum Framework will play a major role in achieving the goal of Viksit Bharat
- The development of a vibrant, dynamic, inclusive and futuristic National Curriculum Framework is essential for integrating cultural rootedness along with global outlook, freeing education from colonial hangover and instilling a deeper sense of pride in our next generations.
- The process of the National Curriculum Framework has been started through the constitution of the District Consultation Committees, State Focus Groups, and State Steering Committee, National Focus Groups and National Steering Committee etc
- A tech platform – website and mobile app has been developed for the execution of the work at scale and in a paperless manner.
- Using the bottom-up approach, district level consultations, mobile app -based surveys, state level consultations through State Focus Groups and State Steering Committee have been conducted by the States and UTs to reach out the stakeholders like parents, Anganwadi workers, teachers, teacher educators, students, etc. at the grassroots level and collect their views and opinion about the future of school education, early childhood care and education, teacher education and adult education.
- The online survey is being conducted in 23 languages, including the languages in the VIII Schedule of our Constitution.
6 . Facts for Prelims
Paalan 1000 National Campaign and Parenting App – https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1852261
- “Paalan 1000 – Journey of the First 1000 Days”, focuses on the cognitive developments of children in the first 2 years of its life.
- Paalan 1000 combines early years coaching for parents, families and other caregivers with services designed to meet families’ basic needs. Infants and toddlers are shaped by their experiences – and those experiences are shaped by their caregivers. Caregivers are crucial for a strong start in the first years of life.
- Cognitive development of children under 2 years is a major focus area of this PAALAN 1000 and have focused on the 6 principles on Maximize Love, Talk & Engage, explore through Movement and Play, Read and Discuss Stories, Mother’s Engagement with the Child while Breastfeeding and Managing Stress and Staying Calm.
- PAALAN 1000 parenting app will provide caregiver with practical advice on what they can do in their everyday routine and will help resolving the various doubts of parents and will direct our efforts in the development of child.
- The programme is aligned the mission of the Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), emphasizing responsive care and focusing interventions on the first 1000 days.
- Ondiveeran Pagadai was an Indian freedom fighter and commander in the army of Puli Thevan in battles against the British in Tamil Nadu.
- Ondiveeran came from the Arunthathiyar Scheduled Caste (Dalit) and today is viewed as a hero by this community.