PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
- Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan
- World Congress on Rural and Agriculture Finance
- HADR Exercise Tiger Triumph
- Exercise Dustlik-2019
- Organ Retrieval Banking Organization (ORBO
1 . International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
Context : Union Agriculture Minister attends the Eighth Session of Governing Body of Seed Treaty at FAO Headquarters in Rome
- ITPGRFA also known as Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement for ensuring food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use. It also recognizes farmers’ rights, subject to national laws.
- The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was adopted by the Thirty-First Session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on 3 November 2001.
The Treaty aims at:
- recognizing the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world;
- establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials;
- ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.
- Multilateral system : The Treaty’s truly innovative solution to access and benefit sharing, the Multilaeral System, puts 64 of our most important crops – crops that together account for 80 percent of the food we derive from plants – into an easily accessible global pool of genetic resources that is freely available to potential users in the Treaty’s ratifying nations for some uses.
- Access and benefit sharing : The Treaty facilitates access to the genetic materials of the 64 crops in the Multilateral System for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture. Those who access the materials must be from the Treaty’s ratifying nations and they must agree to use the materials totally for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture. The Treaty prevents the recipients of genetic resources from claiming intellectual property rights over those resources in the form in which they received them, and ensures that access to genetic resources already protected by international property rights is consistent with international and national laws. Those who access genetic materials through the Multilateral System agree to share any benefits from their use through four benefit-sharing mechanisms established by the Treaty
- Farmers’ rights : The Treaty recognizes the enormous contribution farmers have made to the ongoing development of the world’s wealth of plant genetic resources. It calls for protecting the traditional knowledge of these farmers, increasing their participation in national decision-making processes and ensuring that they share in the benefits from the use of these resources
- Sustainable use : Most of the world’s food comes from four main crops – rice, wheat, maize and potatoes. However, local crops, not among the main four, are a major food source for hundreds of millions of people and have potential to provide nutrition to countless others. The Treaty helps maximize the use and breeding of all crops and promotes development and maintenance of diverse farming systems.
2 . Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan
About Swachh- Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan
- To strive to make our beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of coastal ecosystems, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) are undertaking a mass cleanliness-cum-awareness drive in 50 identified beaches under the “Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan”
- The identified beaches are in 10 coastal States/Union Territories (UTs) namely Gujarat, Daman & Diu, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha. The beaches have been identified after the consultation with the States/UTs.
- The cleaning drives in all beaches are being undertaken, involving school/college students of Eco-clubs, district administration, institutions, volunteers, local communities and other stakeholders.
- State Nodal Agencies for the Eco-clubs will be facilitating the week long intensive cleanliness drive in all 10 States/UTs. Nodal teachers from the Eco-clubs will be present at the sites during the entire cleanliness drive. MoEF&CC officials have also been deputed to monitor the implementation of the drive.
3 . World Congress on Rural and Agriculture Finance
Context : The Government of India’s top priority is to put the farmers’ concerns and rural development on a larger landscape, said Union Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, while speaking at the inauguration of the 6th World Congress on Rural and Agriculture Finance jointly organised by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Asia – Pacific Rural Agricultural and Credit Association (APRACA).
About the World Congress
- The representatives of banks and financial institutions from over 40 countries such as China, Nepal, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, etc. have gathered in New Delhi to deliberate on the subject of Rural and Agriculture Finance: Critical Input to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Development.
- APRACA, representing 81 member institutions from 21 countries, is a regional association that promotes cooperation and facilitates mutual exchange of information and expertise in the field of rural finance. Over the years it has developed a repository of knowledge in managing and serving rural financial institutions, financial inclusion and to help avert financial risks and improve efficiency.
4 . HADR Exercise Tiger Triumph
About HADR Exercise Tiger Triumph
- The maiden India US joint Tri services Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Exercise is named as ‘TIGER TRIUMPH’
- The Exercise is aimed to developing interoperability for conducting HADR operations.
5 . Exercise Dustlik 2019
About Exercise Dustlik 2019
- Indo-Uzbekistan Joint Field Training Exercise (FTX)-2019 is named as Exercise DUSTLIK-2019
- Joint exercise focused on counter insurgency and counter terrorism operations in urban scenario as well as sharing of expertise on skills at arms, both combat shooting and experiences in counter insurgency and counter terrorism.
- The exercise also provided an opportunity to armies of all nations for greater cultural understanding, sharing experiences and strengthening mutual trust and cooperation.
6 . Organ Retrieval Banking Organization (ORBO)
- ORBO is the nodal facility at AIIMS facilitating the entire process of cadaver organ and tissue transplantation, from procurement till transplantation in the recipient.
- ORBO has also been proactive in creating awareness and undertaking training in the field of organ and tissue donation and transplantation.
- In addition to organ donation from brain dead donors, ORBO also coordinates tissue donation from cardiac arrest donors.