- Hybrid immunity is gained from a previous infection plus vaccines – either the primary doses or both primary and booster doses.
- The study said that a hybrid immunity offers a “higher magnitude and durability” of protection as compared to infection alone, emphasising the need for vaccination.
- Hybrid immunity provides the best protection – an infection after vaccination acts like a booster.
- A Buddhist stupa is a commemorative monument usually housing sacred relics associated with the Buddha or other saints or priests, whereas votive stupas have similar significance but are smaller structures originating in eight cylindrical structures.
- The hemispherical form of the stupa appears to have derived from pre-Buddhist burial mounds in India.
- As most characteristically seen at Sanchi in the Great Stupa (2nd–1st century BC), the monument consists of a circular base supporting a massive solid dome (the anda, “egg,” or garbha, “womb”) from which projects an umbrella.
- The whole of the Great Stupa is encircled by a railing and four gateways, which are richly decorated with relief sculpture depicting Jataka tales, events in the life of the Buddha, and popular mythological figures.
- The Indian conception of the stupa spread throughout the Buddhist world and evolved into such different-looking monuments as the bell-shaped dagaba (“heart of garbha”) of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), the terraced temple of Borobudur in Java, the variations in Tibet, and the multistoried pagodas of China, Korea, and Japan.
- Worship of a stupa consists in walking around the monument in the clockwise direction. Even when the stupa is sheltered by a building, it is always a freestanding monument.
- Buddhist stupas were originally built to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha and his associates and are almost invariably found at sites sacred to Buddhism.
Mabja Zangbo river
- Mabja Zangbo originates from Mt. Kangrinboqe (Mount Kailash) in Nagari country of Tibet, flows through Nepal into the Ghaghara River before joining the Ganga in India.
- China is constructing a new dam on the Mabja Zangbo river in Tibet, close to the tri-junction, satellite imagery has revealed.
- The new dam is located around 16 km north of the tri-junction and is opposite the Kalapani area of Uttarakhand.
Military Service Pay
- MSP is paid to service personnel for the unique hardships they face in the line of duty and was introduced in the Sixth Pay Commission.
- It will be admissible to the defence forces personnel only.
- In the Seventh Pay Commission, the MSP was ₹5,200 for Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) and ORs and ₹15,500 for officers from Lieutenant to the rank of Brigadier.