Gallantry Awards

Context : Jammu and Kashmir Police constable Altaf Hussain Bhat and Group Captain Varun Singh of the India Air Force (IAF) were posthumously awarded the Kirti Chakra and the Shaurya Chakra posthumously by President Ram Nath Kovind on Tuesday.

Wartime gallantry awards

  • Param Vir Chakra — Highest military award, equivalent to the Victoria Cross (which was replaced once India gained its independence).
  • Maha Vir Chakra – Maha Vir Chakra is the second highest military decoration in India and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.
  • Vir Chakra – Third in precedence in the awards for wartime gallantry.

Peacetime gallantry awards

  • Ashok Chakra Award – An Indian military decoration awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peacetime equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra.
  • Kirti Chakra – Second in order of precedence of peacetime gallantry awards.
  • Shaurya Chakra – Third in order of precedence of peacetime gallantry awards.

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