Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- Aadhaar Authentication for Good Governance (Social Welfare, Innovation, Knowledge) Rules, 2020
- Olive Ridley Turtle
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Aadhaar Authentication for Good Governance ( Social Welfare, Innovation, Knowledge) Rules 2020)
Context: The Centre has authorised state governments to carry out Aadhaar authentication of prison inmates on a voluntary basis so that they will be able to get health care, skilling, vocational training, interview with relatives and legal aid, among other service.
About the News
- The Aadhaar authentication will be carried out on the prison inmates on a voluntary basis using Yes/No authentication facility for delivery of various benefits or facilities to which they are entitled, such as correctional reform measures, health, skilling, vocational training, interview with relatives, legal aid, etc, the notification said.
- The prison authorities of the states and Union Territory administrations shall adhere to the guidelines with respect to the use of Aadhaar authentication as laid down by the central government
- By enrolling prisoners to Aadhaar, various aspects of day-to-day prison administration such as production before court, return to prison, transport, health facilities, shifting to hospital outside the campus, interviews, free legal aid, parole, temporary release mechanisms, education/vocational training, release from prisons etc. could be regulated
Aadhaar Authentication for Good Governance (Social Welfare, Innovation, Knowledge) Rules, 2020
- In exercise of the powers conferred by the section 53 of the Aadhar (Targeted delivery of financial and other subsidies, Benefit and services) At 2016 the central government in consultation with Unique Identification Authority of India, hereby makes the following rules, namely: –
Rule 3 of the Act deals with Purpose of Aadhaar Authentication
Purposes for Aadhaar authentication– The Central Government may allow Aadhaar authentication by requesting entities in the interest of good governance, preventing leakage of public funds, promoting ease of living of residents and enabling better access to services for them, for the following purposes, namely:–
- (a) usage of digital platforms to ensure good governance;
- (b) prevention of dissipation of social welfare benefits; and
- (c) enablement of innovation and the spread of knowledge.
- (2) Aadhaar authentication under sub-rule (1) shall be on a voluntary basis.
What is Aadhaar?
- Aadhaar is a 12-digit identifying number given by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to the residents of India after a certain verification process.
- To get an Aadhaar number, individuals have to provide minimal demographic and biometric information, which include name, date of birth or age, gender, address, mobile number, and e-mail ID (optional), fingerprints, iris scans, and a facial photo.
What is Aadhaar Authentication?
- Aadhaar authentication is a mechanism through which the UIDAI verifies and validates an Aadhaar number. When the request for an authentication reaches the UIDAI, it cross-checks the details on the Aadhaar with the details available on their Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR).
What is the main objective of Aadhaar authentication?
- Aadhaar authentication provides an instant mechanism to prove the identity through online authentication. Therefore one need not carry any other ID proof except Aadhaar number.
Modes Of Aadhaar Authentication
- Demographic authentication: The Aadhaar number and demographic information of the Aadhaar number holder obtained from the Aadhaar number holder is matched with the demographic information of the Aadhaar number holder in the CIDR.
- One-time pin based authentication: A One Time Pin (OTP), with limited time validity, is sent to the mobile number and/ or e-mail address of the Aadhaar number holder registered with the Authority, or generated by other appropriate means. The Aadhaar number holder shall provide this OTP along with his Aadhaar number during authentication and the same shall be matched with the OTP generated by the Authority.
- Biometric-based authentication: The Aadhaar number and biometric information submitted by an Aadhaar number holder are matched with the biometric information of the said Aadhaar number holder stored in the CIDR. This may be fingerprints-based or iris-based authentication or other biometric modalities based on biometric information stored in the CIDR.
- Multi-factor authentication: A combination of two or more of the above modes may be used for authentication
Benefits Of Aadhaar Authentication
- It helps maintain the integrity and security of the system
- Enables organisations to accurately and efficiently authenticate the identity of an applicant
- Significantly reduces the paperwork required of organisations
- Reduces the number of identity documents required significantly
- Dramatically simplifies the process of authentication for service providers
- Help with identifying and processing benefits to the most deserving candidates
- Enables organisations to weed out forged applications and stop corruption
- Helps with the authentication of online transactions via BHIM
2 . Olive Ridley Turtle
Context: About 6.37 lakh Olive Ridley Sea turtles have arrived for mass nesting at Rushikulya coast this year, setting a new record for the beach in Odisha’s Ganjam district.
About Olive Ridley Turtles
- The Olive ridley turtle is the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles
- The Olive ridley gets its name from its olive green coloured carapace, which is heart-shaped
- Olive ridley turtles use three different strategies to nest: arribadas, solitary nests and mixed strategy.
- An arribada is a mass-nesting event when thousands of turtles come ashore at the same time to lay eggs on the same
- In the Indian Ocean, the majority of olive ridleys nest in two or three large groups near Gahirmatha in Odisha. The coast of Odisha in India is the largest mass nesting site for the olive ridley, followed by the coasts of Mexico and Costa Rica
- The Gahirmatha Beach in Kendrapara district of Odisha (India), which is now a part of the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, is the largest breeding ground for these turtles
- IUCN list status – Vulnerable
- Conservation of the Olive Ridley turtles in Odisha began with the discovery and worldwide recognition of the Gahirmatha rookery close to the mouth of Brahmani-Baitarani (Dhamra) River, in 1974. A second mass nesting was discovered in 1981 at the Devi River mouth, about 55 nautical miles south of Gahirmatha. In 1994, a third mass nesting area was also discovered at the Rushikulya river mouth, 162 nautical miles south of Gahirmatha.
- The Olive Ridely Turtles come to the beaches of Odisha coast annually between November and December and stay on until April and May for nesting. Off late, nesting has been observed to start from late January to early February. The turtles choose the narrow beaches near estuaries and bays for laying their eggs. Each adult female lays approximately hundred to hundred and forty eggs at a time.
- Olive-ridleys face serious threats across their migratory route, habitat and nesting beaches, due to human activities such as turtle unfriendly fishing practices, development and exploitation of nesting beaches for ports, and tourist centres.
- Though international trade in these turtles and their products is banned under CITES Appendix I, they are still extensively poached for their meat, shell and leather, and their eggs, though illegal to harvest, have a significantly large market around the coastal regions.
- However, the most severe threat they face is the accidental killing of adult turtles through entanglement in trawl nets and gill nets due to uncontrolled fishing during their mating season around nesting beaches.
- All the five species of sea turtles occurring in India, including the Olive Ridley turtles, are legally protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Appendix I of the CITES Convention which prohibits trade in turtle products.
- The mass nesting beach at Gahirmatha is a part of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and the waters around Bhitarkanika were declared as Gahirmatha (Marine) Wildlife Sanctuary in September 1997, to protect the nesting and breeding habitat of the Olive Ridley.
- The coastal waters off Devi and Rushikulya rookery are declared as a nofihing zone during the sea turtle breeding season under the Odisha Marine Fisheries Regulation Act (OMFRA), 1982 and Odisha Marine Fisheries Regulation Rules, 1983. The Coast Guard is empowered to enforce the provisions of the Act.
- To reduce accidental entrapment and death of turtles, the Odisha Government has made it mandatory for the mechanized fishing trawlers to use
- Turtle Excluder Device or TEDs, which is a specially designed net with an exit cover that retains the catch while allowing the turtles to escape
- As the nesting period stretches over six months, the Indian Coast Guard undertakes the Olive Ridely Turtle protection program under the code name ‘Operation Olivia’ every year.
- These turtles spend their entire lives in the ocean, and migrate thousands of kilometers between feeding and mating grounds in the course of a year.
- Interestingly, females return to the very same beach from where they first hatched, to lay their eggs. During this phenomenal nesting, up to 600,000 and more females emerge from the waters, over a period of five to seven days, to lay eggs. They lay their eggs in conical nests about one and a half feet deep which they laboriously dig with their hind flippers. The coast of Orissa in India is the largest mass nesting site for the Olive-ridley, followed by the coasts of Mexico and Costa Rica.
3 . Facts for Prelims
- The Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC), a unified payments interface-type protocol, will help small retailers survive the onslaught of large tech-based e-commerce companies
- ONDC is an initiative of the ministry to help small retailers expand their business and reduce the dominance of e-commerce giants. It aims to build an open, interoperable network on which buyers and sellers can transact without needing to be present on the same platform.
- It offers small retailers an opportunity to provide their services, and goods to buyers across the country through an e-commerce system, where buyers will be able to purchase the products, which are sold on any platform.
- The effort is to encourage small companies, and startups to integrate into the e-commerce ecosystem
- To meet the positioning, navigation and timing requirements of the nation, ISRO has established a regional navigation satellite system called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). NavIC was erstwhile known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
- NavIC is designed with a constellation of 7 satellites and a network of ground stations operating 24 x 7. Three satellites of the constellation are placed in geostationary orbit, and four satellites are placed in inclined geosynchronous orbit.
- Transportation (terrestrial, aerial and marine)
- Location based services
- Personal mobility
- Resource monitoring
- Surveying and geodesy
- Scientific research
- Time dissemination and synchronisation
- Safety-of-life alert dissemination
- Bhuvan, is an Indian web-based utility which allows users to explore a set of map-based content prepared by Indian Space Research Organisation.
- The content which the utility serves is mostly restricted to Indian boundaries and is offered in 4 regional languages.
- The content includes thematic maps related to disasters, agriculture, water resources, land cover and also processed satellite data of ISRO.
- Bhuvan is known for its association with various sections of Government of India to enable the use of Geospatial technology.