Daily Current Affairs : 5th and 6th January 2022

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Green Hydrogen
  2. Jalikattu
  3. Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development (BIND) Scheme
  4. Draft norms for facilitating foreign universities and educational institutions
  5. Writ of Quo Warranto
  6. Village Defence Committee
  7. Facts for Prelims

1 . Green Hydrogen Mission

Context : The Union Cabinet on January 4 approved the National Green Hydrogen Mission, which is aimed at making India the global hub to produce green hydrogen.

About Green Hydrogen Mission

  • The National Hydrogen Mission was launched on August 15, 2021, with a view to cutting down carbon emissions and increasing the use of renewable sources of energy.
  • The mission seeks to promote the development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonnes) per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country by 2030.
  • The total outlay for the mission is ₹19,744 crore, out of which the government has allocated ₹17,490 crore for the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition (SIGHT) programme, ₹1,466 crore for the upcoming pilot projects, ₹400 crore for R&D, and ₹388 crore towards other mission components.
  • Under the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition Programme (SIGHT), two distinct financial incentive mechanisms — targeting domestic manufacturing of electrolysers and production of green hydrogen — will be provided under the mission.
  • The mission will also support pilot projects in emerging end-use sectors and production pathways. Regions capable of supporting large-scale production and/or utilisation of hydrogen will be identified and developed as Green Hydrogen Hubs, the Minister added.
  • A public-private partnership framework for R&D (Strategic Hydrogen Innovation Partnership – SHIP) will be facilitated under the mission.
  • A coordinated skill development programme will also be undertaken.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy will be responsible for the overall coordination and implementation of the mission


  • Creation of export opportunities for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives;
  • Decarbonisation of industrial, mobility and energy sectors;
  • Reduction in dependence on imported fossil fuels and feedstock;
  • Development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities;
  • Creation of employment opportunities; and development of innovative technologies.
  • The targets by 2030 are likely to bring in over Rs. 8 lakh crore investments and create over 6 lakh jobs.
  • 50 MMT per annum of CO2 emissions are expected to be averted by 2030.

What is Green Hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen is when hydrogen is produced via electrolysis, the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen with electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind.
  • This is the most environmentally sustainable way of producing hydrogen.
  • This gas has been used to fuel cars, airships, and spaceships since the beginning of the 19th century.

Types of hydrogen

  • Brown or Black Hydrogen- Hydrogen produced from coal.
  • Grey hydrogen is produced from natural gas
  • ‘Blue’ hydrogen is from fossil fuel sources where the ensuring carbon emitted is captured via carbon-capture processes.


  • Green hydrogen development is still in the nascent stages globally and while India can take the lead in being a major producer, India does not have enough Infrastructure to produce green hydrogen
  • It needs to develop supply chains in the form of pipelines, tankers, intermediate storage, and distribution networks as well as put in place an effective skill development program to ensure that lakhs of workers can be suitably trained to adapt to a viable green hydrogen economy.

Facts for Prelims

Green carbon  

  • It is a carbon removed by plants during Photosynthesis.
  • It is stored in the plants and soil of the natural ecosystem

Brown Carbon

  • It is the greenhouse gas the absorb Carbon di oxide and emit heat into the atmosphere

Black Carbon

  • These are produced during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

Blue Carbon

  • Blue Carbon refers to coastal, aquatic, and marine carbon sinks held by the indicative vegetation, marine organism, and sediments

2 . Jallikattu

Context : With the Supreme Court recommencing its work after the winter vacation, all eyes in Tamil Nadu are on the verdict of a five-member Constitution Bench of the Court on a batch of petitions seeking to strike down a 2017 Tamil Nadu law that protects jallikattu, a traditional event involving bulls.

About Jallikatu

  • Jallikattu is the bull taming festival celebrated during Pongal festival in Tamil Nadu

About the Jallikattu Case

  • Supreme Court of India imposed ban on Jallikattu in the year 2014
  • In 2014, the Supreme Court, in the A. Nagaraja judgment, had held Jallikattu as cruelty to bulls.
  • It was against this context that the law in question was then enacted originally in the form of an Ordinance — the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Tamil Nadu Amendment) Ordinance 2017. The Assembly had subsequently adopted a Bill to replace the Ordinance which resulted in the Court being moved and the case referred to the Constitution Bench in February 2018.
  • The cause of disagreement is the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Tamil Nadu Amendment) Act of 2017 and the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Conduct of Jallikattu) Rules of 2017, which had re-opened the gates for the conduct of the popular bull-taming sport in the name of culture and tradition despite a 2014 ban by the Supreme Court.
  • The Constitution Bench also investigated whether Jallikattu and bullock-cart races laws of Karnataka and Maharashtra would sub-serve the objective of “prevention” of cruelty to animals under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act of 1960.
  • The primary question involved is whether jallikattu should be granted constitutional protection as a collective cultural right under Article 29 (1) — a fundamental right guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution to protect the educational and cultural rights of citizens.

Arguments Favour for Jallikattu

  • In Tamil Nadu, jallikattu is both a religious and cultural event celebrated by the people of the State and its influence extends beyond the confines of caste and creed.
  • It is a practice which is centuries-old and symbolic of a community’s identity can be regulated and reformed as humans evolve rather than being completely obliterated. Any ban on such a practice would be viewed as “hostile to culture and against the sensitivities of the community.
  • Jallikattu acts as a tool for conserving this precious indigenous breed of livestock.

Arguments against Jallikattu

  • Deaths and injuries caused to humans as well as bulls which had taken place in several districts of the State while conducting jallikattu
  • It acts as a perpetual cruelty to animals.

Facts for Prelims

Articles related to Animal welfare in the Constitution of India

  • Article 29 (1) is a fundamental right guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution to protect the educational and cultural rights of citizens.
  • Article 48 of the Constitution, which urged the state to endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines.

3 . Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development (BIND)” scheme

Context : The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs on Wednesday approved the “Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development (BIND)” scheme with an outlay of ₹2,539.61 crore up to 2025-26, paving the way for upgrade and expansion of the public service broadcasting infrastructure across the country.

What is BIND Scheme?

  • The BIND scheme will enable the public broadcaster to undertake a major upgradation of its facilities with better infrastructure which will widen its reach, including in the LWE, border, and strategic areas, and provide high-quality content to the viewers.
  • Another major priority area of the scheme is the development of high-quality content for both domestic and international audience and ensuring availability of diverse content to the viewers by upgradation of capacity of DTH platform to accommodate more channels.
  • Purchase of OB vans and digital upgradation of DD and AIR Studios to make them HD ready will also be done as part of the project.

Benefits of the Scheme

  • The Scheme will increase coverage of AIR FM transmitters in the country to 66% by geographical area and 80% by population up from 59% and 68% respectively.
  • The Scheme also envisages free distribution of over 8 lakh DD Free Dish STBs to people living in remote, tribal, LWE and border areas.
  • It enhances the scope of public broadcasting, the Project for modernization and augmentation of broadcast infrastructure
  • It also as the potential to generate indirect employment by way of manufacturing and services related to the supply and installation of broadcast equipment.
  •  Further, the project for expansion of the reach of DD Free Dish is expected to generate employment opportunities in the manufacturing of the DD Free Dish DTH Boxes.

Prasar Bharati,

  • Prasar Bharati, as the public broadcaster of the country, is the most important vehicle of information, education, entertainment, and engagement for the people, especially in the remote areas of the country through Doordarshan and All India Radio.
  • Prasar Bharati played a stellar role in communicating public health messages and awareness to the public during the covid pandemic
  • It is a statutory autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and comprises the Doordarshan Television Network and Akashvani All India Radio, which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • The Parliament of India passed the Prasar Bharati Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but it was not enacted until 15 September 1997

Facts for Prelims

All India Radio

  • Broadcasting in India began about 13 years before AIR came into existence. In June 1923, the Radio Club of Bombay made the first-ever broadcast in the country.
  • In April 1930, the Indian Broadcasting Service, under the Department of Industries and Labour, commenced its operations on an experimental basis.
  • Lionel Fielden was appointed the first Controller of Broadcasting in August 1935.
  •  In the following month Akashvani Mysuru (Mysore), a private radio station was set up.
  • On June 8, 1936, the Indian State Broadcasting Service became All India Radio.
  • In 1956 the name AKASHVANI was adopted for the National Broadcaster.
  •  The Vividh Bharati Service was launched in 1957 with popular film music as its main component.

Door Dharshan

  • Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, owned by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, and one of Prasar Bharati’s two divisions.
  • One of India’s largest broadcasting organizations in studio and transmitter infrastructure, it was established on 15 September 1959.

4 . UGC Draft norms on Foreign Universities

Context : The University Grants Commission (UGC) has announced draft norms for facilitating foreign universities and educational institutions to set up campuses in India which allow them autonomy in determining fees, as well as a 90-day approval process.

About the News

  • “The new National Education Policy [NEP], 2020 has envisioned that top universities in the world will be facilitated to operate in India.
  • A foreign university with a rank among the top 500 global rankings or a foreign educational institution of repute in home jurisdiction can apply to the UGC to set up a campus in India.
  • For this, a legislative framework facilitating such entry will be put in place, and such universities will be given special dispensation regarding regulatory, governance, and content norms on par with other autonomous institutions of India,
  • The application will be considered by a standing committee appointed by the UGC which will submit its recommendations within 45 days after examining the institution’s credibility, programmes offered, their potential to strengthen educational opportunities in India, proposed academic infrastructure.
  •  Subsequently, within 45 days, the UGC may grant in-principal approval to the foreign institution to set up campuses in India within two years.
  • The initial approval will be for 10 years, which can be extended.


  • Such a campus can evolve its own admission process and criteria to admit domestic and foreign students.
  • It will also have autonomy to decide its fee structure, and will face no caps that are imposed on Indian institutions
  • It will also have autonomy to recruit faculty and staff from India and abroad. The courses to be offered cannot be in online and open and distance learning mode.
  • The qualifications awarded to the students in the Indian campus should have equivalence with those awarded by the institutions in their country of origin.

What is UGC?

  • The University Education Commission was set up in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. S Radhakrishnan “to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions that might be desirable to suit the present and future needs and aspirations of the country”.
  • In 1952, the Union Government decided that all cases pertaining to the allocation of grants-in-aid from public funds to the Central Universities and other Universities and Institutions of higher learning might be referred to the University Grants Commission.
  • Consequently, the University Grants Commission (UGC) was formally inaugurated by late Shri Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister of Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research on 28 December 1953.
  • The UGC, however, was formally established only in November 1956 as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament for the coordination, determination, and maintenance of standards of university education in India.

Facts for Prelims

  • The Inter-University Board (later known as the Association of Indian Universities) was established in 1925 to promote university activities, by sharing information and cooperation in the field of education, culture, sports, and allied areas.
  • The first attempt to formulate a national system of education in India came in 1944, with the Report of the Central Advisory Board of Education on Post War Educational Development in India, also known as the Sargeant Report.
  • It recommended the formation of a University Grants Committee, which was formed in 1945 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh, Banaras, and Delhi.
  • In 1947, the Committee was entrusted with the responsibility of dealing with all the then existing Universities.
  • Soon after Independence, the University Education Commission was set up in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. S Radhakrishnan “

5 . Article 361

Context : The Madras High Court on Thursday held as not maintainable a writ of quo warranto filed against Tamil Nadu Governor R.N. Ravi questioning the authority under which he is holding the office while simultaneously serving as the Chairman of the Board of Governors of Auroville Foundation in Puducherry.

About the news

  • M. Kannadasan of Thanthai Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam (TPDK) had filed the writ petition contending that the post held by the Governor in the Auroville Foundation was an office of profit since it provides for payment of salary and other allowances apart from leave, pension and so on.
  • In an affidavit, filed through his counsel S. Doraisamy and V. Elangovan, he said, Article 158(2) of the Constitution prohibits Governors from holding any other office of profit and therefore Mr. Ravi must be called upon to explain the authority under which he was holding the office of Governor dehors the Auroville appointment
  • According to the verdict the case cannot be entertained in view of the immunity enjoyed by the Governor under Article 361 of the Constitution

Articles related to the Governor of the states

  • There shall be a Governor for each state (Articles 153 of the Constitution of India).
  • The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officer’s subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution of India (Article 154).
  • The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal (Article 155).
  • A person to be eligible for appointment as Governor should be citizen of India and has completed age of 35 years (Article 157).
  • The Governor shall not be a member of the Legislature or Parliament; shall not hold any office of profit, shall be entitled to emoluments and allowances. (Article 158).
  • Every Governor and every person discharging the function of the Governor shall make a subscribe an oath or Affirmation (Article 159).
  • The President may make such a provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of a State in any contingency not provided for in Chapter II of the Constitution. (Article 160).
  • The Governor shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, etc. (Article 161).
  • There shall be Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions except as far as he is by or under the Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. (Article 163).
  • The Governor appoints Chief Minister and other Ministers. (Article 164).
  • The Governor appoints the Advocate General for the State. (Article 165).
  • All executive actions of the Governor of a State shall be expressed to be taken in the name of Governor. (Article 166).
  • The Governor shall, from time to time, summon and prorogue the House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly. (Article 174).
  • The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly….; The Governor may send messages to the House. (Article 175).
  • Special Address to the House by the Governor. (Article 176).
  • The Governor assents, withholds assent, or reserves for the consideration of the Bill passed by the Legislative Assembly. (Article 200).
  • The Governor shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before the House…. a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure. (Article 202).
  • No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. (Article 203(3)).
  • The Governor shall ……..cause to be laid before the House another statement showing estimated amount of expenditure. (Article 205).
  • The Governor may promulgate the Ordinances under certain circumstances. (Article 213).
  • The Governor is consulted for appointment of Judges of High Court. (Article 217).
  • Every person appointed to be a judge of the High Court shall ……..make and subscribe before the Governor ………… an oath or affirmation …… (Article 217))

Article 361

  • The President, or the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State, shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties:
  • Provided that the conduct of the President may be brought under review by any court, tribunal or body appointed or designated by either House of Parliament for the investigation of a charge under article 61:
  •  Provided further that nothing in this clause shall be construed as restricting the right of any person to bring appropriate proceedings against the Government of India or the Government of a State.
  • No criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be instituted or continued against the President, or the Governor of a State, in any court during his term of office.
  • No process for the arrest or imprisonment of the President, or the Governor of a State, shall issue from any court during his term of office.
  • No civil proceedings in which relief is claimed against the President, or the Governor of a State, shall be instituted during his term of office in any court in respect of any act done or purporting to be done by him in his personal capacity, whether before or after he entered upon his office as President, or as Governor of such State, until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been delivered to the President or the Governor, as the case may be, or left at his office stating the nature of the proceedings, the cause of action therefor, the name, description and place of residence of the party by whom such proceedings are to be instituted and the relief which he claims.

Facts for Prelims

  • In India Article 32 and 226 of the Constitution gives power to the Supreme Court and High Court to issue writs in case of breach of Fundamental rights of any citizen by the state.
  • By such writs the Judiciary can control the administrative actions and prevent any kind of arbitrary use of power and discretion

Quo warranto

  • Quo warranto is Latin for “by what warrant” (or authority).
  •  A writ of quo warranto is a common law remedy which is used to challenge a person’s right to hold a public or corporate office.
  • A state may also use a quo warranto action to revoke a corporation’s charter.
  • When bringing a petition for writ of quo warranto, individual members of the public have standing as citizens and taxpayers.

Habeas Corpus.

  • It is a writ to a jailer to produce a prisoner in person, and to state the reasons of detention.
  • The main objective behind it is to provide effective remedy against illegal detention & to release a person from it.
  •  An illegally detained person may apply for the Habeas Corpus.


  • A writ of mandamus or mandamus (which means “we command” in Latin), is one of the prerogative writs in the common law and is “issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly”.


  • Basically, it means “to be certified”.
  • It can be issued by the Supreme Court or the High Court to quash an order already passed by a lower court.

6 . Village Defence committee

Context : Deployment of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel started in Rajouri’s Upper Dangri amid growing pressure by the BJP on the Lieutenant Governor’s administration to arm members of the Village Defence Committees (VDCs) with automatic rifles, in the wake of the recent militant attack that left six civilians dead and 15 injured here.

About the News

  • One CRPF company was deployed in Rajouri’s Upper Dangri, which has porous forest cover in its vicinity.
  • At least two armed militants came down from the forest area on January 1 and killed six people, including two minors, in twin attacks.  
  • There is growing pressure from locals and the BJP on the L-G administration to revive Village Defence Committees, first constituted in 1995

What is a VDC?

  • The VDCs were first formed in the erstwhile Doda district (now Kishtwar, Doda and Ramban districts) in mid 1990s as a force multiplier against militant attacks.
  • The then Jammu and Kashmir administration decided to provide residents of remote hilly villages with weapons and give them arms training to defend themselves.
  • The VDCs have now been renamed as Village Defence Guards (VDG).
  • The new scheme to set up VDGs in vulnerable areas of J&K was approved by the Union Ministry of Home Affairs in March last year.
  • Like a VDC member, each VDG will be provided a gun and 100 rounds of ammunition.

How are VDGs different from VDCs?

  • Both VDG and VDC is a group of civilians provided guns and ammunition to tackle militants in case of attack until the arrival of security forces.
  • Under the new scheme, the persons leading the VDGs will be paid Rs 4,500 per month by the government, while others will get Rs 4,000 each.
  • In the VDCs, only the Special Police Officers (SPOs) leading them were provided a remuneration, of Rs 1,500 monthly. The SPOs, the lowest rank in the J&K Police, used to be retired army, paramilitary or police personnel.

Fact for Prelims

  • The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is the premier central police force of the Union of India for internal security.
  • Originally constituted as the Crown Representative Police in 1939, it is one of the oldest Central paramilitary forces (now termed as Central Armed Police Force).
  • CRPF was raised as a sequel to the political unrest and the agitations in the then princely States of India following the Madras Resolution of the All-India Congress Committee in 1936 and the ever-growing desire of the Crown Representative to help the vast majority of the native States to preserve law and order as a part of the imperial policy
  • After Independence, the force was renamed as Central Reserve Police Force by an Act of Parliament on December 28, 1949.
  • Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel, the then Home Minister, visualized a multi-dimensional role for it in tune with the changing needs of a newly independent nation.
  • The CRPF Rules as envisaged in CRPF Act were framed in 1955 and published in the Gazette of India dated March 25, 1955.
  • Shri V.G.Kanetkar was appointed as first DG, CRPF.

7 . Facts for Prelims

Public Premises Act

  • This act was enacted to provide for the eviction of unauthorised occupants from public premises.
  • Under Section 2 Of the Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Act.” [(e) “public premises” means–
    (1) any premises belonging to, or taken on lease or requisitioned by, or on behalf of the Central Government, and includes any such premises which have been placed by that Government, whether before or after the commencement of the Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Amendment Act, 1980 (61 of 1980) under the control of the Secretariat of either House of Parliament for providing residential accommodation to any member of the staff of that Secretariat;

Decennial census

  • Decennial census is the census taken for every 10 years.
  • The Indian Census is the largest single source of various statistical information on various characteristics of the people of India.
  • With a history of more than 130 years, this reliable, time-tested exercise is bringing in a real insight into the data every 10 years, beginning in the year 1872 when the first census was conducted non-synchronously in different parts of India
  • The responsibility of conducting the decadal census rests with the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  • Census organization was set up on an ad-hoc basis for each census till the year 1951 census.
  • The Census Act was enacted in the year 1948 to provide a plan for conducting population census along with the duties and responsibilities of census officers.
  • The Government of India decided in May 1949 to take steps to develop a systematic collection of data on population size, its growth, etc. and set up an organization in the Ministry of Home Affairs under the Registrar General of India and ex-officio Census Commissioner.
  • The last census was held in 2011, whilst the next was to be held in 2021. But it has been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


  • CERC is a statutory body functioning under sec – 76 of the Electricity Act 2003 (CERC was initially constituted under the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998 on 24th July 1998)


  • The Commission intends to promote competition, efficiency, and economy in bulk power markets, improve the quality of supply, promote investments, and advise the government on the removal of institutional barriers to bridge the demand-supply gap and thus foster the interests of consumers.
  • In pursuit of these objectives the Commission aims to –
    • Improve the operations and management of the regional transmission systems through Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC), Availability Based Tariff (ABT), etc.Formulate an efficient tariff-setting mechanism, which ensures speedy and time-bound disposal of tariff petitions, promotes competition, economy, and efficiency in the pricing of bulk power and transmission services, and ensures least cost investments.Facilitate open access in inter-state transmissionFacilitate inter-state tradingPromote development of power marketImprove access to information for all stakeholders.Facilitate technological and institutional changes required for the development of competitive markets in bulk power and transmission services.
    • Advise on the removal of barriers to entry and exit for capital and management, within the limits of environmental, safety and security concerns and the existing legislative requirements, as the first step to the creation of competitive markets.

Reserve Bank – Integrated Ombudsman Scheme (RB-IOS)

  • The Banking Ombudsman Scheme is an expeditious and inexpensive forum for bank customers for resolution of complaints relating to certain services rendered by banks.
  • The Banking Ombudsman Scheme is introduced under Section 35 A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 by RBI with effect from 1995.
  • Reserve Bank – Integrated Ombudsman Scheme (RB-IOS) was launched on November 12, 2021.
  • The three erstwhile ombudsman schemes of RBI – the Banking Ombudsman Scheme, 2006; the Ombudsman Scheme for Non-Banking Financial Companies, 2018; and the Ombudsman Scheme for Digital Transactions, 2019 were integrated with RB-IOS with effect from November 12, 2021.

Muhammad Iqbal

  • Sir Muhammad Iqbal was a poet and philosopher known for his influential efforts to direct his fellow Muslims in British-administered India toward the establishment of a separate Muslim state, an aspiration that was eventually realized in the country of Pakistan.
  • He was knighted in 1922.
  • Three significant poems from this period, Shikwah (“The Complaint”), Jawāb-e shikwah (“The Answer to the Complaint”), and Khizr-e rāh (“Khizr, the Guide”), was published later in 1924 in the Urdu collection Bāng-e darā (“The Call of the Bell”).
  • The dialectical quality of his thinking was expressed by the next long Persian poem, Rumūz-e bīkhūdī (1918; The Mysteries of Selflessness).
  • He is considered the greatest poet in Urdu of the 20th century.
  • His philosophical position was articulated in The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1934), a volume based on six lectures delivered at Madras (now Chennai), Hyderabad, and Aligarh in 1928–29.
  • He argued that a rightly focused man should unceasingly generate vitality through interaction with the purposes of the living God.
  • During the time that he was delivering those lectures, Iqbal began working with the Muslim League.
  • At the annual session of the league atAllahabad in 1930, he gave the presidential address, in which he made a famous statement that the Muslims of north-western India should demand status as a separate state.
  • After a long period of ill health, Iqbal died in April 1938 and was buried in front of the great Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.
  •  Two years later the Muslim League voted for the idea of Pakistan, which became a reality in 1947.
  • He has been acclaimed as the father of Pakistan, and Iqbal Day is celebrated by Pakistanis on November 9.

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