Daily Current Affairs : 3rd December 2021

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Paika Rebellion
  2. Office of High Commissioner of Human Rights
  3. NATO
  4. Digi yatra Policy
  5. Places in News – Ukraine

1 . Paika Rebellion

Context : The 1817 Paika rebellion of Odisha could not be called the first war of Independence, but considering it as a beginning of a popular uprising against the British, it would be included as a case study in the Class 8 National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) history textbook, the Union Culture Minister .

About Paikas

  • Paikas were essentially the peasant militias of the Gajapati rulers of Odisha who rendered military service to the king during times of war while taking up cultivation during times of peace.
  • They unfurled the banner of rebellion against the British under the leadership of Baxi Jagandhu Bidyadhara as early as 1817 to throw off the British yoke. 


  • Rulers of Khurda were traditionally the custodians of Jagannath Temple and ruled as the deputy of lord Jagannath on earth. They symbolised the political and cultural freedom of the people of Odisha.
  • The British, having established their sway over Bengal Province and Madras Province to the north and south of Odisha, occupied it in 1803.
  • The Gajapati King of Odisha Mukunda Deva-ll was a minor then and initial resistance by Jai Rajguru, the custodian of Mukunda Deva-II, was put down brutally and Jai Rajguru was torn apart alive.

Details of the Rebellion

  • A few years later, it was the Paikas under Baxi Jagabandhu, the hereditary chief of the militia army of the Gajapati King, who rose in rebellion, taking support of tribals and other sections of society.
  • The rebellion started in March 1817 and spread quickly. Though Paikas played a larger role in the rebellion against the British, it was by no means a rebellion by a small group of people belonging to a particular class.
  • The tribals of Ghumusar (part of present day Ganjam and Kandhmal Districts) and other sections of the population actively took part in it. In fact, the Paika Bidroha got the opportune moment to spread when 4OO tribals of Ghumsar entered Khurda protesting against the British rule.
  • The Paikas attacked British symbols of power, setting ablaze police stations, administrative offices and the treasury during their march towards Khurda, from where the British fled.
  • The Paikas were supported by the rajas of Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh and Ghumusar and zamindars, village heads and ordinary peasants. The rebellion quickly spread to Purl, Pipli Cuttack and other parts of the province.
  • The British were initially taken aback and then tried to regain lost ground but faced stiff resistance from the rebelling Paikas. Many a battle ensued with some victories to the rebels, but the British finally managed to defeat them within three months. 
  • Widespread suppression followed with many killed and imprisoned. Many more were tortured.
  • Some rebels fought a guerilla war till 1819 but were captured and killed. Baxi Jagabandhu was finally arrested in 1825 and died in captivity in 1829.

2 . Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN Human Rights)

Context : The Government on Thursday took strong exception to the UN Human Rights agency’s criticism of the arrest of Kashmiri activist Khurram Parvez, accusing the Geneva-based Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights (OHCHR) of “bias” for referring banned terror organisations in Jammu and Kashmir as “armed groups”.


  • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN Human Rights) is the leading UN entity on human rights.
  • The General Assembly entrusted both the High Commissioner and her Office with a unique mandate to promote and protect all human rights for all people.
  • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN Human Rights) is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote and protect the enjoyment and full realization, by all people, of all human rights. The Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and international human rights laws and treaties established those rights.
  • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) works to offer the best expertise and support to the different human rights monitoring mechanisms in the United Nations system :
    • UN Charter-based bodies, including the Human Rights Council,
    • Bodies created under the international human rights treaties and made up of independent experts mandated to monitor State parties’ compliance with their treaty obligations.


  • Promote and protect all human rights: We speak out objectively in the face of human rights violations and help elaborate the standards that are used to evaluate human rights progress worldwide.
  • Help empower people: Our research, education, and advocacy activities, contributes to the increased awareness and engagement by the international community and the public on human rights issues. This means thousands of people in all regions of the world are empowered to claim their rights.
  • Assist Governments: Through our field presences, we help prevent abuses and contribute to defusing situations that could lead to conflict. Our monitoring and analysis feeds sensitive decision-making and development programming. We also provide capacity-building and legal advice to thousands, supporting the development and judicious enactment of laws and policies the world around.
  • Inject a human rights perspective into all UN programmes: We mainstream human rights into all UN programmes to ensure that peace and security, development, and human rights – the three pillars of the UN – are interlinked and mutually reinforced.

3 . NATO

Context : Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken on Thursday that Moscow needed “long-term security guarantees” that would halt NATO’s eastward expansion, Moscow said.

About NATO

  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of 30 countries that border the North Atlantic Ocean. The Alliance includes the United States, most European Union members, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Turkey.
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and their European allies. It was formed in the wake of World War II to keep the peace and encourage political cooperation on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

Member Countries

  • NATO’s 30 members are Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, the Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Each member designates an ambassador to NATO as well as officials to serve on NATO committees and discuss NATO business. These designees could include a country’s president, prime minister, foreign affairs minister, or head of a defense department.
  • On December 1, 2015, NATO announced its first expansion since 2009, offering membership to Montenegro. Russia responded by calling the move a strategic threat to its national security. Russia is worried by the number of Balkan countries along its border that have joined NATO.

How Does NATO Work?

  • NATO’s mission is to protect the freedom of its members and the stability of their regions. Its targets include weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and cyber-attacks.
  • A key aspect of the alliance is Article 5, which states that “an armed attack against one Ally is considered an attack against all Allies.” In other words, if someone attacks one NATO nation, all NATO nations will retaliate. The only time NATO invoked Article 5 was after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
  • NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups. During a 2016 coup attempt in Turkey, for example, NATO did not intervene on either side of the conflict. As a NATO member, Turkey would receive its allies’ support in the case of an attack, but not in case of a coup.
  • NATO is funded by its members. The United States contributes roughly three-fourths of NATO’s budget. Only 10 countries have reached the target spending level of 2% of gross domestic product (GDP).

4 . Digi Yatra Policy

Context : After a delay of three years, come March 2022, passengers will be able to use a face scan as their boarding pass at four airports in the country.

About the news

  • Airports at Varanasi, Pune, Kolkata and Vijaywada will be the first to roll-out the facial recognition technology-based biometric boarding system, and the service will go live from March 2022
  • Thereafter, the technology will be scaled up in a phased manner across various airports in the country.
  • The Airports Authority of India has engaged NEC Corporation Private Ltd. for implementing the technology as part of the DigiYatra policy, which seeks to promote paperless air travel and a seamless journey from entering an airport till boarding a plane.
  • The policy was unveiled in October 2018, and as per the original plan, the roll-out of the facial recognition technology was scheduled for April 2019.

About Digi yatra

  • The Ministry of Civil Aviation has released the Policy on biometric based digital processing of passengers at Airports called “Digi Yatra”. \DigiYatra envisages a connected ecosystem enhancing the seamless travel experience for the passengers and simultaneously improving the security.


Every passenger, (Indian citizens and foreigners) b ecome a “Digi Yatri” and enjoys the privileges and benefits of the “Digi Yatra” Program. The main objectives are as below:

  1. Enhance passenger experience and provide a simple and easy experience to all air travelers.
    • Deliver a seamless, paperless and hassle-free experience to all passengers across all processors/ Check-points at all Indian airports. (Including Tier-1, 2 and 3 airports)
    • Improve passenger experience, so that they can plan their trips efficiently.
    • Receive relevant information pertaining to various facilities, protocols, airline timings, queue waiting times at the airport.
  2. Achieve better throughput through existing infrastructure using “Digital Framework”.
    • Walk-through security scanners swiftly owing to advanced biometric security solutions.
    • Stay connected through the airport, possibly through airport Wi-Fi, engage in customized digital offerings at experience zones.
  3. Result in lower cost operations.
    • Remove redundancies at Checkpoints.
    • Enhance resource utilization.
  4. Digitize current manual processes and to bring better efficiencies
    • Get real time notifications about congestion & delays to have greater visibility on the next step of journey.
    • Navigate seamlessly through the airport using digital guidance systems, interactive kiosks and augmented reality apps.
    • Stay connected during flights and indulge in immersive experiences. Also book in-flight services and destination based offerings digitally.
  5. Enhance security standards and improve current system performance.
    • Enhance security at Indian airports using “Digi Yatra ID” based Identification with real-time Biometrics.
    • Validate Boarding pass or e-ticket with the airline system in real-time.
    • Use face biometrics for processing Passengers at Checkpoints in the airport and also extend to Passengers without AADHAAR or Digi Yatra ID using biometric validation
    • Phased rollout by all airports.
  6. Rollout of “Digi Yatra” system with a digital “ID” backed by a strong verifiable government issued identity like AADHAAR, passport & others, enabling a seamless travel experience for Passengers at all airports across India.

5 . Places in News


  • Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east
  • Ukraine also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; Romania and Moldova to the south; and has a coastline along the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea

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