Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- Section 124 A
- National Electricity Plan (NEP)
- Mural Paintings
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Section 124A
Context: The Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) dealing with sedition needs to be retained but certain amendments could be made for greater clarity regarding its usage, the 22nd Law Commission has said in its report to the government.
About 22nd Law Commission Report
- The 22nd Law Commission of India headed by former Chief Justice of Karnataka High Court Ritu Raj Awasthi has recommended that Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which criminalises sedition, should be retained in the statute book with certain changes.
- This was after the Central government told the Court that it will re-examine and reconsider whether Section 124A needs to be retained.
Key Findings of the Report
- The commission has proposed retaining the penal provision for the offence of sedition, saying repealing it altogether can have serious adverse ramifications for the security and integrity of the country.
- The Law Commission said the existence of laws such as Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and the National Security Act (NSA) does not by implication cover all elements of the offence envisaged under Section 124A of the IPC.
- Further, in the absence of a provision like Section 124A of IPC, any expression that incites violence against the government would invariably be tried under the special laws and counter-terror legislation, which contain much more stringent provisions to deal with the accused.
- The Law Commission, also suggested increase in the minimum jail term for sedition offences from the present three years to seven years, seeking to bring it in consonance with the scheme of punishment provided for other offences under Chapter VI of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) which deals with offences against the state.
- The report pointed out that it is often said that the offence of sedition is a colonial legacy based on the era in which it was enacted, especially given its history of usage against India’s freedom fighters.
What is sedition?
- Under Section 124A of the IPC, the offence of sedition is committed when any person by words or otherwise brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the government established by law.
- Three explanations added to the provision lay down that while “disaffection” shall include disloyalty and all feelings of enmity, comments without exciting or attempting to excite hatred, contempt or disaffection, will not constitute an offence.
Punishment for the offence of sedition
- Sedition is a non-bailable offence. Punishment under the law varies from imprisonment up to three years to a life term and fine.
- A person charged under this law can’t apply for a government job.
- They have to live without their passport and must present themselves in the court as and when required
- Sedition was not a part of the original IPC that was enacted in 1860 — it was introduced in 1870, when it was said it had been dropped from the original IPC draft by mistake.
Origin of sedition law in modern India
- The law was originally drafted in 1837 by Thomas Macaulay, the British historian-politician, but was inexplicably omitted when the IPC was enacted in 1860.
- Section 124A was inserted in 1870 by an amendment introduced by Sir James Stephen when it felt the need for a specific section to deal with the offence. It was one of the many draconian laws enacted to stifle any voices of dissent at that time.
- Sedition Law in other countries– It is worthwhile to note that Britain in 2009 repealed the provision dealing with Sedition, while India still continues to retain Section 124A in the Code. Some other democratic countries like Australia, Canada, Ireland dealing with Sedition law held it as undemocratic when such laws become impediments for freedom of speech and expression.
Famous Sedition Trials during Independence movement
- It came in handy to muzzle nationalist voices and demands for freedom — the long list of India’s national heroes who figured as accused in cases of sedition includes Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Bhagat Singh and Jawaharlal Nehru.
- Tilak was sentenced to six years in jail after he was held guilty of sedition by the Privy Council for writing a piece in his newspaper, Kesari, under the heading “The misfortune of the country”.
Post Independence Development in Sedition Law
- After Independence, the constitution framers had devoted considerable time to weigh in on various aspects of this colonial law.One of the most vehement critics of the sedition law was K.M. Munshi who argued that such a draconian law is a threat to democracy in India. He argued that, “as a matter of fact the essence of democracy is criticism of Government.”
- It was due to his efforts and the persistence of the Sikh leader Bhupinder Singh Mann that the word sedition was omitted from the Constitution.
- However, Section 124A continued to stay in the IPC.
- It was the Indira Gandhi government that made Section 124A a cognisable offence for the first time in India’s history.
- In the new Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, which came into force in 1974 and repealed the colonial-era 1898 Code of Criminal Procedure, sedition was made a cognisable offence authorising the police to make arrests without a warrant.
Constitutional validity – The Landmark Kedar Nath Singh Judgment
- Kedar Nath Singh, which is considered the most authoritative Judgement of the Supreme Court on the interpretation of the sedition law, a Five Judge Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of Section 124-A of Indian Panel Code, 1860 and went on to clarify the correct position of the sedition law in India.
- In this case, Kedar Nath Singh, who was a member of the Forward Communist Party of Bihar, was charged with sedition for making insulting speeches against the ruling Indian National Congress Government.
- The Apex Court clarified that Section 124-A of Indian Panel Code, 1860 could not be used to stifle free speech, and could only be invoked if it could be proven that the seditious speech in question led to the incitement to violence or would result in public disorder.
- Since Kedar Nath criticised the Congress party and not the Indian State, and the speech in question did not lead to any incitement to violence, therefore it did not amount to sedition.
- The Supreme Court also noted that the presence of a pernicious tendency to incite violence is a pre-condition to invoke the sedition clause.
Other important judgements and reports
- In 1995, the SC, in Balwant Singh vs State of Punjab, held that mere sloganeering which evoked no public response did not amount to sedition.
- The Law Commission of India, in its consultation paper on sedition, published in August 2018, also observed that while retaining the offence of sedition was essential to protect national integrity, it should not be used as a tool to curb free speech.
Arguments in support of Section 124 A
- Such acts are necessary to combat divisive tendencies, secessionist activities
- Sovereign countries, including the US, the UK, Canada, Australia and other democracies, have such provisions in their penal code.
- The freedom of speech in a country is not a license to spread disaffections hence Sedition law helps in curtailing it.
- Calls for violent revolutions seeking to overthrow the government, appeals for a separate Khalistan or Kashmir and other atrocity propaganda, which does not qualify as protected speech and has the ability to denude the legitimacy of a democratically elected government.
- Supreme Court has repeatedly observed that the mere possibility of misuse of a provision does not per se invalidate the legislation. In such cases, the vulnerability extends only to the ‘action’ and not the ‘section’.
Arguments against Section 124A
- For decades, successive governments have used a colonial-era sedition law – the dreaded section 124a of the antiquated Indian Penal Code – against students, journalists, intellectuals, social activists, and those critical of the government.
- The law is purely used now to instil fear and intimidate people who protest against authority
- It is a constraint on the legitimate exercise of constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech and expression.
- The British, who introduced sedition to oppress Indians, have themselves abolished the law in their country.
- The terms used under Section 124A like ‘disaffection’ are vague and subject to different interpretation to the whims and fancies of the investigating officers.
- IPC and Unlawful Activities Prevention Act have provisions that penalize “disrupting the public order” or “overthrowing the government with violence and illegal means”. These are sufficient for protecting the national integrity. There is no need for Section 124A.
- The sedition law is being misused as a tool to persecute political dissent.
- In 1979, India ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which sets forth internationally recognized standards for the protection of freedom of expression. However, misuse of sedition and arbitrary slapping of charges are inconsistent with India’s international commitments.
What is the fresh challenge to sedition law?
- Constitutional validity of Section 124A of IPC is now pending before the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Kishorechandra Wangkhemcha & Anr v UOI. Three Judges Bench of Hon’ble Supreme Court has issued notice to the Union Government.
- The Petitioners have contended that the Section 124A of IPC infringes the individual freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) of The Constitution of India.
- It is time to reiterate that Freedom of Speech and Expression is a fundamental right guaranteed under The Constitution of India. It is also necessary that to meet the international standards of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), Section 124A of IPC needs to be relooked.
2 . National Electricity Plan
Context: While India may have internationally committed to half its installed electricity being sourced from renewable sources by 2030, an estimate of the country’s projected power needs by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) suggests that this target may be achieved early, by 2026-27.
What is National Electricity Plan?
- Central Electricity Authority has outlined the National Electricity Plan for 2022-2032, emphasising renewable energy growth and the funds required for power generation and storage capacity
- As per Section 3 of the Electricity Act 2003, Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has been entrusted with the responsibility of preparing the National Electricity Plan (NEP) in accordance with the National Electricity Policy and to notify such plan once in five years.
What are the findings of the report?
- To meet the power generation capacity targets from 2022 to 2032 of the country, funds amounting to Rs 33.60 trillion will be needed, according to the National Electricity Plan (NEP) released by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA).
- The plan outlines the electricity demand, generation capacity, and renewable energy targets for the coming years.
- According to the NEP, the share of non-fossil fuel-based capacity is expected to increase to 57.4 per cent by 2026-27 and further to 68.4 per cent by 2031-32, compared to the current level of 42.5 per cent.
- The plan includes projections for installed capacity, with a focus on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydro power. It also highlights the need for energy storage capacity, both through Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) and Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS).
- The NEP aims to achieve a non-fossil fuel-based installed capacity of around 500 GW by 2029-30. It expects the average Plant Load Factor (PLF) for coal-based capacity to be around 58.4 per cent in 2026-27 and 58.7 per cent in 2031-32.
- The plan also addresses the coal requirement for power plants, including domestic coal production and imports.
- The estimated fund requirement for capacity addition during the periods 2022-2027 and 2027-2032 is Rs 14,54,188 crore and Rs 19,06,406 crore, respectively.
- Furthermore, the NEP sets targets to reduce the average emission factor, aiming for a decrease from 0.548 kg CO2/kWh net in 2026-27 to 0.430 kg CO2/kWh net by 2031-32.
About India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution
- Countries across the globe committed to create a new international climate agreement by the conclusion of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015.
- In preparation, countries have agreed to publicly outline what post-2020 climate actions they intend to take under a new international agreement, known as their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). The INDCs will largely determine whether the world achieves an ambitious 2015 agreement and is put on a path toward a low-carbon, climate-resilient future.
- India had submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change during October 2015. It has been revised and approved by the Cabinet during August 2022.
Key elements and focus areas of India’s INDC
- India’s INDC centre around the country’s policies and programmes for:
- Sustainable Lifestyles – To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.
- Cleaner Economic Development – To adopt a climate friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of economic development.
- Reducing Emission intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
- Increasing the Share of Non Fossil Fuel Based Electricity – To achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- Enhancing Carbon Sink (Forests) – To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
- Adaptation – To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.
- Mobilizing Finance – To mobilize domestic and new & additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.
- Technology Transfer and Capacity Building – To build capacities, create domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.
About Central Electricity Authority
- The Central Electricity Authority of India (CEA) advises the government on policy matters and formulates plans for the development of electricity systems. It is a statutory organisation constituted under section 3(1) of Electricity Supply Act 1948, which has been superseded by section 70(1) of the Electricity Act 2003.
- Under the Electricity Act 2003, CEA prescribes the standards on matters such as construction of electrical plants, electric lines and connectivity to the grid, installation and operation of meters and safety and grid standards.
- The CEA is also responsible for concurrence of hydro power development schemes of central, state and private sectors taking into consideration the factors which will result in efficient development of the river and its tributaries for power generation, consistent with the requirement of drinking water, irrigation, navigation and flood control.
3 . Mural Paintings
Murals of India
- Mural Paintings- A mural is any piece of graphic artwork that is painted or applied directly to a wall, ceiling or other permanent substrate. Mural techniques include fresco, mosaic, graffiti and marouflage.
Methods applied – In the history of mural several methods have been used:
- A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco (“fresh”), describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
- The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is then absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, the plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in fresh and brilliant colors.
- Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster. The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.
- Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly dry plaster and was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as “firm enough not to take a thumbprint” so that the pigment only penetrates slightly into the plaster.
Mural Paintings of India
- Ajanta Caves– The earliest surviving paintings in the Indian subcontinent are those of Ajanta. The paintings here were made in two phases. The oldest date to around the 2nd century B.C. The latter phase was around the 5th century A.D., under the patronage of the Vakatakas who ruled the Deccan.
- The subjects are scenes from the life of the Buddha and the Jatakas, stories of his previous births.
- The great Bodhisattvas (seekers of truth) who are painted upon the walls of Ajanta, always look within. Ajanta is known to be the fountainhead and inspiration of Buddhist paintings across the whole of Asia.
- The sophisticated ancient tradition of painting, which was inherited by the artists of Ajanta, was documented as the Chitrasutra of the Vishnudharmottara Purana. This was a verbal tradition, which would have come over many centuries, passed on through guilds of painters. It was penned on paper by perhaps the 5th or 6th century A.D. This ancient treatise places a sophisticated grammar in the hands of the painter. However, he is informed that rules do not make the painting. It has to be given a life of its own by the painter.
- Other Paintings contemporary to Ajanta caves– There are fragments of paintings of the time of Ajanta which survive at many Buddhist cave sites, including Pitalkhora near Ellora, in Maharashtra.
- Bagh Caves– Nine caves were excavated on the slopes of the Vindhya hills above the Bagh River during the reign of the Guptas, between the 4th and 6th centuries A.D. Unfortunately, the paintings on the walls of these caves have been practically lost to the ravages of time. Reproductions of earlier times show that, as at Ajanta, the Buddhist paintings of Bagh present a sense of stillness. There is all the activity of life and yet a profound sense of peace upon the faces of the painted figures.
- Badami Caves – Very little of the paintings survive in the 6th century Hindu caves of Badami in Karnataka.
- Murals during Pallava period- In the 7th century, the Pallava kings of Tamil Nadu gave exuberant and glorious expression to themes relating to Siva in the paintings in the temples of Panamalai and Kailashanatar in Kancheepuram.
- In the 9th century Jain cave of Sittannavasal in Tamil Nadu, there is a marvellous lotus pond painted on the ceiling. It is a scene of the faithful gathering lotuses to place upon the resting place of a Tirthankara, a Jain saint. Elephants, buffalos, geese and fish frolic in the water, which is overflowing with beautiful lotuses. The painter has used the occasion to present a joyous world. He brings to us a sense of sublime happiness; as fish swim in the waters, an elephant appears to smile, and gentle men gather lotuses larger than themselves.
- Ellora Caves– the magnificent Kailashnath temple had been hewn out of a mountain at Ellora in the 8th century. The walls and ceilings of this temple were once covered with murals. Fragments of these, which remain, show the beauty and quality of the art.
- There are also paintings of the late 9th century in the Jain caves at Ellora. The painters here continue the older tradition but with contributions of their own. Besides the naturalism and grace inherited from Ajanta, the figures painted here are stylised and elongated. These are significant changes, which, in later years, are reflected in paintings over the whole of India.
- Murals at Brihadeeswara Temple- In the heart of the Brihadeeswara temple in Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, protected by massive walls of stone, are the finest paintings of the theme of Siva ever painted. Towards the end of the 10th century, King Rajaraja Chola expressed his devotion and also his power and grandeur by commissioning murals on a spectacular scale.
- The colours in the paintings are soft and subdued, the lines firm and sinuous and the expressions true to life. More than ever before, the artists’ lavish use of embellishments of crowns and jewellery, portraying the royal splendour of the times.
- Murals of Ladakh- In the 11th century, King Yeshe Od of Guge built 108 monasteries across his kingdom in Ladakh, western Tibet, Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti. Craftsmen and artists from Kashmir were invited by Yeshe Od and they constructed and painted these monasteries, which were to become the backbone of trans-Himalayan Buddhism.
- The philosophy of Vajrayana Buddhism offers a new path towards attaining enlightenment. The worshipper meditates upon images of the deity and, by absorbing the qualities personified in the image, he becomes the deity himself. Thus, paintings are very important for Vajrayana Buddhists as an essential part of religious practice.
- The monastery of Alchi is an oasis of beauty and colour in the midst of the vast and barren landscape of Ladakh. The dhoti of an Avalokitesvara statue in the three-storeyed temple of Alchi has some of the most gorgeous paintings. These are the only surviving visual representations of the culture and architecture of ancient Kashmir.
- One of the masterpieces of the Alchi paintings is the Green Tara. Here the marvellous shaping of the form with skilful shading. There is also the depiction of the protruding eye which extends beyond the line of the face. This is a convention in Indian painting, which was first seen in the murals of Ellora.
- The Kashmiri artists present a lively world, with the grace and beauty of form coming to them from the classical Indian tradition. The rich textiles and decorative elements of these paintings are remarkable and they show that the artists had assimilated the traditions coming to them from Gandhara and Central Asia.
- The Kashmiri style was mainly responsible for the lovely wall paintings still seen in the beautiful monasteries at Alchi, Mangyu and Sumda in Ladakh, in the Tabo monastery in the Spiti valley and in the Nako monastery in Kinnaur district, Himachal Pradesh.
- On the western edge of the trans-Himalayan plateau in Spiti is the monastery complex of Tabo. This appears to be one of the first among the 108 monasteries built by Yeshe Od. It is dated around A.D. 996.
- The paintings here show close similarity to Alchi. The sinuous and even exaggerated body forms and the supple lines show a form of painting which is uniquely Kashmiri.
- The monastery of Nako, in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, comprises four temples within an enclosure of mud walls. The wall paintings at Nako display a considerable delicacy of execution and an inner grace.
- The traditions of Vajrayana Buddhist paintings, which were laid at the time of the grand conception of King Yeshe Od’s 108 monasteries, continued in the centuries to come. From Ladakh in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east, across the highest mountains of the world, is the one region which has an unbroken tradition of Indian mural painting.
- Deep in the heart of the plains, in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, stand the Siva and Vishnu temples, which are known as the Kacheris. The Choti Kacheri has on the ceiling the remains of exquisite paintings of the 13th century. These are extremely valuable as, after the fragmentary remains at Nalanda and Satdhara, these are the oldest surviving paintings of the northern plains in India.
- Murals during Vijayanagara period- After the 11th century, the art of painting came to prominence again during the rule of the Vijayanagar kings from the 14th century onwards. In the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Hampi and other sites, we see fine examples of mural paintings.
- The ceiling of the Virupaksha temple in Hampi is covered with paintings of the 15th century. There is simplicity and vigour in the style of the paintings. A sense of movement and energy is caught in the painted figures.
- In these paintings, there is a deep intertwining of the story of the Vijayanagar empire and its kings with the stories of the gods they believed in. There is also a painting of the procession of the revered sage Vidyaranya, who was the spiritual mentor of the founders of the Empire.
- The temple at Lepakshi was built in the 16th century by the Nayaka brothers, Virupanna and Viranna, at a centre of trade and pilgrimage in the Vijayanagar empire. The paintings on the ceiling of the mandapa are some of the finest mural paintings of the medieval period in India.
- Lepakshi presents the richness and colour of a great cosmopolitan society. It presents one of the great moments in Indian painting. There is a sense of liveliness here, which is enhanced by the depiction of the protruding eye. The liveliness is also conveyed by angular features and by the peaked corners of clothes.
- Mural of Kerala- Legends associated with Siva and Parvati, Krishna and Rama were painted on the walls of palaces and temples in Kerala from the 16th to the 19th century.
- There is a new sense of power and majesty that one sees in the painted gods of Kerala. The manner of shading to depict volume reminds us of Ajanta and Alchi. Each figure is more significant than life. Their limbs are strong and their bodies are full and firm. The gods painted are proud, vigorous, and protective. The idiom of Kerala is unique. Its close relationship to the ancient dance dramas of the land are seen in the elaborate headgear and the heavy forms.
- Mural during Mughal Period- In the 16th century, under the Mughal emperor Akbar, the art of painting was revived in northern India after many centuries. The finest miniatures were made in the court of Akbar and the emperors who succeeded him.
- At Fatehpur Sikri, the capital city built by Akbar, remnants of mural paintings are present. These are fine paintings and are very similar to the miniatures of that period. There are representations of busy marketplaces, elephants and horse riders and a depiction of a flautist.
- Murals during Bundela Period– The Bundelas, who were powerful in central India, founded the city of Orccha in 1531. Mural paintings were made on the walls of all the palaces within the magnificent Orccha fort. The Raj Mahal was completely adorned with mural paintings of the 17th century. The expressions are often gentle. Exposure to the Mughal court has also led to a sense of courtly sophistication.
- 17th Century Mural paintings – There are surviving mural paintings from the 17th century onwards in Rajasthan. They present a varied tapestry, with the constant interaction of the indigenous idiom of mural painting and the influences coming from the imperial Mughal court.
- The finest wall paintings of Rajasthan are found in the Bhojanshala of the Amer Palace near Jaipur. These are exquisite drawings of the 17th century, on Vaishnava themes. In depicting the divine images, the artist appears to transcend himself. The drawings are made in panels upon the wall and are small in scale for murals.
- Pahari Murals- The verdant Pahari hills saw the finest continuation of the tradition of murals in India. The 18th and 19th century paintings on the walls of the Rang Mahal in Chamba are among the best surviving examples of Pahari murals. The themes are mostly religious and the styles are closely related to those of the miniature paintings of the region
- European Influences on mural paintings– The cultural impact of the sudden exposure to European influences is reflected in the varied and indiscriminate depiction of a wide array of subjects. These range from the eternal religious themes to the new inventions which the traders would have seen in their visits to the major port cities.
- Murals of Eastern India– Orissa, in the eastern plains of India, is a land of the rich continuation of ancient culture. The 18th century paintings on the walls of the Viranchinarayan Temple at Buguda are some of the finest surviving murals of that period in India.
- Murals of Punjab– The murals of Punjab perhaps represent the last phase of wall paintings in India. The themes and the manner are deeply rooted in the local culture. There is a quiet sense of dignity, which emerges in the best of these paintings. Mural paintings are found hidden away in temples in the midst of busy market places in Amritsar, in temples in villages such as Kishankot, and in Qila Mubarak and Qila Androon in the Patiala fort.
- Spread of Indian Art from India to other countries- In ancient times, the philosophical ideas of Hinduism and Buddhism spread from India to practically every corner of Asia. As art was an integral part of life and religion, the concepts of Indian art spread far and wide, along with philosophy.
- The art of Asia has been informed by a deep vision of the eternal harmony of the world. It is this vision of life which shaped the grace and forms of the paintings of Ajanta. The art travelled with its philosophy of compassion across Asia to create a vision that shaped the culture of a whole continent.
4 . Facts for prelims
Suspension of Operations (SoO)
- The SoO pact was signed on August 22, 2008, with the primary objective of initiating political dialogue. There are nearly 30 Kuki insurgent groups in Manipur, of which 25 are under tripartite Suspension of Operations (SoO) with the Government of India and the state.
- Terms of the SoO pact- While the period of the Suspension of Operation agreement is one year, it is extendable according to the progress of its implementation. To oversee the effective implementation of the SoO pact, a committee called the Joint Monitoring Group (JMG), with representatives from all the signatories, has been formed.
- The important terms under the pact are that security forces, including state and central forces, are not to launch any operations, nor can the underground groups.
- The signatories of UPF and KNO shall abide by the Constitution of India, the laws of the land and the territorial integrity of Manipur. They are prohibited from committing all kinds of atrocities, extortion, among others.
- The militant cadres are to be confined in designated camps identified by the Government. Arms are deposited in a safe room under a double-locking system. The groups are given arms only to guard their camps and protect their leaders.
- As a rehabilitation package, the UG cadres living in the designated camps are given a monthly stipend of Rs 5000. Financial assistance is also being provided to maintain the designated camps.