Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- Report on How is India Adapting to Heatwaves
- Central bank’s ‘Master Directions on Fraud’
- Bali Peace Clause
- Gravity-based solutions to generate electricity
- No-Confidence motion against Speaker
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Remission
Context: The Supreme Court indicated it will primarily focus on the question of Gujarat’s jurisdiction to prematurely release 11 men sentenced to life for the gang rape of Bilkis Bano and the murder of her family during the 2002 riots.
Background of the issue
- On February 28, 2002, Bilkis fled her village, Radhikpur in Dahod district, after violence erupted in the state in the aftermath of the previous day’s incident at Godhra station, in which the Sabarmati Express was set on fire, resulting in the deaths of dozens of pilgrims and kar sewaks returning from Ayodhya.
- Bilkis was gang-raped, and her three-year-old daughter was among 14 people killed by a mob on March 3, 2002, in the Limkheda taluka of Gujarat’s Dahod district during the riots. Her case was taken up by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and Supreme Court, which ordered an investigation by the CBI.
- The trial was moved out of Gujarat to Maharashtra after Bilkis Bano received death threats. In the Mumbai court, charges were filed against 19 men, including six police officers and a government doctor.
- In January 2008, a special court convicted 11 accused of conspiring to rape a pregnant woman, murder, unlawful assembly, and of charges under other sections of the Indian Penal Code. The Head Constable was convicted of “making incorrect records” to save the accused. The 11 convicts were released on August 15 last year.
- Bano had moved the apex court on November 30 last year challenging the “premature” release of 11 lifers by the state government, saying it has “shaken the conscience of society”.
- After advocate Shobha Gupta, representing Bano, told a bench presided by Chief Justice of India D Y Chandrachud that Justice Trivedi had recused from hearing the case, a new bench of the Supreme Court was formed to hear the petitions challenging the early release of the convicts.
- The Supreme Court issues has issued a notice to the Centre, Gujarat Government on plea against remission to convicts.
Pardoning Power Of Governor: Under Article 161:
- Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.
- When a convict has committed an offence against state law, the concerned punishment can be granted the pardon, reprieve, respite and remission by the Governor of the state.
- Governor’s power to pardon overrides a provision in the Code of Criminal Procedure – Section 433A -which mandates that a prisoner’s sentence can be remitted only after 14 years of jail, a Bench of Justices Hemant Gupta and A.S. Bopanna observed in a judgment.
Types Of Pardoning Power
- There are five terms or types of pardoning powers mentioned in Article 72 and Article 161 of Indian Constitution.
- To pardon is to release a convict from any further punishment for a crime committed by him. The Governor has the power to pardon both the conviction and the sentence of a convict, such that it absolves the sentence, punishment, and any disqualifications.
- The pardoning power of a Governor, however, is not as broad as that of the President under Article 72. The President of India is the only authority with the power to pardon a conviction by a court-martial or pardon a death sentence. Moreover, the sovereign power of the government with respect to pardoning under Article 161 is exercised by the State government and not the Governor on his own.
- When the President or Governor uses the pardoning power of ‘Respite’, he/she chooses to award a lesser sentence in place of one originally awarded to the convict. For example, due to some special fact, such as the physical disability of a convict or the pregnancy of a woman offender, the President can use this power.
- When the President or Governor chooses the pardoning power of ‘Reprieve’; he/she stays the execution of a sentence (especially that of death) for a temporary period. By doing this, he/she enables the convict to have time to seek pardon or commutation from him.
- When the President or Governor chooses the pardoning power of Remit, he/she acts to reduce the period of the sentence, but the character of the sentence remains the same. For example, a sentence of rigorous imprisonment for two years may be remitted to rigorous imprisonment for one year, but the imprisonment remains rigorous.
- When the President or Governor chooses to use this pardoning power of ‘Commute; he/she substitutes one form of punishment for a lighter form. For example, a death sentence may be commuted to rigorous imprisonment, which in turn may be commuted to simple imprisonment.
2 . Report – How Is India Adapting To Heatwaves
Context: Following Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s high-level meeting earlier this month to review the heatwave preparedness — a new report by the think-tank Centre for Policy Research on “How is India Adapting to Heatwaves?” indicates that the country is ill-prepared to face the heat.
About the report
- How Is India Adapting to Heatwaves? An Assessment of Heat Action Plans with Insights for Transformative Climate Action is the report released by Centre for Policy Research.
- In this report the Centre for Policy Research (CPR) has examined all 37 heat action plans (HAPs) across 18 states to determine how policy action is keeping up with the warming weather in India. This analysis follows the IPCC AR6 Synthesis Report, which was released last week and emphasised the need for the world to reduce emissions in the next two decades to prevent warming temperatures from reaching 1.5C. This is the first comprehensive analysis of HAPs.
What are Heat Action Plans?
- HAPs are India’s primary policy response to economically damaging and life -threatening heatwaves. They prescribe a variety of preparatory activities, disaster responses, and post-heatwave response measures across state, district, and city government departments to decrease the impact of heatwaves.
Key findings of the report
- According to the CPR report, the majority of HAPs use thresholds for national heatwaves, which may not be appropriate for the dangers experienced by local communities. Just 10 of the 37 HAPs appear to have temperature thresholds that are localised.
- It also reveals that almost all HAPs miss identifying and concentrating on vulnerable groups. “Only two HAPs conduct and report vulnerability analyses (systematic studies to locate where the people most likely to be affected are in a city, district, or state). While the majority of HAPs include general categories of at-risk groups (elders, outdoor workers, pregnant women), the treatments they suggest may not always be geared towards these groups
- Another crucial aspect spotlighted by CPR is that HAPs are underfunded. Among the 37 HAPs, only 3 mention financing sources. Eight HAPs request that implementing departments self-allocate resources, which highlights a severe lack of finance.
- HAPs have been revealed to have weak legal foundations. “None of the HAPs reviewed indicate the legal sources of their authority. This reduces bureaucratic incentives to prioritise and comply with HAPs instructions
- Very few HAPs are listed online, and there is no central repository for HAPs. The frequency of these HAP updates and if they are based on evaluation data are likewise unknown.
- Taking account of the positive side, the CPR has noted that 25 of the 37 HAPs create nodal officers or organisations for implementation. For accountability, several (18 of 37) name specific officers in line departments who are in charge of execution
- More than half of the HAPs (18 of 37; unclear in another 8) specify what each department must do in a heatwave, frequently in great detail. These SOPs, which frequently outline what should be done before, during, and after a heatwave, are helpful, but they must be updated as the types and lengths of heat waves change over time.
- According to the study, almost all HAPs set established channels of communication for heatwave alerts, but more research is required to determine how well heat advisories are used.
3 . Central bank’s Master Directions on Fraud
Context: The Supreme Court held that borrowers must be given an opportunity to be heard before their accounts are classified as fraud.
About the Judgement
- In a significant judgment, a Bench led by Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud said the civil consequences of an account being declared as fraud under the Reserve Bank of India (Frauds Classification and Reporting by Commercial Banks and Select FIs) Directions, 2016 or the central bank’s ‘Master Directions on Fraud’ amount to “civil death” to borrowers.
Master direction on Fraud
- Master directions on Fraud also be called as the Reserve Bank of India (Frauds classification and reporting by commercial banks and select FIs) directions 2016.
- The provisions of these Directions shall apply to scheduled commercial banks (excluding RRBs) and select FIs operating in India
- Purposes-These directions are issued with a view to providing a framework to banks enabling them to detect and report frauds early and taking timely consequent actions like reporting to the Investigative agencies so that fraudsters are brought to book early, examining staff accountability and do effective fraud risk management.
- These directions also aim to enable faster dissemination of information by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to banks on the details of frauds, unscrupulous borrowers and related parties, based on banks’ reporting so that necessary safeguards / preventive measures by way of appropriate procedures and internal checks may be introduced and caution exercised while dealing with such parties by banks.
- The Chairmen and Managing Directors/Chief Executive Officers (CMD/CEOs) of banks must provide focus on the “Fraud Prevention and Management Function” to enable, among others, effective investigation of fraud cases and prompt as well as accurate reporting to appropriate regulatory and law enforcement authorities including Reserve Bank of India.
- The fraud risk management, fraud monitoring and fraud investigation function must be owned by the bank’s CEO, Audit Committee of the Board and the Special Committee of the Board.
- Banks with the approval of their respective Boards, shall frame internal policy for fraud risk management and fraud investigation function, based on the governance standards relating to the ownership of the function and accountability resting on defined and dedicated organizational set up and operating processes.
Classification of Frauds
In order to have uniformity in reporting, frauds have been classified as under, based mainly on the provisions of the Indian Penal Code:
- Misappropriation and criminal breach of trust.
- Fraudulent encashment through forged instruments, manipulation of books of account or through fictitious accounts and conversion of property.
- Unauthorised credit facilities extended for reward or for illegal gratification.
- Cash shortages.
- Cheating and forgery.
- Fraudulent transactions involving foreign exchange
- Any other type of fraud not coming under the specific heads as above.
Reporting of frauds to Reserve Bank of India
- Banks need to furnish Fraud Monitoring Return (FMR) in individual fraud cases, irrespective of the amount involved, to RBI electronically using FMR Application in XBRL System supplied to them within three weeks from the date of detection.
Delays in Reporting of Frauds
- Banks should ensure that the reporting system is suitably streamlined so that delays in reporting of frauds, submission of delayed and incomplete fraud reports are avoided. Banks must fix staff accountability in respect of delays in reporting fraud cases to RBI.
Reports to the Board
- Banks should ensure that all frauds of ₹0.1 million and above are reported to their Boards promptly on their detection.
Special committee of the Board
- While Audit Committee of the Board (ACB) shall monitor all the cases of frauds in general, banks are required to constitute a Special Committee of the Board for monitoring and follow up of cases of frauds (SCBF) involving amounts of ₹ 10 million and above exclusively.
- The Special Committee is to be constituted with five members of the Board of Directors, consisting of MD & CEO in case of public sector banks and MD in case of SBI and private sector banks, two members from ACB and two other members from the Board excluding RBI nominee. The periodicity of the meetings of the Special Committee may be decided according to the number of cases involved.
Closure of Fraud cases
- Banks shall report to CFMC, RBI and the SSM (Senior Supervisory Manager) of RBI, the details of fraud cases of ₹ 0.1 million and above closed along with reasons for the closure
4. Bali Peace clause
Context: India has come under fire at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) for avoiding questions raised by members on its minimum support price (MSP) programmes for food grain, particularly rice, where subsidies have breached prescribed limits. Some countries have alleged that India did not give sufficient replies to concerns raised by them during consultations.
What is the background of the issue?
- Public stockholding- Public stockholding programmes are policy tools used by governments to purchase, stockpile and distribute food when needed. While stockpiling and distributing food is permitted under WTO rules, food purchases at fixed prices or “administered” prices which are higher than market prices are considered to be subsidized, and hence the support provided is counted towards a country’s overall ceiling on trade-distorting support under current WTO rules
- Market distorting subsidies- The WTOs Agreement on Agriculture negotiated between 1986 and 1994 in the Uruguay Round seeks to limit the so-called market-distorting subsidies at 10 percent of total production. The original peace clause was included as a part of Article 13 of the agreement under which agriculture subsidies could not be challenged. The provision expired in 2003. But with the recent rise in global food prices, many countries have begun giving higher subsidies to farmers to promote agriculture, putting them in danger of breaching the 10 per cent cap and so the issues surrounding the peace clause have surfaced again.
- The Bali decision on stockholding arises because some developing countries fear they could breach the limits they have agreed on trade-distorting domestic support — ie, support that influences prices and quantities.
What is Bali Peace clause?
- The ‘peace clause’ said that no country would be legally barred from food security programmes even if the subsidy breached the limits specified in the WTO agreement on agriculture. Provided these countries meet the conditions specified in the Decision, the peace clause applies even if the country exceeds its agreed limits for trade-distorting domestic support.
- A General Council decision in 2014 and the 2015 Nairobi Ministerial Conference further confirmed that members would make every effort to agree and adopt a permanent solution on this issue by 2017 and that the interim solution would remain in force until a permanent solution is agreed.
- India’s MSP programmes are under scrutiny at the WTO, as it is the first country to invoke the Bali ‘peace clause’ to justify exceeding its 10% ceiling (of the total value of rice production) for rice support in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020
What is World Trade Organization?
- The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.
- It officially commenced operations on 1 January 1995, pursuant to the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, thus replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that had been established in 1948.
- The WTO is the world’s largest international economic organization, with 164 member states representing over 98% of global trade and global GDP.
Functions of WTO
- The WTO facilitates trade in goods, services and intellectual property among participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements, which usually aim to reduce or eliminate tariffs, quotas, and other restrictions; these agreements are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their legislatures.
- The WTO also administers independent dispute resolution for enforcing participants’ adherence to trade agreements and resolving trade-related disputes.
- The organization prohibits discrimination between trading partners, but provides exceptions for environmental protection, national security, and other important goals.
- The WTO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its top decision-making body is the Ministerial Conference, which is composed of all member states and usually convenes biennially; consensus is emphasized in all decisions.
5 . Gravity-based solutions to generate electricity
Context: An Australian renewable-energy company’s unique scheme to generate electricity may resuscitate the fortunes of one of India’s iconic but defunct gold mines, namely the Kolar Gold Fields (KGF), in Karnataka.
- Renewable energy is energy derived from natural sources that are replenished at a higher rate than they are consumed. Sunlight and wind, for example, are such sources that are constantly being replenished.
Drawback in renewable energy
- A thing that makes renewable energy unreliable, from solar or wind power, is that there is no power during nights or windless days. Charging a battery to use as a backup during this downtime hikes power prices.
- While the common approach to addressing this challenge is to design them better, find more efficient conducting materials and install large battery farms to store power, Green Gravity’s idea is to rely on low-tech gravity
What is Green Gravity ‘s Approach?
- Under Green Gravity approach, plan is to find defunct mines, which often go hundreds or even thousands of metres deep and haul a ‘weighted block’ — this could be as much as 40 tonnes — up to the top of the mine shaft using renewable power during the day when such power is available.
- When backup power is required, the heavy block will fall, under gravity, and the ensuing momentum will power a generator via a connected shaft (or rotor). The depth to which the block can slip can be determined via a braking system, thus giving control on the amount of power that can be produced.
- The same principle underlies the so-called ‘pumped hydropower’ storage, a well-established approach where water from the ground is pumped upstream electrically into a reservoir. From here, when needed, water is released downhill to move a turbine and produce electricity, like in a hydroelectric plant.
- Though Green Gravity’s approach, may use more energy than produced but when accounting for being able to make renewable energy available at off-peak hours, can mean less reliance on coal-produced power and access to reliable power. Currently, India has installed about 4,746 MW of pumped storage, according to figures from India’s Central Electricity Authority.
- Advantage– By using gravity as the fuel, one can dispense with consuming the critical water, land, and chemicals which other storage technologies rely on.
- Concern– Green Gravity would begin their first test of the system in mines in Australia. Making the weighted blocks, designing and installing a braking system (to arrest their fall) and connecting it to the electric grids were the major costs of the enterprise
6 . No confidence motion against Speaker
Context: The Lok Sabha failed to function on March 28 as Opposition MPs wearing black trooped into the well of the House shouting slogans and throwing papers at the Speaker’s chair.
Office of the Speaker
- The Office of the Speaker occupies a pivotal position in parliamentary democracy. It has been said of the Office of the Speaker that while the members of Parliament represent the individual constituencies, the Speaker represents the full authority of the House itself.
- Office of the Speaker symbolises the dignity and power of the House over which he/she is presiding. In India, through the Constitution of the land, through the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and through the practices and conventions, adequate powers are vested in the Office of the Speaker to help him/her in the smooth conduct of the parliamentary proceedings and for protecting the independence and impartiality of the Office.
- The Constitution of India provides that the Speaker’s salary and allowances are not to be voted by Parliament and are to be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.
Term of Office
- Speaker holds Office from the date of his/her election till immediately before the first meeting of the Lok Sabha after the dissolution of the one to which he/she was elected. He/She is eligible for re-election.
- On the dissolution of the Lok Sabha, although the Speaker ceases to be a member of the House, he/she does not vacate his/her Office. The Speaker may, at any time, resign from Office by writing under his/her hand to the Deputy Speaker.
Removal of the Speaker
- The Speaker can be removed from Office only on a resolution of the House passed by a majority of all the then members of the House (Article 94). Such a resolution has to satisfy some conditions like it should be specific with respect to the charges, and it should not contain arguments, inferences, ironical expressions, imputations or defamatory statements, etc. Not only these, but discussions should also be confined to charges referred to in the resolution. It is also mandatory to give a minimum of 14 days’ notice of the intention to move the resolution.
Process of Removal
- (1) A member wishing to give notice if a resolution under clause (c) of Article
179 of the Constitution, for the removal of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall do
so in writing to the Secretary.
- On receipt of a notice a motion for leave to move the resolution shall be entered, in the list of business in the name of the member concerned, on a day fixed by the Speaker provided that the day so fixed shall be any day after fourteen days from the date of the receipt of notice of the resolution.
- Subject to the provisions of Article 181 of the Constitution, the Speaker or the
Deputy Speaker or such other person as is referred to in clause (2) of Article 180 of the
Constitution, shall preside when a motion under sub-rule (2) of rule 145 is taken up for
- The member in whose name the motion stands in the list of business shall,
except when he wishes to withdraw it, move the motion when called upon to do so, but
no speech shall be permitted at this stage.
- The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker or the person presiding, as the case may,
be shall, thereupon place the motion before the House and shall request those members
who are in favour of leave being granted to rise in their places. If not less than onetenth of the total number of members rise accordingly, the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker
or the person presiding, as the case may be, shall say that leave been granted and that
the resolution will be, taken up on such day, not being more than ten days from the date
on which the leave is asked or, as he may appoint. If less than the required number of
members rise, the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker or the person presiding, as the case
may be, shall inform the member that he has not the leave of the House.
7 . Facts for prelims
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC)
- The ECGC Ltd. (formerly known as Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd.) wholly owned by government of India, was set up in 1957 with the objective of promoting exports from the country by providing credit risk insurance and related services for exports.
- It is under the ownership of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, and is headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
- Over the years it has designed different export credit risk insurance products to suit the requirements of Indian exporters.
- ECGC is essentially an export promotion organisation, seeking to improve the competitiveness of the Indian exports by providing them with credit insurance covers.
- ECGC Ltd. also administers the National Export Insurance Account (NEIA) Trust which caters to project exports of strategic and national importance.
- The Corporation has introduced various export credit insurance schemes to meet the requirements of commercial banks extending export credit. The insurance covers enable the banks to extend timely and adequate export credit facilities to the exporters.
- Functions- ECGC provides
- (i) a range of insurance covers to Indian exporters against the risk of non-realization of export proceeds due to commercial or political risks
- (ii) different types of credit insurance covers to banks and other financial institutions to enable them to extend credit facilities to exporters and
- (iii) Export Factoring facility for MSME sector which is a package of financial products consisting of working capital financing, credit risk protection, maintenance of sales ledger and collection of export receivables from the buyer located in overseas country.
- Government of India had initially set up Export Risks Insurance Corporation (ERIC) in July 1957. It was transformed into Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation Limited (ECGC) in 1964 and to Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India in 1983.
Export-Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank)
- Exim Bank was established by the Government of India, under the Export-Import Bank of India Act, 1981 as a purveyor of export credit, mirroring global Export Credit Agencies.
- Exim Bank serves as a growth engine for industries and SMEs through a wide range of products and services. This includes import of technology and export product development, export production, export marketing, pre-shipment and post-shipment and overseas investment.
- To provide financial assistance to exporters and importers,
- Functioning as the principal financial institution for coordinating the working of institutions engaged in financing export and import of goods and services with a view to promoting the country’s international trade.
- Functions– Exim Bank extends Lines of Credit (LOCs) to overseas financial institutions, regional development banks, sovereign governments and other entities overseas, to enable buyers in those countries to import developmental and infrastructure projects, equipment, goods and services from India, on deferred credit terms.
- EXIM Bank has laid strong emphasis on enhancing project exports, the funding options for which have been enhanced with introduction of the Buyer’s Credit-National Export Insurance Account (BC-NEIA) program.
National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM)
- Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority healthcare needs of majority of the population. The essential medicines list needs to be country specific addressing the disease burden of the nation and the commonly used medicines at primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare levels.
- The medicines in National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) should be available at affordable costs and with assured quality. The medicines used in the various national health programmes, emerging and re-emerging infections should be addressed in the list.
- The Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOHFW) is mandated to ensure the quality healthcare system by assuring availability of safe and efficacious medicines for its population.
- The National List of Essential Medicines was first formulated in 1996 and it was revised thrice earlier in 2003, 2011, and 2015.
Purpose of the National List of Essential Medicines
- The primary purpose of NLEM is to promote rational use of medicines considering the three important aspects i.e. cost, safety and efficacy. The NLEM may have multiple uses. It can:
- Guide safe and effective treatment of priority disease conditions of a population
- Promote the rational use of medicines
- Optimize the available health resources of a country
The following criteria are followed for inclusion in NLEM:
- be useful in diseases which is a public health problem in India
- be licensed/ approved Drugs Controller General (India) (DCGI)
- have proven efficacy and safety profile based on scientific evidence
- be comparatively cost effective
- be aligned with the current treatment guidelines
- recommended under National Health Programs of India. (e.g. Ivermectin part of Accelerated Plan for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis 2018).
- when more than one medicine are available from the same therapeutic class, one prototype/ medically best suited medicine of that class to be included.
- price of total treatment is considered and not the unit price of a medicine
- fixed dose combinations are usually not included
- vaccines as and when are included in Universal Immunization Program (e.g. Rotavirus vaccine).
Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)
- The Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) is a government initiative to deal with cybercrime in India, in a coordinated and effective manner. It is affiliated to the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
- It aims to provide a platform to deal with cybercrimes in a coordinated and comprehensive manner. One of the important objectives of I4C is to create ecosystem that brings together academia, industry, public and government in prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.
- I4C has envisaged the Cyber Crime Volunteers Program to bring together citizens with passion to serve the nation on a single platform and contribute in fight against cybercrime in the country.
The scheme has following seven components:
(i) National Cybercrime Threat Analytics Unit.
(ii) National Cybercrime Reporting Portal.
(iii) Platform for Joint Cybercrime Investigation Team.
(iv) National Cybercrime Forensic Laboratory Ecosystem.
(v) National Cybercrime Training Centre.
(vi) Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit.
(vii) National Cyber Research and Innovation Centre
NATIONAL CYBERCRIME THREAT ANALYTICS UNIT (TAU)
- Platform for analysing all pieces of puzzles of cybercrimes.
- Produce cybercrime threat intelligence reports and organize periodic interaction on specific cybercrime centric discussions.
- Create multi-stakeholder environment for bringing together law enforcement specialists and industry experts.
NATIONAL CYBERCRIME REPORTING
- Facilitate reporting of all types of cyber crime incidents with special focus on cyber crime against women and children .
- Automated routing to concerned State/UT based on information furnished in the reported incident for appropriate action in accordance with law.
- Facilitate complainants to view status of action taken on the reported incident.
PLATFORM FOR JOINT CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATION
- To drive intelligence-led, coordinated action against key cybercrime threats and targets.
- Facilitate the joint identification, prioritization, preparation and initiation of multi-jurisdictional action against cybercrimes.
NATIONAL CYBERCRIME FORENSIC LABORATORY (NCFL) ECOSYSTEM
- Forensic analysis and investigation of cybercrime as a result of new digital technology and techniques.
- A centre to support investigation process. NCFL and associated Central Forensic Science Laboratory to be well-equipped and well-staffed in order to engage in analysis and investigation activities to keep-up with new technical developments.
NATIONAL CYBERCRIME TRAINING CENTRE (NCTC)
- Standardization of course curriculum focused on cybercrimes, impact containment and investigations, imparting practical cybercrime detection, containment and reporting trainings on simulated cyber environments.
- Development of Massive Open Online Course on a cloud based training platform.
- National Cybercrime Training Centre to also focus on establishing Cyber Range for advanced simulation and training on cyber-attack and investigation of such cybercrimes.
CYBERCRIME ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT UNIT
- Develop ecosystems that bring together academia, industry and government to spread awareness n cyber crimes, establish standard operating procedures to contain the impact of cybercrimes and respond to cybercrimes.
- Provide support for development of all components of cybercrime combatting ecosystem.
NATIONAL CYBER CRIME RESEARCH AND INNOVATION CENTRE
- Track emerging technological developments, proactively predict potential vulnerabilities, which can be exploited by cybercriminals.
- To leverage the strength and expertise of all stakeholders, be it in academia, private sector or inter-governmental organizations.
- Create strategic partnerships with all such entities in the area of research and innovation focused on cybercrimes, cybercrime impact containment and investigations.
Public Provident Fund (PPF) and Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana or SSY
- Public Provident Fund (PPF) scheme is a long-term investment option in India. This scheme is aimed at providing substantial returns along with tax benefits to the investor.
- A PPF account can be opened in almost all the public and private sector banks across India. Apart from Banks, it can also be opened in post offices.
- PPF returns are fully exempt from tax under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. Furthermore, depositors can also save tax by depositing a minimum of Rs.500 to a maximum Rs.1,50,000 in one financial year, along with facilities such as loan, withdrawal, and extension of account.
- Loan facility is available from 3rd financial year up to 6th financial year. Withdrawal is permissible every year from 7th financial year.
- Account matures on completion of fifteen complete financial years from the end of the year in which the account was opened. After maturity, account can be extended for any number for a block of 5 years with further deposits.
- Tenure– The PPF has a minimum tenure of 15 years, which can be extended in blocks of 5 years as per your wish.
- Risk factor: Since PPF is backed by the Indian government, it offers guaranteed, risk-free returns as well as complete capital protection. The element of risk involved in holding a PPF account is minimal. As the returns from PPF accounts are fixed, they are used as a diversification tool for the investor’s portfolio.
Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana or SSY
- Initiated as a part of the government’s ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ campaign, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana or SSY is a welfare scheme designed for the girl child. An SSY account can be opened in any bank or post office across India.
- Investing in Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana allows parents or legal guardians to ensure financial security for a girl child aged ten years or below.
- Minimum deposit ₹ 250/- Maximum deposit ₹ 1.5 Lakh in a financial year. Account can be opened in the name of a girl child till she attains the age of 10 years. Only one account can be opened in the name of a girl child.
- Withdrawal shall be allowed for the purpose of higher education of the Account holder to meet education expenses.
- The account can be prematurely closed in case of marriage of girl child after her attaining the age of 18 years.
- The account can be transferred anywhere in India from one Post office/Bank to another.
- The account shall mature on completion of a period of 21 years from the date of opening of account.
- Deposit qualifies for deduction under Sec.80-C of I.T.Act.
- Interest earned in the account is free from Income Tax under Section -10 of I.T.Act.
Daylight Saving Time (DST)
- Daylight Saving Time is the practice of resetting clocks ahead by an hour in spring, and behind by an hour in autumn (or fall). During these months, countries that follow this system get an extra hour of daylight in the evening.
- Because the spring to fall cycle is opposite in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, DST lasts from March to October/November in Europe and the US, and from September/October to April in New Zealand and Australia.
- Dates for this switch, which happens twice a year (in the spring and autumn) are decided beforehand.
- DST is in practice in some 70 countries, including those in the European Union. India does not follow daylight saving time; countries near the Equator do not experience high variations in daytime hours between seasons.
- The rationale behind setting clocks ahead of standard time, usually by 1 hour during springtime, is to ensure that the clocks show a later sunrise and later sunset — in effect a longer evening daytime. Individuals will wake an hour earlier than usual, complete their daily work routines an hour earlier, and have an extra hour of daylight at the end.
- The key argument is that DST is meant to save energy. A century ago, when DST was introduced, more daylight did mean less use of artificial light. But modern society uses so much energy-consuming appliances all day long that the amount of energy saved is negligible.
- Advantages and Disadvantages- Various studies have been conducted on the benefits and disadvantages of DST. Among the biggest cons is the disruption of the body clock or circadian rhythm. A Higher rate of workplace injuries after the switch, leading to lost days of work; a slight drop in stock market performance; health problems as a result of disruption of the circadian rhythm (body clock) — and even longer sentences ordered by judges deprived of sleep.