Daily Current Affairs : 27th August 2022

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Tuberculosis
  2. Section 123 of RPA Act
  3. Net Zero Report
  4. Facts for Prelims

1 . Tuberculosis

Context: After running an active case-finding campaign to detect instances of Tuberculosis (TB) among tribal populations over the past six months, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and the Central TB Division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have now zeroed in on 75 tribal districts, where focused interventions will be run over the next few months with the aim to make them TB-free.

About the campaign

  • The campaign to detect TB cases across 174 tribal districts in the States of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhatisgarh, Assam, Gujarat, Telangana and others started this January under the Aashwasan Campaign, under which door-to-door screening was done in over 68,000 villages. 
  • Official data showed that 3,82,811 people were identified for presumptive TB after a verbal screening of over 1.03 crore people in these villages.
  • Of these, over 2.79 lakh people’s samples were tested for TB, among which, 9,971 people tested positive and were placed under treatment.
  • Findings from the campaign indicated that tribal populations are more vulnerable to TB and other respiratory diseases compared to other population groups.
  • Health and Tribal Affairs ministries have decided on a three-pronged strategy to address the high incidence of TB in the selected 75 tribal districts, keeping with the government’s mission to make India TB-free by 2025, a government statement said.
  • This includes generating demand for TB services by engaging with community influencers like tribal leaders, tribal healers, Panchayati Raj Institution members, Self-Help Groups and youth in the tribal areas, who are expected to help increase awareness on TB.
  • To guide the implementation of these measures, the government plans to deploy two officials each at the district level and three officials in each of the state TB cells.

What Is Tuberculosis?

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks your lungs. 
  • A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. 
  • Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.
    • People with latent TB infection: They have TB germs in their bodies, but they are not sick because the germs are not active. 
      • These people do not have symptoms of TB disease, and they cannot spread the germs to others. 
      • However, they may develop TB disease in the future. They are often prescribed treatment to prevent them from developing TB disease.
    • People with TB disease: They are sick from TB germs that are active, meaning that they are multiplying and destroying tissue in their bodies. 
      • They usually have symptoms of TB disease. People with TB disease of the lungs or throat are capable of spreading germs to others. They are prescribed drugs that can treat TB disease.
  • Symptoms
    • Feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. 
    • It may include coughing, chest pain, and the coughing up of blood. 
    • Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected.
  • Spread: TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. Persons who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected; this is called latent TB infection.
    • It is not spread by shaking someone’s hand, sharing food or drink, touching bed linens or toilet seats, sharing toothbrushes etc.
  • TB is the leading cause of death of people with HIV and is also a major contributor to antimicrobial resistance.
  • Most of the people who fall ill with TB live in low- and middle-income countries, but TB is present all over the world. About half of all people with TB can be found in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa.
  • About one-quarter of the world’s population is estimated to be infected by TB bacteria.
    • Only 5-15% of these people will fall ill with active TB disease. The rest have TB infections but are not ill and cannot transmit the disease. Both TB infection and disease are curable using antibiotics.

TB Testing & Diagnosis

  • There are two kinds of tests used to detect TB bacteria in the body: 
    • TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests.  
  • A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. 
  • Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the person has TB disease.
  • Diagnosis: If a person is infected with TB bacteria, other tests are needed to see if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease.


  • TB disease is curable. It is treated by a standard 6-month course of 4 antibiotics.
    • Common drugs include rifampicin and isoniazid. In some cases, the TB bacteria do not respond to the standard drugs. In this case, the patient has drug-resistant TB. Treatment for drug-resistant TB is longer and more complex. 
  • The course of TB drugs is provided to the patient with information, supervision and support by a health worker or trained volunteer. 
    • Without such support, treatment adherence can be difficult. If the treatment is not properly completed, the disease can become drug-resistant and can spread.
  • In the case of TB infection, TB preventive treatment can be given to stop the onset of the disease. This treatment uses the same drugs for a shorter time. Recent treatment options have shortened the duration of treatment to only 1 or 3 months, as compared to 6 months in the past. 


  • Drug resistance emerges when anti-TB medicines are used inappropriately, through incorrect prescription by health care providers, poor quality drugs, and patients stopping treatment prematurely.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful, first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs.
  • However, second-line treatment options are limited and require extensive chemotherapy (up to 2 years of treatment) with medicines that are expensive and toxic.
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs, often leaving patients without any further treatment options.

Initiatives to control TB

  • International: 
    • The End TB Strategy: WHO’s post-2015 End TB Strategy, adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2014, aims to end the global TB epidemic as part of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals.
      • It serves as a blueprint for countries to reduce TB incidence by 80%, and TB deaths by 90%, and eliminate catastrophic costs for TB-affected households by 2030. 
      • The Strategy is not a “one size fits all” approach and its success depends on adaptation to diverse country settings.
    • Global Tuberculosis Programme and Report, 1+1 initiative & Multisectoral Accountability Framework for TB by WHO.
    • Ending the TB epidemic by 2030 under UN SDG target 3.3.
    • Moscow Declaration, 2017 to End TB.
  • Indian Efforts
    • National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme: National Strategic Plan to end TB by 2025 under pillars of Detect-Treat-Prevent-Build (DTPB).
    • Universal Immunisation Programme.
    • Revised National TB Control Programme under the National Health Mission.
    • NIKSHAY portal and TB Sample Transport Network.
    • Development of National Framework for Gender-Responsive approach to TB

2 . Section 123 of RPA

Context: The Supreme Court has decided to reconsider a 2013 judgment, which held that promises in the election manifesto do not constitute a “corrupt practice” under the law.


  • A Bench led by the Chief Justice of India ordered to set up a three-judge Bench to review the court’s earlier position that such pre-poll promises made by political parties to entice voters do not fall within the ambit of Section 123 (corrupt practices) under the Representation of the People (RP) Act.
  • The S. Subramaniam Balaji judgment, delivered by a two-judge Bench, had observed that “although the law is obvious that the promises in the election manifesto cannot be construed as ‘corrupt practice’ under Section 123 of RP Act, the reality cannot be ruled out that distribution of freebies of any kind, undoubtedly, influences all people”.

Section 123 of RPA

Under Section 123 of the Representation of People Act, 1951, following are considered corrupt practices:

  • Bribery (any gift, offer, promise or gratification of any sort by the candidate or his/her agent to the voter or to another candidate contesting elections)
  • Undue influence: direct or indirect influence exercised by the candidate or his/her agent; includes threats, attempts to induce voters or other candidates, declaration of public policy or action or the mere exercise of a legal right etc.
  • Use of Force/coercion
  • Appeal by a candidate or his election agent to refrain from voting on grounds of religion, race, caste, community or language. This also includes the promotion of, or attempt to promote, feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of the citizens of India on grounds of religion, race, caste, community, or language, by a candidate or his agent or any other person with the consent of a candidate or his election agent to improve prospects of the election of that candidate or for affecting the election of any other candidate.
  • Use of national symbols, national emblem, national flag to further the prospect of the election of the candidate or for prejudicially affecting the election of any other candidate.
  • Publication by the candidate or his election agent of any false statement of fact which he either believes to be false or does not believe to be true, in relation to the personal character or conduct of any other candidate, or in relation to his/her candidature. Such a statement can also include a statement which is reasonably calculated to prejudice the prospects of that candidate’s election.
  • Use of/hiring/permanent fixing of vehicles by a candidate or his election agent prohibited under Section 25 and 29(1) of the Representation of People Act, 1951.
  • Making false statements relating to elections expenditure.
  • Abetting or attempting to obtain the service of government servants for the furtherance of the prospects of elections. These government servants can be gazetted officers, magistrates, members of the armed forces, police officers, excise officers, revenue officers other than the village revenue officers e.g lambardars, deshmukhs etc.
  • Booth capturing by a candidate or his/her election agent.

What did Supreme Court say?

  • Chief Justice said the three-judge Bench should consider whether an “enforceable” order can be passed to stop political parties in power from promising and distributing “irrational freebies”, not related to actual welfare schemes, using public money in order to merely “capture vote banks”.
  • Freebies may create a situation wherein the State government cannot provide basic amenities due to a lack of funds and the State is pushed towards imminent bankruptcy.
  • The bench will also deliberate if an expert body can be formed to independently study and make recommendations against the distribution of largesse at the cost of the national economy and public welfare.
  • The court had recently urged the Centre to call an all-party meeting to discuss freebies.
  • It said that the electorate is the final judge in a democracy, and decides which party or candidate comes to power and also judges the performances of the party/candidates at the end of their legislative terms during the next round of elections.

Stand of political parties

  • Several political parties have argued that “not all promises are freebies” and welfare measures rolled out for public good cannot be equated with “freebies”. 
  • The parties had dissuaded the court from “gagging” a welfare state from following the Directive Principles of State Policy and distributing benefits to the people.

3 . Net zero report

Context: India will require an economy-wide investment of $10.1 trillion from now if it is to achieve its net-zero emissions target by 2070, according to a report released by former Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd and others in New Delhi 

Highlights of the report

  • The report was commissioned by the High-level Policy Commission on Getting Asia to Net Zero.
  • It highlights that achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2070, a target that the Indian Prime Minister committed to in Glasgow in 2021, could boost India’s economy by 4.7% above the projected baseline growth in GDP terms by 2036, worth a total of $371 billion.
    • It could create as many as 15 million new jobs by 2047.
  • India will require an economy-wide investment of $10.1 trillion from now if it is to achieve its net-zero emissions target by 2070.
  • India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets set in 2015 are likely to be met early within the next few years through current policies.
  • The report said India could peak in emissions as soon as 2030.
  • Further policies, especially to boost renewables and electrification, could make net zero possible by mid-century. 
  • Ending new coal by 2023 and transitioning from unabated coal power by 2040 would be particularly impactful for reaching net zero emissions closer to mid-century.

High-level Policy Commission on Getting Asia to Net Zero

  • It was constituted by Asia Society Policy Institute, a New York-based think tank.
  • It aims to urgently accelerate Asia’s transition to net zero emissions while ensuring that the region thrives and prospers through this transition. 
  • Through research, analysis and engagement, the Commission’s diverse set of recognized Asian leaders are advancing a powerful, coherent, and Paris-aligned regional vision for net zero emissions.
  • Its purpose is to navigate shared futures for Asia and the world across policy, arts and culture, education, sustainability, business, and technology.

About Net Zero target

  • Net-zero, which is also referred to as carbon-neutrality, does not mean that a country would bring down its emissions to zero. Rather, net-zero is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.
  • Absorption of the emissions can be increased by creating more carbon sinks such as forests, while removal of gases from the atmosphere requires futuristic technologies such as carbon capture and storage.
  • This way, it is even possible for a country to have negative emissions, if the absorption and removal exceed the actual emissions. A good example is Bhutan which is often described as carbon-negative because it absorbs more than it emits
  • Gross zero would mean stopping all emissions, which isn’t realistically attainable across all sectors of our lives and industry. Even with best efforts to reduce them, there will still be some emissions.

4 . Facts for Prelims 

Court of chief command for PWD

Context: The court of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities (CCPD) on Wednesday ordered Practo, the online healthcare service provider, to make its website and app fully accessible for the disabled, affirming that legal requirements and guidelines on accessibility applied to private companies.

About Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities (CCPD)

  • The Office of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities was set up under Section 57 (1) of the erstwhile Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act 1995 and continues to function under Section 74 of the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016.
  • Mandate: to coordinate the work of the State Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities, monitor utilization of funds disbursed by the Central Government and take steps to safeguard the rights and facilities made available to persons with disabilities. 
  • The Chief Commissioners may also, on his own motion, or on the application of any aggrieved persons or otherwise looks into complaints relating to deprivation of rights of persons with disabilities or non-implementation of rules, bye-laws, regulations, executive orders, guidelines, or instructions etc. made or issued for the welfare and protection of rights of persons with disabilities and take up the matter with the concerned authorities. 
  • Power of civil court: The Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities has been assigned certain powers of a Civil Court for the effective discharge of the functions.
  • Commissioner’s office has been an accessible and expeditious site of dispute resolution for PwDs. 

Zorawar light tank

Context: With the experience of deploying armour at an altitude of 15,000 ft. to outmanoeuvre the movement of Chinese forces during the stand-off in eastern Ladakh, the Indian Army is prioritising the procurement of the indigenous Indian light tank named ‘Zorawar’, for deployment in the mountains.

About Zorawar light tank

  • The Indigenous Indian Light Tank named ‘Zorawar’ will be designed to operate from the High Altitude Area, the marginal terrain to the Island territories and will be highly transportable for rapid deployment to meet any operational situation.
  • It will have niche technologies including Artificial Intelligence, Drone integration, Active Protection System, High Degree of Situational Awareness.
  • Zorawar Singh Kahluria was the famed military general of Dogra King Gulab Singh and was adept at mountain warfare. New tanks will be named after him. 
  • These tanks will be procured under ‘Project Zorawar’ — named after legendary Zorawar Singh, a military general who served under Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu.
  • Missile-firing capability, counter-drone apparatus, warning system and a power-to-weight ratio will make the tanks “very agile”.
  • Light tanks will help the Army overcome the limitations of medium battle tanks and equip the force for all contingencies in high altitude areas, marginal terrain and island territories besides its utilisation in the plains, semi-deserts and deserts.
  • The biggest advantage of light tanks is that they are “air portable” and thus in consonance with the strategic lift capability from Leh in eastern Ladakh

Lumpy skin disease

Context: The Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) has played havoc in the country, killing thousands of cattle in many States. Managing Director (MD) of Amul, the cooperative giant in the milk sector.

Said that the situation in Gujarat is completely under control and the disease will not impact milk production, sales or prices in the long run.

About The Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) 

  • Causing Agent: LSD is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which is a virus of the capripoxvirus genus in the poxviridae family. 
    • Sheeppox virus and goatpox virus are the other members of the genus capripoxvirus. 
  • Spread: It mainly affects cattle — cows and their progeny, and the Asian water buffaloes.
    • It spreads through blood-sucking vectors like ticks and mites like houseflies, mosquitoes, etc. 
    • It also spreads through contaminated water, fodder and feed. 
    • Scientists have been advising isolation of infected animals from healthy ones to contain the spread of the virus. 
    • However, there is a problem of feral cattle in Gujarat — the state where cow slaughter is prohibited — and scientists say these free-ranging cattle could also be a reason for the rapid spread of LSD.
  • Symptoms: LSDV attacks the circulatory system of an animal and causes vasculitis or inflammation of blood vessels and lesions in various organs like liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes etc.
    • In turn, it causes epidermis, making the outer surface of the skin to get separated from dermis – the inner layer of the skin. 
    • This leads to the formation of lumps or nodules on an animal’s body. 
    • Fever, increased mucus secretion, loss of appetite etc are among other symptoms.

What FAO report has to say on LSD?

  • According to a 2021 report of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations, LSD outbreaks occur in epidemics several years apart. 
    • As per the report, the existence of a specific reservoir for the virus is not known, nor is it known how and where the virus survives between epidemics.
  • According to the report, LSD was long restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. 
    • However, over the past decade, it spread to the Middle East and Turkey. 
    • From 2015 onward, it has impacted the Balkan (southeast Europe) countries, Caucus (eastern Europe) and Russia. 
    • LSD entered India, Bangladesh and China in July 2019. 
    • Since then, outbreaks of the disease have been reported from 20 Indian states – Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

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