Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- Global Solar Stock Take Report
- LS Ethics committee
- Preventive Detention
- Surrogacy Act
- Green Hydrogen
- China – Bhutan Border talks
- Facts for Prelims – Vertical Wind tunnel
1 . Global Solar Stock Take Report
Context: The International Solar Alliance (ISA), will for the first time compile and release a ‘global solar stocktake report’.
About the Report
- The ‘solar stocktake’ would take stock of the progress made by countries in the solar energy sector. It would be released in mid-November.
- It is inspired by the first ever ‘Global Stocktake’ of the United Nations Conference of Parties, scheduled to be held in Dubai later this year. Here countries are expected to give an account of the actions taken until now to transition their economies away from fossil fuel and lay out plans to course correct, if their commitments are insufficient to prevent runaway global warming. The Global Stock take follows from the Paris Agreement signed in 2015 and is expected to be held once in five years.
- It will also look at ways to broaden manufacturing of solar energy equipment , which is currently concentrated in China.
About International Solar Alliance
- The ISA, is an Indian initiative that was launchedby the Prime Minister of India and the President of France on 30 November 2015 at Paris, France on the side-lines of the COP-21, with 121 solar resource rich countries lying fully or partially between the tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn as prospective members.
- The ISA was initially open to countries that were fully or partially located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. However, in 2018, the membership of ISA was opened to all UN members
- The overarching objective of the ISA is to collectively address key common challenges to the scaling up of solar energy in ISA member countries.
- It also aims to undertake joint efforts required to reduce the cost of finance and the cost of technology, mobilize investments needed for massive deployment of solar energy, and pave the way for future technologies adapted to the needs.
- ISA has been positioned to help create the conditions that would make funding, developing and deploying solar applications on a large scale a reality. ISA is now perceived as key to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and objectives of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.
- It is headquartered in Gurugram, India.
- The Assembly of the ISA is the apex decision-making body which comprises of representatives from each Member Country.
- The Assembly deliberates matters of substance such as the selection of the Director General, achievement of ISA objectives, its functioning, approval of operating budget and more.
- This ultimate cohort of the ISA also assesses the implementation and aggregate effect of the Programmes and other activities under the Alliance, in terms of deployment of solar energy, performance, reliability, as well as cost and scale of finance. Thereupon, the Assembly determines the course of coordinated actions to be taken for the development and furtherance of the ISA Programmes.
- The Assembly convenes annually wherein the ISA Member Country representatives exercise their votes to make all necessary decisions regarding the said matters, in the presence of non-voting participants including observers, prospective member nations, partner organizations and special invitees. The ISA Framework Agreement asserts that the Assembly may also meet under special circumstances.
- It is headquartered in Gurugram, India.
Objectives of the ISA
- To collectively address key common challenges to scale up solar energy applications in line with their needs;
- To mobilize investments of more than USD 1000 billion by 2030;
- To take coordinated action through programmes and activities launched on a voluntary basis, aimed at better harmonization, aggregation of demand, risk and resources, for promoting solar finance, solar technologies, innovation, R&D, capacity building etc.;
- Reduce the cost of finance to increase investments in solar energy in member countries by promoting innovative financial mechanisms and mobilizing finance from Institutions;
- Scale up applications of solar technologies in member countries, and
- Facilitate collaborative research and development (R&D) activities in solar energy technologies among member countries.
- Promote a common cyber platform for networking, cooperation and exchange of ideas among member countries
Importance of ISA
- Climate Change Mitigation: ISA promotes the use of solar energy, which is a clean and renewable energy source. By accelerating solar adoption, it contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change.
- Energy Access: ISA focuses on expanding access to affordable and sustainable solar energy, particularly in regions with limited energy access. This helps improve the quality of life and economic opportunities for millions of people.
- Economic Development: Solar energy projects and investments foster economic development by creating jobs, attracting investments, and driving innovation in the renewable energy sector. ISA supports member countries in harnessing these economic benefits.
- Energy Security: By diversifying energy sources and reducing reliance on fossil fuels, ISA enhances energy security for member nations. Solar power can be harnessed locally, reducing vulnerability to global energy market fluctuations.
- Sustainable Development Goals: ISA’s efforts align with various Sustainable Development Goals, including clean energy (SDG 7), climate action (SDG 13), and partnerships for sustainable development (SDG 17).
2 . LS Ethics committee
Context: The Lok Sabha Ethics Committee, which will take up Nishikant Dubey’s complaint against Mahua Moitra, last met on July 27, 2021, according to information on the Parliament website.
History of Ethics Committees
- A Presiding Officers’ Conference held in Delhi in 1996 first mooted the idea of ethics panels for the two Houses.
- Then Vice President (and Rajya Sabha Chairman) K R Narayanan constituted the Ethics Committee of the Upper House on March 4, 1997, and it was inaugurated that May to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of members and examine cases of misconduct referred to it. The Rules applicable to the Committee of Privileges also apply to the ethics panel.
- In the case of Lok Sabha, a study group of the House Committee of Privileges, after visiting Australia, the UK, and the US in 1997 to look into practices pertaining to the conduct and ethics of legislators, recommended the constitution of an Ethics Committee, but it could not be taken up by Lok Sabha.
- The Committee of Privileges finally recommended the constitution of an Ethics Committee during the 13th Lok Sabha. The late Speaker, G M C Balayogi, constituted an ad hoc Ethics Committee in 2000, which became a permanent part of the House only in 2015.
Procedure for complaints
- Any person can complain against a Member through another Lok Sabha MP, along with evidence of the alleged misconduct, and an affidavit stating that the complaint is not “false, frivolous, or vexatious”. If the Member himself complains, the affidavit is not needed.
- The Speaker can refer to the Committee any complaint against an MP.
- The Committee does not entertain complaints based only on media reports or on matters that are sub judice. The Committee makes a prima facie inquiry before deciding to examine a complaint. It makes its recommendations after evaluating the complaint.
- The Committee presents its report to the Speaker, who asks the House if the report should be taken up for consideration. There is also a provision for a half-hour discussion on the report.
Overlap with the Privileges Committee
- The work of the Ethics Committee and the Privileges Committee often overlap.
- An allegation of corruption against an MP can be sent to either body, but usually more serious accusations go to the Privileges Committee.
- The mandate of the Privileges Committee is to safeguard the “freedom, authority, and dignity of Parliament”. These privileges are enjoyed by individual Members as well as the House as a whole.
- An MP can be examined for breach of privilege; a non-MP too can be accused of breach of privilege for actions that attack the authority and dignity of the House.
- The Ethics Committee can take up only cases of misconduct that involve MPs.
3 . Preventive Detention
Context: As Telangana gears up for Assembly polls next month, its stringent preventive detention law is under the spotlight. In at least three separate instances, the Supreme Court has red-flagged the Telangana government’s use of the law.
What is preventive detention ?
- Preventive detention means detention of a person by the state without trial and conviction by court, but merely on suspicion. The detention could be up to a year unless extended.
- A pre-trial detention is not the same as preventive detention. While the former is an undertrial accused of a crime, a detainee can be taken into custody just as a preventive measure even if he has not committed a crime.
- In countries such as Britain, United States and Canada, preventive detention is a wartime measure. In India, the Constitution itself makes space for preventive detention. Part III of the Constitution, which deals with fundamental rights, also gives the state the power to suspend these rights for preventive detention. Despite its emphasis on individual liberty, Part III, which forms the basic structure of the Constitution that cannot be amended, also contains provisions for preventive detention under Article 22.
Under what laws can the state order preventive detention ?
- Among central legislations, the National Security Act, the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (COFEPOSA) are examples of laws under which preventive detention can be ordered.
- As many as 25 states also have preventive detention legislations, like the Telangana law, which is called The Telangana Prevention of Dangerous Activities of Boot Leggers, Dacoits, Drug-Offenders, Goondas, Immoral Traffic Offenders, Land-Grabbers, Spurious Seed Offenders, Insecticide Offenders, Fertiliser Offenders, Food Adulteration Offenders, Fake Document Offenders, Scheduled Commodities Offenders, Forest Offenders, Gaming Offenders, Sexual Offenders, Explosive Substances Offenders, Arms Offenders, Cyber Crime Offenders and White Collar or Financial Offenders Act, (PD Act), 1986.
- These are expansive laws specifically addressed to local law and order issues. Other examples are the Tamil Nadu Prevention of Dangerous Activities of Bootleggers, Drug Offenders, Forest Offenders, Goondas, Immoral Trafficking Offenders and Slum Grabbers Act, 1982; the Gujarat Prevention of Antisocial Activities Act, 1985; the Bihar Control of Crimes Act, 1981, etc.
What are the powers of the state ?
- Article 22 prescribes protection against arrest and detention but has a major exception. It says in Article 22 (3) (b) that none of those safeguards apply “to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.” The remaining clauses — Article 22(4)-(7) — deal with how preventive detention operationalises.
- First, the state, which would be the district magistrate, would issue an order to detain a person when it is necessary to maintain “public order.” The state can delegate this power to the police as well.
- If the detention ordered is for more than three months, under Article 22(4), such a detention requires the approval of an Advisory Board. These Boards are set up by states and normally consist of retired judges and bureaucrats. A detainee is generally not allowed legal representation before the Board. If the Board confirms the detention, the detainee can move Court challenging the detention order.
- Yet, even this safeguard is diluted to a certain extent by Article 22(6), which says that nothing in clause 5 shall require the state to “disclose facts that the state considers to be “ against the public interest to disclose.”
How do courts assess the detention orders ?
- In cases of preventive detention, the Constitution places a strong emphasis on the state’s “subjective satisfaction,” limiting the grounds for judicial review. The primary criterion for evaluating a detention order is the state’s subjective judgment rather than the protection of fundamental rights in the Constitution. When the court cannot replace the state’s subjective satisfaction with its own judgment, it implies an inability to verify the accuracy of the facts presented in the detention grounds.
- Judicial review is restricted to assessing whether the Advisory Board appropriately considered all relevant information and whether there is clear evidence of malicious intent on the part of the state in ordering the detention. Due to this limited scope of review, courts often invalidate detention orders based on technicalities such as delays in the advisory board’s decision, timely communication of grounds in a language understandable to the detainee, and similar procedural issues.
4 . Surrogacy Act
Context: The Supreme Court has protected the right of parenthood of a woman, suffering from a rare medical condition, by staying the operation of a law which threatened to wreck her hopes to become a mother through surrogacy.
About the News
- A recent government notification this year amended the surrogacy law, banning the use of donor gametes. It said “intending couples” must use their own gametes for surrogacy.
- The petition against the amendment was filed in the Supreme Court challenging it as a violation of a woman’s right to parenthood.
- The petitioner’s lawyer argued that the 2023 amendment contradicted Sections 2(r) and 4 of the Surrogacy Act, 2021, which recognised the situation when a medical condition would require a couple to opt for gestational surrogacy in order to become parents.
- The court held that the amendment cannot contradict Rule 14(a) which specifically recognises the absence of a uterus or any allied condition as a medical indication necessitating gestational surrogacy.
What is Surrogacy?
- Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction in which a woman, known as the surrogate mother, carries and gives birth to a child for another individual or couple, known as the intended parents.
- There are two types of Surrogacy: Traditional and Gestational.
- Traditional Surrogacy: In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is genetically related to the child. This means that she uses her own egg to conceive, and the intended father’s sperm or a donor’s sperm is used for fertilization.
- Gestational Surrogacy: In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate mother is not genetically related to the child she carries. Instead, an embryo created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the eggs and sperm of the intended parents or donors is implanted into her uterus.
About Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021
- The Act defines surrogacy as a practice where a woman gives birth to a child for an intending couple with the intention to hand over the child after the birth to the intending couple.
Regulation of surrogacy
- The Act prohibits commercial surrogacy, but allows altruistic surrogacy.
- Altruistic surrogacy involves no monetary compensation to the surrogate mother other than the medical expenses and insurance coverage during the pregnancy.
- Commercial surrogacy includes surrogacy or its related procedures undertaken for a monetary benefit or reward (in cash or kind) exceeding the basic medical expenses and insurance coverage.
Purposes for which surrogacy is permitted
- Surrogacy is permitted when it is:
- for intending couples who suffer from proven infertility
- not for commercial purposes
- not for producing children for sale, prostitution or other forms of exploitation
- for any condition or disease specified through regulations.
Eligibility criteria for intending couple
- The intending couple should have a ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ issued by the appropriate authority.
- A certificate of essentiality will be issued upon fulfilment of the following conditions:
- a certificate of proven infertility of one or both members of the intending couple from a District Medical Board;
- an order of parentage and custody of the surrogate child passed by a Magistrate’s court; and )
- insurance coverage for a period of 16 months covering postpartum delivery complications for the surrogate.
- The certificate of eligibility to the intending couple is issued upon fulfilment of the following conditions:
- the couple being Indian citizens and married for at least five years;
- between 23 to 50 years old (wife) and 26 to 55 years old (husband);
- they do not have any surviving child (biological, adopted or surrogate); this would not include a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from life threatening disorder or fatal illness;
- other conditions that may be specified by regulations.
Eligibility criteria for surrogate mother
- To obtain a certificate of eligibility from the appropriate authority, the surrogate mother has to be:
- a close relative of the intending couple;
- a married woman having a child of her own;
- 25 to 35 years old;
- a surrogate only once in her lifetime; and
- possess a certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy.
- Further, the surrogate mother cannot provide her own gametes for surrogacy.
- The central and state governments shall appoint one or more appropriate authorities within 90 days of the Bill becoming an Act.
- The functions of the appropriate authority include;
- granting, suspending or cancelling registration of surrogacy clinics;
- enforcing standards for surrogacy clinics;
- investigating and taking action against breach of the provisions of the Bill;
- recommending modifications to the rules and regulations.
Registration of surrogacy clinics
- Surrogacy clinics cannot undertake surrogacy related procedures unless they are registered by the appropriate authority.
- Clinics must apply for registration within a period of 60 days from the date of appointment of the appropriate authority.
National and State Surrogacy Boards
- The central and the state governments shall constitute the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and the State Surrogacy Boards (SSB), respectively.
- Functions of the NSB include,
- advising the central government on policy matters relating to surrogacy;
- laying down the code of conduct of surrogacy clinics; and
- supervising the functioning of SSBs.
Parentage and abortion of surrogate child
- A child born out of a surrogacy procedure will be deemed to be the biological child of the intending couple.
- An abortion of the surrogate child requires the written consent of the surrogate mother and the authorisation of the appropriate authority.
- This authorisation must be compliant with the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.
- Further, the surrogate mother will have an option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.
Offences and penalties
- The offences under the Bill include:
- undertaking or advertising commercial surrogacy
- exploiting the surrogate mother
- abandoning, exploiting or disowning a surrogate child
- selling or importing human embryo or gametes for surrogacy.
- The penalty for such offences is imprisonment up to 10 years and a fine up to 10 lakh rupees.
- The act specifies a range of offences and penalties for other contraventions of the provisions of the act.
5 . Green Hydrogen
Context: India’s plans to produce so-called ‘green hydrogen’ — where the gas is produced without resulting in fossil fuel emissions — may end up worsening pollution if proper checks and balances are not in place, according to a study by environmental and energy think-tank, Climate Risk Horizons (CRH).
What is Green Hydrogen?
- The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has defined green hydrogen as hydrogen produced in a way that emits no more than two kg of carbon dioxide per kg of such hydrogen.
- It is produced through a process that utilizes renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar power, to electrolyze water (H2O).
- During this electrolysis process, electricity derived from renewable sources is used to split water into its constituent elements: hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2).
Types of hydrogen
- Brown or Black Hydrogen- Hydrogen produced from coal.
- Grey hydrogen is produced from natural gas
- ‘Blue’ hydrogen is from fossil fuel sources where the ensuring carbon emitted is captured via carbon-capture processes.
- Green hydrogen is completely sustainable, producing no polluting gases in either its combustion or production processes.
- It is easily storable, enabling its use at different times and for various purposes beyond immediate production.
- Additionally, green hydrogen is versatile, as it can be converted into electricity or synthetic gas, serving a wide range of applications in commercial, industrial, or transportation sectors.
- Decarbonization: In sectors where direct electrification is challenging or costly, such as steel and chemical production, green hydrogen can facilitate decarbonization efforts by replacing fossil fuels as a clean energy source.
- Global Transition: Green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a global transition to cleaner energy sources. Its adoption can help countries meet their climate goals and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
- Cost: Green hydrogen production is currently more expensive than hydrogen produced from fossil fuels (grey or blue hydrogen). The cost of renewable energy sources and electrolysis technologies must continue to decrease to make green hydrogen economically competitive.
- Using Coal-based power: if electrolysers were run 24×7, they would be expected to operate even at night when no solar power is available. If it comes from India’s coal-powered grid in general, it will in fact increase carbon emissions, since about 70% of the electricity on the grid is coal-generated.
- Infrastructure: Establishing the necessary infrastructure for green hydrogen production, storage, and transportation is a substantial challenge. This includes building electrolysis facilities, hydrogen pipelines, and refueling stations.
- Storage and Transportation: Hydrogen is challenging to store and transport due to its low energy density. Developing safe and efficient storage and transportation methods is a crucial challenge.
National Green Hydrogen Mission
- Mission Outcomes
- The Mission will result in the following likely outcomes by 2030:
- Development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonne) per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country Over Rs.
- Eight lakh crore in total investments Creation of over Six lakh jobs Cumulative reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rs.
- One lakh crore Abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas missions.
- Mission Benefits :
- Making India a leading producer and supplier of Green Hydrogen in the world
- Creation of export opportunities for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives
- Reduction in dependence on imported fossil fuels and feedstock Development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities
- Attracting investment and business opportunities for the industry Creating opportunities for employment and economic development.
- Supporting R&D projects
- The Mission will support pilot projects in other hard-to-abate sectors like steel, long-range heavy-duty mobility, shipping, energy storage etc. for replacing fossil fuels and fossil fuelbased feedstocks with Green Hydrogen and its derivatives.
- Mission subcomponents
- SIGHT Programme: Under the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition Programme (SIGHT), two distinct financial incentive mechanisms – targeting domestic manufacturing of electrolysers and production of Green Hydrogen – will be provided under the Mission.
- Pilot projects: The Mission will also support pilot projects in emerging end-use sectors and production pathways. Regions capable of supporting large scale production and/or utilization of Hydrogen will be identified and developed as Green Hydrogen Hubs.
- R&D Projects: Public-Private Partnership framework for R&D (Strategic Hydrogen Innovation Partnership – SHIP) will be facilitated under the Mission. R&D projects will be goal-oriented, time bound, and suitably scaled up to develop globally competitive technologies.
- Skill Development: A coordinated skill development programme will also be undertaken under the Mission.
Issues with the Green Hydrogen
- India’s plans to produce so-called ‘green hydrogen’ — where the gas is produced without resulting in fossil fuel emissions — may end up worsening pollution if proper checks and balances are not in place, according to a study by environmental and energy think-tank, Climate Risk Horizons (CRH).
- The National Green Hydrogen Mission, piloted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), expects to manufacture five million tonnes by 2030. This would require the installation of renewable energy capacity worth 125 GW and the use of 250,000 gigawatt-hour units of power, equivalent to about 13% of India’s present electricity generation.
- As of August 2023, India’s total renewable energy (RE) capacity stood at 131 GW. The 2030 green hydrogen plan thus envisages adding an equivalent RE capacity by 2030. This is over and above the 500 GW of RE capacity that India has committed to install by 2030 as part of the Paris Agreement. To put that in perspective, India installed only 15 GW of new solar and wind capacity in 2023, against the 45 GW per year needed to reach the 2030 target.
- Currently, producing one kg of ‘grey hydrogen’, as it is known, ends up emitting nine kg of carbon dioxide.
- The main concern is that if electrolysers were run 24×7, they would be expected to operate even at night when no solar power is available.
- If electricity to run comes from India’s coal-powered grid in general, it will in fact increase carbon emissions, since about 70% of the electricity on the grid is coal-generated — more in non-daylight hours when solar generation is nil.
6 . China – Bhutan Border talks:
Context: China and Bhutan held their 25th round of boundary talks in Beijing and signed a Cooperation Agreement on the “Responsibilities and Functions of the Joint Technical Team (JTT) on the Delimitation and Demarcation of the Bhutan-China Boundary.” This advances their 3-Step Roadmap initiated in 2021 for border resolution, building on the positive momentum since their last talks in 2016.
Significance of the Talks
- The Boundary talks between Bhutan and China were held after a gap of seven years and it indicates that significant progress has been made.
- Bhutan and the Tibetan Autonomous Region share a contiguous border to Bhutan’s north and west. Since 1984, Bhutan and China had held 24 rounds of talks to resolve the disputes until 2016, but the 25th round appeared to have been held up after the Doklam Standoff between Indian and Chinese armies in 2017, and then the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019-2021.
- Yet, the two sides used the pause to hold talks at other levels in rapid succession, especially after China threatened to open a new front for a border dispute to Bhutan’s east.
- the Expert Group of diplomats on both sides met in 2021 to agree on a 3-step roadmap, and the first boundary delimitation technical talks were held on 2023.
What is the 3-Step Roadmap?
- The 3-Step roadmap MoU signed by the Bhutanese Foreign Minister and Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister in 2021, and the JTT established to implement the roadmap by the Expert Group in August are hoping to draw a line clearly delineating Bhutanese and Chinese territory for the first time.
- Bhutan and China don’t have diplomatic ties, as Bhutan has traditionally avoided diplomatic relations with all the United Nations Security Council permanent members.
- The 3-Step Roadmap involves first, agreeing to the border “on the table”; then visiting the sites on the ground; and then formally demarcating the boundary.
Significance for India
- For India, given the breakdown in its ties with China over the standoff at the Line of Actual Control from 2020, any hint of closer ties between China and one of its closest neighbours is a cause for worry.
- India is watching the demarcation discussions over Doklam, as amongst the proposals China has placed on the table is an agreement to “swap” areas in Doklam under Bhutanese control with areas in Jakarlung and Pasamlung which China claims. The Doklam trijunction cuts very close to India’s Siliguri corridor, a narrow area that connects the North Eastern States to the rest of India and India would not like to see China gain access to any area closer to it.
- India’s worry is over China’s demand for full diplomatic relations with Bhutan, and opening an Embassy in Thimphu. Given India’s challenges with Chinese projects and funding in other neighbouring countries including Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives, any Chinese presence in a small country like Bhutan would be problematic.
7 . Facts for Prelims
- Reference fuels (gasoline and diesel) are premium high-value products, used for calibration and testing of vehicles by auto Original Equipment Manufacturers and organizations involved in testing and certification in the automotive field.
- India began producing ‘reference’ petrol and diesel, joining a select league of nations that produce the highly specialised fuel which is used for testing automobiles.
- Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) has indigenously developed products that will replace imports, ensuring a reliable supply at a much lower cost for vehicle manufacturers and testing agencies.
- IOC’s Paradip refinery in Odisha will produce ‘reference’ grade petrol and its Panipat unit in Haryana will produce such quality diesel.
- They are used for emission testing of vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines.
Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser syndrome
- Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that affects the female reproductive system.
- This condition is characterized by an underdeveloped vagina and uterus.
- The uterus may be small or absent and the vagina is typically shortened.
- External genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics, like pubic hair and breasts, develop normally. However, people with MRKH typically do not experience menstrual cycles.
Vertical Wind tunnel
- In order to augment the training infrastructure of special forces and combat free-fallers, the Army has installed its first vertical wind tunnel (VWT) at the Special Forces Training School (SFTS) at Bakloh in Himachal Pradesh.
- A vertical wind tunnel (VWT) is a wind tunnel that moves air up in a vertical column.
- Unlike standard wind tunnels, which have test sections that are oriented horizontally, as experienced in level flight, a vertical orientation enables gravity to be countered by drag instead of lift, as experienced in an aircraft spin or by a skydiver at terminal velocity.
- The tunnel will help to refine the combat free fall (CFF) skills of armed forces personnel.
- It reduces potential instability in the air and during parachute deployment thereby assisting trainees to get used to free-fall conditions.
- It is not only beneficial for beginners but also an exceptional resource for delivering advanced training to seasoned free-fallers and CFF instructors.