Daily Current Affairs : 21st June

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Access Watch and Reserve
  2. Strategic Partnership Model
  3. Facts for Prelims : Kutiyattam /Koodiyattam

1 . Aware tool (Access Watch and Reserve)

Context : WHO has suggested the adoption of ‘Access, Watch and Reserve’ against Anibiotic Resistance


  • WHO estimates that more than 50% of antibiotics in many countries are used inappropriately for treatment of viruses, when they only treat bacterial infections, or are the wrong choice of antibiotic (broader spectrum), thus contributing to the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

About Access Watch and Reserve

  • The AWaRe tool was developed by the WHO Essential Medicines List to contain rising resistance and make antibiotic use safer and more effective.
  • It classifies antibiotics into three groups – Access, Watch and Reserve – and specifies which antibiotics to use for the most common and serious infections, which ones should be available at all times in the healthcare system, and those that must be used sparingly or preserved and used only as a last resort.
  • The new campaign aims to increase the proportion of global consumption of antibiotics in the Access group to at least 60%, and to reduce use of the antibiotics most at risk of resistance from the Watch and Reserve groups. Using Access antibiotics lowers the risk of resistance because they are ‘narrow-spectrum’ antibiotics (that target a specific microorganism rather than several). They are also less costly because they are available in generic formulations.
  • The AWaRe tool can guide policy to ensure patients keep being treated, while also limiting use of the antibiotics most at risk of resistance.”

2 . Strategic Partnership Model

Context : The Navy issued an ‘Expression of Interest’ for shortlisting potential strategic partners for the construction of six P-75 (I) submarines costing nearly Rs. 45,000 crore, the Defence Ministry. This is the second project being undertaken under the latest Strategic Partnership (SP) Model, with the first being the procurement of 111 naval utility helicopters (NUH).

About Strategic Partnership Model

  • The strategic partnership model seeks to identify a few Indian private companies as Strategic Partners who would initially tie up with a few shortlisted foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to manufacture big-ticket military platforms.
  • The following four segments have been identified for acquisition under Strategic Partnership (SP) route:
    • Fighter Aircraft
    • Helicopters
    • Submarines
    • Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) / Main Battle Tanks (MBTs).
  • Guidelines lay emphasis on incentivisation of transfer of niche technology and higher indigenous content.
  • All procurements under it would be executed by specially constituted Empowered Project Committees.


  • The SP model, if implemented well, is likely to have a number of benefits for both the private sector and the larger Indian defence industry.
  • From the private sector’s point of view, the biggest benefit would be the opportunity to participate in some big ticket contracts
  • Model would also go a long way in bridging the long-standing trust gap between the Indian private sector and MoD, with the latter perceived to be friendlier toward public sector entities.
  • Strategic Partners, being private sector companies, are expected to exploit their dynamism, competiveness, profit orientation, and exposure to the civilian sector for efficient utilisation of the technology, manpower and infrastructure developed in the process.

3 . Facts for Prelims

Kutiyattam /Koodiyattam

  • It is a traditional performing artform in the state of Kerala.
  • It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit theatre with elements of Koothu, a Tamil/Malayalam performing art which is as old as Sangam era.
  • It is officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

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