Daily Current Affairs 20th June 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Millets
  2. Review Petition
  3. President’s Rule
  4. Facts for Prelims

1 . Millets

Context: Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman called for concerted efforts to sensitise farmers to shift towards more remunerative but less water-guzzling crops like millets, pulses and oilseeds, and enhance the digital capabilities of rural financial institutions.

About Millets

  • Millets are a group of nutritiously rich, drought tolerant and mostly grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of India.
  • They are small-seeded grasses belonging to the botanical family Poaceae.
  • They constitute an important source of food and fodder for millions of resource-poor farmers and play a vital role in ecological and economic security of India.
  • These millets are also known as “coarse cereals” or “cereals of the poor”.
  • Indian Millets are nutritionally superior to wheat and rice as they are rich in protein, vitamins and minerals.
  • They are also gluten-free and have a low glycemic index, making them ideal for people with celiac disease or diabetes.
  • India is among the top 5 exporters of millets in world.

Favourable conditions for Millets Cultivation-

  • Millets can grow in both low and high altitudes and across a wide latitudinal range, on arid lands, under non-irrigated conditions, in very low rainfall regimes, and have a low water footprint.
  • Millets require less water than rice and wheat. They are very tolerant of heat (up to 64 degrees Celsius), drought and flood and it makes the crop an obvious choice for farmers in an era of climate change and depleting natural resources.

Types of Millets

  1. Pearl Millet- Pennisetum glaucum .L.
  2. Sorghum- Sorghum bicolor
  3. Finger Millet- Eleusine coracana

Small Millets:

  • Foxtail Millet- Setaria italica
  • Barnyard Millet- Echinochloa frumentacea
  • Kodo Millet- Paspalum scrobiculatum
  • Proso Millet- Panicum miliaceum L.
  • Little Millet- Panicum sumatrense
  • Two Pseudo Millets: I.Buck wheat(Kuttu)- Fagopyrum esculentum
  • Amaranthus (Chaulai)- Amaranthus viridis

Indian Millet Production Scenario:

  • India is a major producer of Millets, accounting for 80% of Asia’s production and 20% of global production. India’s average yield of Millets (1239 kg/hectare) is also higher than Global average yield of 1229 kg/haq. Major Millets crops grown in India and their percentage share of production are Pearl Millet (Bajra) – 61% share, Jowar (Sorghum) – 27%, and Finger Millet (Mandua/Ragi) – 10%.
  • The Indian government has also been promoting millet production as part of its National Food Security Mission. 
  • The main millet-growing states in India are Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. These states have a large number of millet farmers who grow the grain for both domestic and international markets. In addition to the major millet producing states, there is also a number of smaller millets producing regions located throughout India. These regions include the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh.

Role of the Indian Government to promote Millet’s cultivation

  • The Indian government has also promoted millet as part of its attempts to promote sustainable agriculture and improve residents’ health.
  • The UN government declared 2023 the National Year of Millets in order to create awareness about the health advantages of millets and encourage farmers to plant them.
  • The government has also provided farmers with subsidies and other incentives to encourage them to plant millet.
  • The resurrection of millets has also resulted in the establishment of various small businesses dedicated to the production of millet-based items. Millet flour, millet-based snacks, and even millet-based beer are examples of these items. These firms not only promote millet consumption but also create new job prospects in rural areas.
  • Millets are included by the Ministry of Women and Child Development under Poshan Mission Abhiyan.
  • The Government of India has hiked the Minimum Support Price of Millet to incentivize its production for farmers.
  • To provide a steady market for millet, the government has also included it in the public distribution system.
  • The government has also encouraged the marketability of millets by building value chains through Farmer Producer Organization
  • To create domestic and global demand and to provide nutritional food to the people, The National Year of Millets was celebrated in 2018. In view of the nutritional value of the millets, the Government also notified Millets as nutri-cereals in April, 2018

Millet- The Crop of the Future

  • As the cultivation of millets is declining in many countries, their potential to address climate change and food security is not being realised in full. With a deepening climate crisis and multiple environmental stresses, this recently forgotten and underutilised crop could be the crucial link in the sustainable food supply chain as well as one of the climate resilient solutions. The revival of millet has also generated a lot of jobs in several parts of the country.
  • Contributions of millets to nutrition, livelihoods and incomes of family farmers, especially small-scale family farmers, can play an important role in contributing to food security and eradicating poverty.
  • The popularisation of millets is also an effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and in particular: SDG 2 (zero hunger), SDG 3 (good health and well-being), SDG 12 (sustainable consumption and production), and SDG 13 (climate action). 

Benefits of Millets:

  • Millets are highly adaptive to a wide range of ecological conditions and thrive well in rain-fed; arid climate and they have minimal requirement of water, fertilizers, and pesticides.
  • Health-promoting nutritious crop: Compared to other cereals they have superior micronutrient profile and bioactive flavonoids.
  • Millets have a low Glycaemic Index (GI) and also associated with the prevention of diabetes.
  • They are good source of minerals like iron, zinc, and calcium.
  • Millets are gluten-free and can be consumed by celiac disease patients.
  • Millets are used for dual purposes as food as well as fodder, which make it more farming efficient.
  • Millet cultivation helps to reduce the carbon footprint.

2 . Review Petition

Context: The Manipur High Court admitted a review petition seeking to modify its contentious March 27 order, which had directed the State government to recommend the inclusion of the Meitei community in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) list.

What is the background of the issue?

  • Manipur has been seeing continuous ethnic violence between the dominant valley-based Meitei people and the ST hill-based Kuki-Zomi people since May 3, when violence started shortly after a tribal protest against the contentious March 27 order.  
  • The review petition filed by the Meitei Tribes Union (MTU) was admitted for hearing by a Bench of Acting Chief Justice M.V. Muralidharan, who had also authored the March 27 order, which was passed on an initial Writ Petition filed by the MTU. 
  • In the order, Justice Muralidharan had directed the Manipur government to reply to the Union Tribal Affairs Ministry on a file related to the request for the Meiteis’ inclusion on the ST list.
  • The high court had noted that the Meitei people had submitted multiple requests for ST status to the Union government from 2013 onwards – a request that was forwarded to the State government multiple times seeking a formal recommendation as per procedure. However, the Manipur government never acted on this letter, the high court added before directing it to respond to the Union government.  
  • More than 100 people have lost their lives in the violence between Meitei and Kuki communities in Manipur that broke out over a month ago.
  • Meiteis account for about 53 per cent of Manipur’s population and live mostly in the Imphal Valley. Tribals – Nagas and Kukis – constitute another 40 per cent of the population and reside in the hill districts.

What is Review Petition?

  • When a judgment is passed by a Court, the doctrine of functus officio applies to it. This Latin doctrine means that if the judgment in a case has been pronounced or an order has been made following due process of law, in such circumstances, the case cannot be reopened. The right to file a review petition is an exception to this doctrine.
  • The word “review” means to examine again. A review petition is filed to re-examine the facts and evidence and pronounce a new judgment.

Provision related to petition review

  • Section 114 of the Code of Civil Procedure gives a substantive right of review and Order XLVII provides the procedure for filing a review petition. Section 114 states that any aggrieved person may apply for a review of a judgment or order made by the Court, if:
    • The appeal is allowed but has not been preferred by the petitioner, or
    • The appeal is not allowed by the Court, or
    • Aggrieved by a decision on a reference from a Court of Small Causes.
  • Under Article 137 of the Constitution, subject to the provisions of any law and rules made under Article 145, the Supreme Court has the power to review any judgment pronounced or order made by it. This power is given to the Supreme Court to correct a “patent mistake” or “grave error” resulting in miscarriage of justice and not to fix minor mistakes of inconsequential results.
  • According to Supreme Court Rules of 1966, a review petition is to be filed within 30 days of the pronouncement of judgment or order, in certain circumstances, this duration can be extended if the petitioner can prove the delay with justifiable reasons. 
  • Similarly, High Courts have also been given the power of reviewing its judgment under Article 226 of the Constitution

Grounds for Review:

The Supreme Court has laid down three grounds for seeking a review of a verdict it has delivered:

  1. Discovery of new and important matter or evidence
  2. Mistake or error apparent on the face of the record
  3. Any other sufficient reason such as-
    1. Violation of a fundamental right
    1. Violation of the principles of natural justice
    1. The mistake of the court
    1. Judgment was obtained by fraud
    1. The court made the earlier order without jurisdiction

Procedure for Review Petition:

  • It should be filed within 30 days of the pronouncement of judgment or order.
  • No oral arguments are presented by lawyers in review petitions. It is heard through circulation by the judges.
  • However, review petitions in death penalty cases will be heard in open court by a bench of three judges as held by the Supreme Court in Mohd. Arif @ Ashfaq v. The Reg. Supreme Court of India & Others (2014).
  • According to Order XLVII Rule 5 of CPC, review petitions shall be heard by the same judge or bench who delivered the original order or judgment that is sought to be reviewed.
  • However, if a Judge or bench is not available who delivered the original order/ judgment due to various reasons, any other competent Court is authorized and empowered to deal with the review application and the application cannot be dismissed merely on the ground that the said Judge us no longer in position as held by the Delhi High Court in Rajiv Lochan vs. Narendra Nath.

Review v Appeal: Scope of the Power

  • The power of review is distinct from the Court’s power to hear appeals, i.e. the appellate jurisdiction. When hearing a review petition filed against its own order or judgment, the Court does not rehear the case at hand, as it would in an appeal.
  • The purpose of a review petition is limited to remedying an apparent error or the resultant grave injustice that has been the consequence of a decision of the Supreme Court.
  • The Court is thus restricted in the exercise of the power of review to cases where there is an error apparent on the face of the record (criminal cases) or in accordance with the provisions of Order XLVII of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

Success of review pleas

  • It is rare for the Supreme Court to either admit reviews or to overturn an original decision in a review.
  • It did agree to review its 2018 verdict in the Sabarimala case, but refused to review its ruling seeking a probe into the Rafale deal.
  • As the court of last resort, the Supreme Court’s verdict cannot result in a miscarriage of justice. So, in Roopa Hurra v Ashok Hurra (2002), the court itself evolved the concept of a curative petition, which can be heard after a review is dismissed to prevent abuse of its process. A curative petition is also entertained on very narrow grounds like a review petition, and is generally not granted an oral hearing. It is yet to be seen if Bilkis Bano will take this route.

3 . President’s rule

Context: As ethnic violence and protests continue in Manipur for more than 45 days, multiple sources in the government said that imposing President’s Rule in the State was the “last option” and the idea was to exhaust the other available measures first.

What is President’s Rule?

  • The imposition of Article  356 of the Constitution on a State following the failure of constitutional machinery is called President’s Rule in India. 
  • Article 356 is inspired by sections 93 of the Government of India Act, 1935, which provided that if a Governor of a province was satisfied that a situation had arisen in which the government of the province cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the said Act, he could assume to himself all or any of the powers of the government and discharge those functions in his discretion.
  • Under this Article if the president, on receipt of report from the governor of a state or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, the president can impose president’s rule
  • Once the President’s Rule has been imposed on a state, the elected state government will be temporarily dissolved, and the Governor, who is appointed by the government at the Centre, will replace the Chief Minister as the chief executive of the State.
  • The state will fall under the direct control of the Union government, and the Governor will continue to be head the proceedings, representing the President of India – who is the Head of the State.
  • The imposition of the President’s rule requires the sanction of both the houses of Parliament. If approved, it can go on for a period of six months. However, the imposition cannot be extended for more than three years, and needs to be brought before the two houses every six months for approval.

How long President’s Rule can last

  • A proclamation of President’s Rule can be revoked through a subsequent proclamation in case the leader of a party produces letters of support from a majority of members of the Assembly, and stakes his claim to form a government. The revocation does not need the approval of Parliament.
  • The 44th Amendment to the Constitution (1978) brought in some constraints on the imposition of the President’s Rule beyond a period of one year. It says that President’s Rule cannot be extended beyond one year unless:
    • There is a national emergency in India.
    • The Election Commission of India certifies that it is necessary to continue the President’s Rule in the state because of difficulties in conducting assembly elections to the state.

When can President’s Rule be imposed on a state?

  • State Legislature is unable to elect a leader as Chief Minister
  • If the ruling party or coalition does not have numbers to prove majority in the Assembly.
  • If the breakdown of law and order situation takes place in the state.
  • Loss of majority in the state assembly
  • If elections are postponed due to inevitable reasons.

What happens after President’s Rule is imposed?

  • The governor carries on with the administration of the state on behalf of the President. He or she takes the help of the state’s Chief Secretary and other advisors/administrators whom he or she can appoint.
  • The President has the power to declare that the state legislature’s powers would be exercised by the Parliament.
  • The state legislative assembly would be either suspended or dissolved by the President.
  • When the Parliament is not in session, the President can promulgate ordinances with respect to the state’s administration.

Revocation of President’s Rule

  • President’s Rule can be revoked any time after such a proclamation has been made by a subsequent proclamation by the President. A proclamation of revocation does not require approval by the Parliament. This occurs when the leader of a political party produces letters indicating majority support for him in the assembly and stakes his claim to form the state government.

Misuse of Article 356

  • Article 356 gave the Central government wide powers to stamp its authority on the state governments. Although it was meant only as a means to preserve the integrity and unity of the country, it had been used blatantly to oust state governments who were ruled by political opponents of the centre.

S.R. Bommai Case

  • In the S.R. Bommai case (1994), the Supreme Court of India put forth strict guidelines for the imposition of Article 356
  • The proclamation (of President’s Rule) is subject to judicial review on grounds of mala fide intention.
  • The imposition of Article 356 should be justified by the centre.
  • The court has the power to revive the suspended or dissolved state government if the grounds for the imposition is found to be invalid and unconstitutional.
  • The state assembly cannot be dissolved before parliamentary approval for the imposition of Article 356 and the President can only suspend the assembly.
  • Serious allegations of corruption against the state ministry and financial instability are not grounds for the imposition of Article 356. o Any action by the state government that leads to the security of secularism (which is a basic feature of the Constitution) cannot be grounds for the use of Article 356.
  • Article 356 cannot be used to sort out any intraparty issues in the ruling party.
  • If the Ministry of the state resigns or is dismissed or loses the majority, then the governor cannot advise the President to impose this article until enough steps are taken by the governor for the formation of an alternative government.
  • The power under Article 356 is to be used only in case of exigencies. It is an exceptional power.

4 . Facts for Prelims

    Famous Rock Paintings in India

    • The history of cave paintings in India or rock art range from drawings and paintings from prehistoric times, beginning in the caves of Central India, typified by those at the Bhimbetka rock shelters from around 10,000 BP, to elaborate frescoes at sites such as the rock-cut artificial caves at Ajanta and Ellora, extending as late as 6th–10th century CE.
    • Famous Rock paintings in India are
      • Bhimbedka Cave Paintings – near Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh
      • Sittanavasal Paintings – Puddukotai district of Tamil Nadu
      • Ajanta Caves – near Aurangabad in Maharashtra
      • Ellora Caves – near Aurangabad in Maharashtra
      • Lenyadri Cave Paintings – Junnar in Pune district in Maharashtra
      • Badami Caves – Bagalkot District in Northern Karnataka
      • Adamgarh Hills – Hoshangabad town in Madhya Pradesh
      • Jogimara Cave Paintings – Chattisgarh
      • Saspol Caves – Saspol village in Leh district
      • Elephanta Caves – Ellora Island in Maharashtra
      • Lakhudiyar rock painting-  found in Uttarakhand.
      • In Tamil Nadu, ancient Paleolithic cave paintings are found in Padiyendhal, Alampadi, Kombaikadu, Kilvalai, Settavarai and Nehanurpatti; early medieval Cave paintings in Sittanavasal paintings

    Research and Analysis Wing

    • The Research and Analysis Wing is the foreign intelligence agency of India. The agency’s primary function is gathering foreign intelligence, counter terrorism, counter-proliferation, advising Indian policymakers, and advancing India’s foreign strategic interests. It is also involved in the security of India’s nuclear programme.
    • The head of R&AW is designated as the Secretary (Research) in the Cabinet Secretariat, and is under the authority of the Prime Minister of India without parliamentary oversight. On an administrative basis, the Director reports to the Cabinet Secretary, who reports to the Prime Minister.
    • The R&AW objectives include:
      • Monitoring the political, military, economic and scientific developments in countries which have a direct bearing on India’s national security and the formulation of its foreign policy.
      • Moulding international public opinion and influence foreign governments.
      • Covert Operations to safeguard India’s National interests.
      • Anti-terror operations and neutralising elements posing a threat to India.

    Gandhi Peace Prize

    • The Gandhi Peace Prize for the year 2021 is being conferred on Gita Press, Gorakhpur.
    • Gandhi Peace Prize is an annual award instituted by Government of India in 1995, on the occasion of 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi as a tribute to the ideals espoused by Mahatma Gandhi. The award is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed or gender.
    • The award carries an amount of Rs. 1 crore, a citation, a plaque and an exquisite traditional handicraft/handloom item.
    • The past awardees include organizations such as ISRO, Ramakrishna Mission, Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari, Akshaya Patra, Bengaluru, Ekal Abhiyan Trust, India and Sulabh International, New Delhi. It has also been awarded to luminaries like Late Dr. Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, Dr. Julius Nyerere, Former President of Tanzania, Dr. A.T. Ariyaratne, Founder President of Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement, Sri Lanka, Dr. Gerhard Fischer, Federal Republic of Germany, Baba Amte, Dr. John Hume, Ireland, Mr. Vaclav Havel, former President of Czechoslovakia, Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa, Shri Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Shri Yohei Sasakawa, Japan.
    • Recent awardees include Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Al Said, Oman (2019) and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (2020), Bangladesh.
    • A jury consisting of the Prime Minister of India, the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, the Chief Justice of India, Speaker of the Lok Sabha and one other eminent person decides the awardee each year.


    • Gurbani is a term commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib.
    • Gurbani means Guru’s (teacher’s) word, which often is a sung message.
    • Gurbani is the sacred literature of Sikhism. It refers to collection of several compositions by Sikh Gurus as well as various writers of Guru Granth Sahib. It is enshrined as hymns in the holy scripture.
    • Gurbani are explanations of qualities of the Primal Lord and Soul which a Sikh should comprehend and with which they can attain the supreme state.

    INS Kirpan

    • India will gift Vietnam an in-service warship as a gesture of friendship and expanding military ties between the nations. Missile Corvette INS Kirpan – a Khukri class warship commissioned in 1991 – will soon be handed over to the Vietnam People’s Navy.
    • About- INS Kirpan is a Khukri class missile corvette displacing 1,350 tonnes and was commissioned into the Navy on January 12, 1991.
    •  It has a displacement of close to 1,400 tonnes, a length of 91 metres, a beam of 11 metres, and is capable of speed in excess of 25 knots.
    • The ship is fitted with a medium range gun, 30 mm close range guns, chaff launchers, and surface to surface missiles, enabling it to perform a wide variety of roles, including coastal and offshore patrol, coastal security, surface warfare, anti-piracy, and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations, according to the Navy.

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