Daily Current Affairs : 1st & 2nd October 2020

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Crimes in India Report
  2. Kanaklata Barua
  3. Saansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana
  4. Recommended Dietary Allowances’ and ‘Nutrient Requirements report
  5. PUSA Decomposer
  6. GST Collection
  7. Refund and credit shell policy scheme 
  8. Section 5 of the Factories Act, 1948 – Public Emergency
  9. National Butterfly Campaign
  10. Suture thread made of nanofiber yarns
  11. Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

1 . Crime in India 2019 

Context: National Crime Record Bureau has released the “Crime in India” 2019 report recently.

About Crimes in India Report

  • This is the oldest and the most prestigious publication brought out by NCRB.
  • The data for the report is collected by State Crime Records Bureaux (SCRBx) from the District Crime Records Bureaux (DCRBx) and sent to NCRB at the end of every calendar year under the reference. Data from mega-cities (cities having population of 10 lakh or more as per the latest census) is also collected separately. District-wise data on some IPC heads is collected and published separately.
  • The first edition of ‘Crime in India’ pertains to the year 1953 and the latest edition of the report pertains to the year 2019.

Scope of the Report

The report contains comprehensive information on:

  • cases registered and their disposal and
  • persons arrested and their disposal
  • Under major heads of Indian Penal Codes and Special & Local Laws. Further, age-group-wise and sex-wise details of persons arrested under these crime-heads are also available in the report. The report contains a dedicated chapter on crime against some vulnerable sections of the society – women, children, Scheduled Castes / Scheduled Tribes and senior citizens.

Findings of the report

  • Crimes Against Women
    • Majority of cases under crime against women under IPC were registered under ‘cruelty by husband or his relatives’ (30.9%), followed by ‘assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty’ (21.8%),kidnapping & abduction of women’ (17.9%) and ‘rape’ (7.9%).
    • In terms of absolute numbers, Uttar Pradesh reported the highest number of cases in crimes against women
    • Assam has reported the highest rate of crimes against women (per lakh population)
    • A total of 4,05,861 cases of crime against women were registered during 2019, showing an increase of 7.3% over 2018 (3,78,236 cases).
    • The crime rate registered per lakh women population is 62.4 in 2019 in comparison with 58.8 in 2018.
    • Rajasthan reported the highest number of rapes with 5,997 cases, followed by UP (3,065) and Madhya Pradesh (2,485).
    • UP also had the highest number of crimes against girl children under the POCSO Act with 7,444 cases, followed by Maharashtra (6,402) and MP (6,053).
    • UP had the highest number of dowry cases (2,410), at a rate of 2.2 (per lakh population), followed by Bihar (1,120). 
    • As many as 10.5 lakh cases of offences affecting the human body were registered in 2019, which accounted for 32.6% of total IPC crimes. Hurt accounted for maximum 5.45 lakh cases or 51.9% of such offences, followed by cases of using death by negligence (13.8%) and cases of kidnapping and abduction (10%).
    • Cyber crimes registered a 63.5% jump over 2018.
  • Crime against Scheduled Castes
    • Crime head-wise cases revealed that simple hurt with 28.9% (13,273 cases) formed the largest chunk of cases of crimes/ atrocities against Scheduled Castes during 2019. It was followed by cases under SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act with 9.0% (4,129 cases), and cases under rape with 7.6% (3,486 cases).
    • In terms of absolute numbers, Uttar Pradesh reported the highest number of cases in crimes against Scheduled castes.
    • Rajasthan had the highest rate of crimes against Scheduled Castes.
    • A total of 45,935 cases were registered as a crime against Scheduled Castes (SCs) which is an increase of 7.3% over 2018 (42,793 cases).
    • Crime rate registered showed an increase from 21.2 (per lakh population) in 2018 to 22.8 in 2019.
    • UP reported the most cases against Scheduled Castes – 11,829 cases, accounting for 25.8 per cent of the cases across the country. It was followed by Rajasthan (6,794 cases; 14.8 per cent) and Bihar (6,544; 14.2 per cent). However, the rate of such cases was highest in Rajasthan at 55.6 (per lakh population), followed by MP (46.7) and Bihar (39.5).
    • Rajasthan also had the highest number of rapes against Dalit women (554), followed by UP (537) and MP (510). The rate of rape against Dalit women was highest in Kerala at 4.6 (per lakh population), followed by MP (4.5) and Rajasthan (4.5).

Seizures of counterfeit notes

  • Data on seizures of counterfeit notes from all the States and Union Territories also shows there is a surge in the seizure of fake Indian currency notes in 2019 compared to 2018.
  • According to the NCRB, fake Indian currency notes with a face value of ₹25.39 crore were seized in 2019, compared to ₹17.95 crore in 2018, showing an increase of 11.7%.
  • According to the NCRB, 90,566 pieces of fake ₹2,000 notes were seized in 2019. The highest number of seizures were from Karnataka (23,599 pieces), Gujarat (14,494) and West Bengal (13,637).
  • The NCRB report said that 71,817 pieces of fake ₹100 notes were seized last year. The biggest recoveries were made from Delhi (31,671 pieces), Gujarat (16,159) and Uttar Pradesh (6,129).

National Crime Records Bureau

  • NCRB is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL).
  • NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India. 
  • It was set-up in 1986 based on the recommendation of the Task force,1985 and National Police Commission,1977 by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI. Earlier Statistical Branch of Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) was also merged with NCRB, but was later de-merged.
  • It functions as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.

2 . Kanaklata Barua

Context : A Fast Patrol Vessel (FPV) named ICGS Kanaklata Barua was commissioned in the Indian Coast Guard on Wednesday, in Kolkata. It is named after a teenage freedom fighter who was shot dead in Assam during the Quit India Movement.

What is the ship?

  • It is the fifth and last in a series of FPVs built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) Ltd.
  • The other four are ICGS Priyadarshini (named after Indira Gandhi), ICGS Annie Besant, ICGS Kamala Devi (after Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay), and ICGS Amrit Kaur.
  • These FPVs are upgraded versions of the inshore patrol vessels with a modified form of the hull and can achieve a speed of 34 knots. Such vessels have also been delivered to Indian Navy by GRSE.
  • In the Coast Guard these FPVs and their earlier versions belong to the Rajashree class of patrol vessels. The previous versions were named ICGS Rajashree, Rajtanag, Rajkiran, Rajkamal, Rajdoot, Rajveer etc; the modified versions are named after freedom fighters.
  • These are suited for patrolling, maritime surveillance, anti-smuggling, anti-poaching operations and also for fishery protection, and rescue and search missions. These FPVs are medium-range surface vessels with a length of around 50 m, and a displacement of over 300 tonnes.

Who was Kanaklata Barua, after whom it is named?

  • One of the youngest martyrs of the Quit India Movement, Kanaklata Barua has iconic status in Assam.
  • Barua, then 17, led the Mukti Bahini, a procession of freedom fighters to unfurl the Tricolour at Gohpur police station on September 20, 1942. When police did not let them move forward, an altercation led to firing, killing Barua at the head of the procession. “She had joined the Mrityu Bahini just two days before the incident.
  • The squad strictly admitted members aged 18 and above but Kanaklata was an exception. She wanted to lead the procession and after much persuasion she was allowed to.”
  • Even as Barua fell to bullets, she did not let go of the flag. “She did not want it to touch the ground. Another woman volunteer behind her — Mukunda Kakoty — came and held the flag, and she, too, was shot

How important is her legacy?

  • The fact that she was a young girl — that captured the national imagination of the time
  • It was also a time where you saw a lot of women coming to the fore, leading processions, patriotic fervour was at its peak — and Kanaklata was a product of this time.
  • Today, there are schools named after her, there are two statues, there is a ship. While we see her as an icon now, people in her village hated her then — she was a rebel, who questioned patriarchy.”
  • The Coast Guard had named an earlier ship after her. The previous ICGS Kanaklata Barua was commissioned in 1997 and decommissioned in 2017. During its 20-year service, it participated in many search and rescue missions, seizure of foreign fishing vessels venturing into Indian waters and evacuation missions. The ship was dismantled in 2018 and sold as scrap.

3 . Saansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana

Context : As the number of gram panchayats identified by Members of Parliament under the Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) remains “far below” the target, the Centre has directed state governments to ensure “diligent” implementation of the scheme.

About Saansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana

  • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) is a village development project launched by Government of India in October 2014, under which each Member of Parliament will take the responsibility of developing physical and institutional infrastructure in three villages by 2019.


  • The goal is to develop three Adarsh Grams by March 2019, of which one would be achieved by 2016. Thereafter, five such Adarsh Grams (one per year) will be selected and developed by 2024.

Identification of Gram Panchayat

  • A Gram Panchayat would be the basic unit. It will have a population of 3000-5000 in plain areas and 1000-3000 in hilly, tribal and difficult areas. In districts where this unit size is not available, Gram Panchayats approximating the desirable population size may be chosen.
  • The MP would be free to identify a suitable Gram Panchayat for being developed as Adarsh Gram, other than his/her own village or that of his/her spouse.
  • The MP will identify one Gram Panchayat to be taken up immediately, and two others to be taken up a little later. Lok Sabha MP has to choose a Gram Panchayat from within his/her constituency and Rajya Sabha MP a Gram Panchayat from the rural area of a district of his/her choice in the State from which he/she is elected. Nominated MPs may choose a Gram Panchayat from the rural area of any district in the country. In the case of urban constituencies, (where there are no Gram Panchayats), the MP will identify a Gram Panchayat from a nearby rural constituency.
  • The Gram Panchayats once selected by members of Parliament (whose tenures have ended on account of resignation or otherwise) would be continued as such under SAGY irrespective of whether activities have already been initiated in the GP under SAGY or not. The newly elected MPs will have the option to select the GP of their choice and two more subsequently by 2019.
  • Primarily, the goal is to develop three Adarsh Grams by March 2019, of which one would be achieved by 2016. Thereafter, five such Adarsh Grams (one per year) will be selected and developed by 2024.

Performance of the Scheme

  • A study commissioned by the Rural Development Ministry and conducted as part of the 5th common review mission observed that the SAGY has not made “any perceptible impact” and the villages selected under it cannot be called “model (adarsh) villages”.
  • Major reasons found by the commission were – :
    • Low selection of Panchayats
    • Lack of Funds
    • Limited Impact
    • Poor Quality of Roads and infrastructure

4 . Recommended Dietary Allowances’ and ‘Nutrient Requirements report

Context: ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) has redefined the ideal or reference Indian adult man and woman with regard to age to 19-39 years instead of 20-39 years. The body weight has been put at 65 kg for males and 55 kg for females while earlier, it was 60 kg and 50 kg respectively, which are a decade old.

Parameters used for New definition

  • New definition is based on the latest nationally representative data sourced from the National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4, 2015-16), National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB, 2015-16), the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2006-07) and the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP 2015) to “derive acceptable reference body weight values through the lifespan”.

Recommendations made

  • In the ‘Recommended Dietary Allowances’ and ‘Nutrient Requirements’ report prepared by NIN it has recommended dietary allowances and nutrient requirements for Indians that includes Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Tolerable Upper Limits of nutrients for the first time.

Dietary intake

  • The cereal-legume-milk composition of the diet for a moderately active man has been improved to 3:1:2.5 as compared to the earlier 11:1:3 within a given low cost window to meet daily protein requirements.
  • Visible fat intake for sedentary, moderate and heavy activity has been set at 25 gm, 30 gm and 40 gm a day for adult man and 20 gm, 25 gm and 30 gm a day for adult women as against the single level recommended earlier.
  • Fiber based on energy intake was recommended and the level of about 40 gm/2000 kcal has been considered as safe intake. 
  • For carbohydrates, the EAR has been set at 100 gm/day for ages 1 and above with a RDA of 130 gm/day.
  • With regard to sodium due to emerging concerns on prevalence of hypertension a safe intake of 2000 mg/day which amounts to 5 gm/day of salt is recommended; while an intake of 3,510 mg/day is recommended for potassium.
  • For children, the requirement is greater than 60 ml per kg body mass and for adolescent boys it ranges from 47-60 ml per kg body mass, while, for girls it is 39-49 ml per kg body mass.

What is Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)?

  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are daily dietary nutrient intake levels which would be sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals

What is Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)?

  •  EARs are the average daily nutrient intake levels of the population.

5 . PUSA Decomoposer

Context: The Delhi government will start the process of preparing a fermented liquid solution to be sprayed on 800 hectares of land in the city where farmers practise stubble burning.

Pusa Decomposer

  • Pusa Decomposer is an innovative technique which has been developed by the scientists at Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), which will be used for the speedy decomposition of stubble in the national capital and nearby states.
  • For these four capsules of Pusa decomposer will be given to farmers for one hectare of field.
  • In one capsule a farmer can make 25 litres of liquid substance. After making the liquid, he has to add jaggery and gram flour in it and has to sprinkle that liquid on the stubble, after which it would bio-degrade in 20 days
  • The process will be executed under the guidance of the Pusa Research Institute and the cost of the implementation of the entire project is less than ₹20 lakh.

6 . GST Collection

Context: Revenue collections from the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in September has hit ₹95,480 crore which is the highest in this financial year so far.

About the news

  • The gross GST revenue collected in the month of September 2020 is ₹95,480 crore, of which Central GST is ₹17,741 crore, State GST is ₹23,131 crore, Integrated GST is ₹47,484 crore [including ₹22,442 crore collected on import of goods] and cess is ₹7,124 crore [including ₹788 crore collected on import of goods].
  • September’s indirect tax collections were over 10% higher than those in August which is 4% higher than the GST kitty in the corresponding month a year ago and marked only the second time that the ₹90,000 crore mark was crossed this financial year.
  • GST collections had been sliding after January 2020, when nearly ₹1.11 lakh crore came in. March, by the end of which the national lockdown was imposed, recorded GST inflows of ₹97,597 crore.
  • Revenues from import of goods were at 102% and revenues from domestic transactions which include import of services were at 105% of the revenues from these sources during September 2019.
  • Among the larger States, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu saw the highest growth in GST inflows at 17% and 15%, respectively, compared to September 2019.
  • Andhra Pradesh saw a 8% growth, Gujarat 6%, while Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh saw a flat trend and collections in Karnataka dropped 5%, from a year ago.


  • The increase in GST collection indicates that economic activity is picking up steam in tandem with the gradual easing of lockdown restrictions necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The increase in GST collection is a sign of a sustainable rebound from the sharp 23.9% contraction in the country’s gross domestic product in the first quarter of 2020-21.

7 . Refund and credit shell policy scheme 

Context : Supreme Court accepted the Directorate General of Civil Aviation recommendations for refunding passengers for airline tickets that were cancelled because of the lockdown enforced to contain the coronavirus

Background of the Case

  • Petitions in Supreme court was filed regarding refund for airline tickets booked during the nationwide lockdown.
  • The petitioners argued that the airlines’ decision to not refund the the full amount collected for tickets was “arbitrary” and in violation of the Civil Aviation Requirement issued by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation.
  • The Directorate General of Civil Aviation then informed the Supreme Court that tickets booked by passengers between March 25 and May 3 for domestic and international air travel will be fully refunded within 15 days. For this, the the DGCA had proposed the credit shell facility instead of an immediate refund given the financial distress of some airlines amid the pandemic.
  • The DGCA added that these credit shells would only be applicable to passengers and not to travel agents. It was also stipulated that refunds would be applicable for only those flights that were originally booked in India.
  • The aviation authority has categorised the passengers in three categories:
    • For those who booked tickets before the lockdown for a period up till May 24, the refund would be governed by the credit shell scheme.
    • For bookings made during lockdown for travelling during the period of the lockdown, the refund shall be made by airlines immediately “as the airlines were not supposed to book such tickets”.
    • For bookings that were made for travelling in dates after May 24, the refund would be governed by the Civil Aviation Requirements.

About the Credit Shell Policy

  • The court allowed airline companies to set up a credit shell facility in the names of passengers.
  • If the credit is not used, airlines have to mandatorily refund the ticket money to the passengers by March 31, 2021. The credit scheme is transferable to anyone.

8 . Public emergency

Context : The Supreme Court on Thursday quashed the Gujarat government’s notifications granting temporary “relaxations” to employers on certain conditions related to working hours and payment of wages under the Factories Act, 1948.

About the issue

  • The court was hearing a petition by two labour unions against the notifications issued by the Gujarat Labour and Employment Department under Section 5 of the Act on April 17, 2020, and extended on July 20, 2020.
  • The notifications increased daily working hours from 9 to 12 hours, and required employers to pay overtime wages at a rate proportionate to the ordinary rate of wages, instead of what was mandated by Section 59.

States Argument

  • The state sought to justify the changes saying “the Covid-19 pandemic is a ‘public emergency’ as defined in Section 5 of the Factories Act” and said it has disturbed the “social order of the country” and caused “extreme financial exigencies”.
  • It also said that the “lockdown caused a slowdown in economic activities, leading to an ‘internal disturbance’ in the State within the meaning of Section 5”, and requiring urgent measures to protect its financial health.

What is Section 5 of the Factories Act, 1948

  • Section 5 of the Factories Act, 1948 defines public emergency as a “grave emergency whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance”. 
  • Thus, the state government has been empowered to exempt any factory or class or description of factories from all or any of the provisions of this Act except Section 67 which prohibits employment of young children.
  • The period of exemption must not exceed three months at a time.

Decision of the Court

  • The court called the notifications “an affront to the workers’ right to life and right against forced labour”.
  • According to the court ‘right to life’ guaranteed to every person under Article 21, which includes a worker, would be devoid of an equal opportunity at social and economic freedom, in the absence of just and humane conditions of work. A worker’s right to life cannot be deemed contingent on the mercy of their employer or the State.
  • The notifications, in denying humane working conditions and overtime wages provided by law, are an affront to the workers’ right to life and right against forced labour that are secured by Articles 21 and 23 of the Constitution,”
  • The State cannot declare the slowdown caused by the pandemic a “public emergency” to curtail the rights of people. The pandemic had not resulted in an “internal disturbance” of a nature that posed a “grave emergency” whereby the security of India was threatened. Unless the threshold of an economic hardship is so extreme that it leads to disruption of public order and threatens the security of India or of a part of its territory, recourse cannot be taken to such emergency powers which are to be used sparingly under the law
  • The court also invoked its powers under Article 142 to do complete justice and directed that all workmen who had worked overtime be paid overtime wages at double the ordinary rate of wages as provided under Section 59 of the Act.

9 . National Butterfly Campaign 

Context : Citizen campaign to drum up support for identifying a national butterfly has gained momentum with close to half a lakh people joining the movement from across the country.

About the Campaign

  • Spearheaded by butterfly researchers, scientists and enthusiasts, the National Butterfly Campaign has revived focus on the relevance of butterflies in enhancing biodiversity.
  • Several countries, including Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia and Bhutan, have national butterflies.
  • India is yet to designate a national butterfly despite being home to over 1,300 species belonging to six butterfly families.
  • As part of identifying butterfly species that could make it to the coveted status, the National Butterfly Campaign Consortium prepared a long-list of 50 butterflies that was further trimmed to seven.
  • A country-wide online poll that commenced on September 11 to identify the most-favoured butterfly species has currently generated 42,090 votes, with Maharashtra recording the highest number — 16,210. Several people have also cast their votes in West Bengal (3,029) and Karnataka (2,435), while 786 from Kerala have also joined the campaign.

Key contenders

  • Krishna Peacock (Papilio krishna), Indian Jezebel or Common Jezebel (Delias eucharis), Orange Oakleaf (Kallima inachus), Five-bar Swordtail (Graphium antiphates), Indian Nawab, Yellow Gorgon and Northern Junglequeen (Stichophthalma camadeva) are the contenders for the premier position.

10 . Suture thread made of nanofiber yarns

Context: A team of researchers at IIT Madras have prepared a prototype of suture thread made of nanofiber yarns that is bio-absorbable and can deliver a higher load of antibiotics and/or therapeutics at the site itself.

What is Surgical Suture

  • Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
  • Application generally involves using a needle with an attached length of thread. A number of different shapes, sizes, and thread materials have been developed over its millennia of history
  •  The original sutures were made from biological materials, such as catgut suture and silk. These absorbed bodily fluids and could be foci of infection. 

About Nanofiber yarns

  • Nanofiber yarns are thread-like structures formed by twisting together hundreds of nanofibers.
  • The way the nanofibers mimicked the collagen fibril sparked the idea in a lab that primarily works on scaffold-based tissue engineering to create thread like structures by twisting nanofibers together using custom-made machinery.

About the Nanofiber yarn sutures

  • The suture material uses nanofibers woven as yarn using certain specific techniques, and the strength can be varied depending on the target tissue (skin, muscle, cartilage).
  • Each strand has a good tensile strength, besides degrading rapidly and mimics the collagen fibrils of body tissues.
  • Several innovations globally in suture material have advanced infection control and achieved in some cases, better recovery among patients, even as other options such as staples, glues and strips have become available.

11 . Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

Context: India’s manufacturing sector activity has improved for the second straight month in September and has touched a more than eight-and-a-half-year high supported by accelerated increases in new orders and production.

What does the PMI index mean?

  • Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is a survey-based economic indicator designed to provide a timely insight into business conditions.
  • The PMI is widely used to anticipate changing economic trends in official data such as GDP, or sometimes as an alternative gauge of economic performance and business conditions to official data, as the latter sometimes suffer from delays in publication, poor availability or data quality issues.
  • The PMI is produced globally by IHS Markit although a small number of trade associations also produce local PMIs in certain markets, such as the ISM in the United States.

What does the Purchasing Managers’ Index measure?

  • The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is a survey-based indicator of business conditions, which includes individual measures (‘sub-indices’) of business output, new orders, employment, costs, selling prices, exports, purchasing activity, supplier performance, backlogs of orders and inventories of both inputs and finished goods, where applicable.
  • The surveys ask respondents to report the change in each variable compared to the prior month, noting whether each has risen/improved, fallen/deteriorated or remained unchanged.
  • These objective questions are accompanied by one subjective ‘sentiment’ question asking companies whether they forecast their output to be higher, the same or lower in a year’s time.
  • Originally compiled for manufacturing, IHS Markit pioneered the extension of coverage to other sectors in the 1990s, including services, construction and retail.
  • The PMI and its sub-indices are widely used to anticipate changing economic trends in official data such as GDP, or sometimes as an alternative gauge of economic performance and business conditions to official data, as the latter sometimes suffer from delays in publication, poor availability or data quality issues.

Details of this Month’s Index

  • The headline seasonally adjusted IHS Markit India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) increased from 52.0 in August to 56.8 in September which is the highest since January 2012.
  • The Indian manufacturing industry continued to move in the right direction, with PMI data for September highlighting many positives this has been possible due to loosened COVID-19 restrictions, factories going full steam ahead for production which is supported by a surge in new work.
  • The upturn in total sales was supported by a renewed expansion in new export orders which is the first since prior to the escalation of the COVID-19 outbreak.


  • Despite strong growth of order book volumes, Indian goods producers have signalled another reduction in payroll numbers. In many cases, this has been attributed to efforts to observe social distancing guidelines. Employment has now decreased for six consecutive months.
  • The input costs have also increased because of which the output prices have risen.

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