Daily Current Affairs : 1st June

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE 2020

Topics Covered

  1. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes 
  2. Slump in GDP growth
  3. Elnino
  4. Pension Coverage to Farmers
  6. Kasturirangan Committee Report
  7. Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme
  8. Periodic Labour Force Survey
  9. Facts for Prelims : Core Sector, Fiscal Deficit, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis

1 . Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes 

What to study

  • For Prelims and Mains: About e-cigarettes, About Nicotine, Effects on health, Need of regulation

Context : The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has warned of a potential public health disaster if action was not taken to completely prohibit and dissuade the use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes given that the nicotine delivered by these devices adversely affect almost all systems in a human body.

About E-Cigarettes

  • Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, e-vaporizers, or electronic nicotine delivery systems, are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine (though not always), flavorings, and other chemicals.
  • They can resemble traditional tobacco cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, or even everyday items like pens or USB memory sticks.
  • It has mainly 3 parts a rechargeable lithium battery, a vaporization chamber, a cartridge

How it works

  • Lighting a traditional cigarette causes the tobacco to burn, releasing smoke that contains nicotine. The user breathes in the smoke to deliver nicotine to the lungs.
  • An electronic cigarette doesn’t rely on this process of combustion. Instead, it heats a nicotine liquid and converts the liquid to a vapor, or mist, that the user inhales. 

Arguments against E- Cigarettes

  • The amount of nicotine delivered did not always match the amount stated on the label.
  • Some cartridges labeled nicotine-free in fact contained nicotine
  • . And cancer-causing compounds found in tobacco were also found in some e-cigarette cartridges, along with other toxins. One of the toxins found was diethylene glycol, a toxic chemical used in antifreeze.
  • Their addictive-potential is not understood, and some studies show that they can act as a gateway drug for adolescents

Harmful Effects

  • Use of e-cigarettes has documented adverse effects on humans which include DNA damage; carcinogenesis; cellular, molecular and immunological toxicity; respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological disorders and adverse impact on foetal development and pregnancy

Observations of ICMR

  • Based on the currently available scientific data from multiple streams of research, the ICMR has recommended complete prohibition on ENDS or e-cigarettes in India in the greater interest of protecting public health.
  • Observing that tobacco consumption, especially cigarette smoking, had shown a decline in India in recent years but this had been achieved through several tobacco control measures that had already been initiated. Thus marketing of a product like e-cigarettes, with unproven benefit and high potential harm from addiction and health risks, is unwarranted as a tobacco control measure
  • With any benefit that e-cigarettes may offer as a tobacco cessation aid yet to be established and evidence suggesting that there were risks of both dual use and the initiation to tobacco addiction among non-smokers, these products, on balance, had a net negative impact on public health
  • E-cigarette use adversely affects the cardiovascular system, impairs respiratory immune cell function and airways in a way similar to cigarette smoking and is responsible for severe respiratory disease. It also poses risk to foetus, infant, and child brain development, the council noted in a white paper released

About Nicotine

  • Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced synthetically.
  • Nicotiana tabacum, the type of nicotine found in tobacco plants, comes from the nightshade family. Red peppers, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes are examples of the nightshade family.
  • While not cancer-causing or excessively harmful on its own, nicotine is heavily addictive and exposes people to the extremely harmful effects of tobacco dependency.
  • When a body is exposed to nicotine, the individual experiences a “kick.” This is partly caused by nicotine stimulating the adrenal glands, which results in the release of adrenaline. This surge of adrenaline stimulates the body. There is an immediate release of glucose, as well as an increase in heart rate, breathing activity, and blood pressure.
  • Nicotine also makes the pancreas produce less insulin, causing a slight increase in blood sugar or glucose.
  • Indirectly, nicotine causes the release of dopamine in the pleasure and motivation areas of the brain. A similar effect occurs when people take heroin or cocaine.
  • Dopamine is a brain chemical that affects emotions, movements, and sensations of pleasure and pain. If your brain dopamine levels rise, the feeling of contentment is higher.


  • Electronic cigarette manufacturers claim that their products may have the potential to improve the health and lives of people addicted to nicotine and it may help consumers avoid many of the health risks of smoking tobacco but they still give users a dose of an addictive substance.
  • Given the harmful health effects e-cigarettes pose to users, as well as passive exposure, failure to make appropriate interventions at the right time — by bringing together all stakeholders under one umbrella to prevent this impending epidemic of e-cigarettes use — could lead to a public health disaster in India

2 . Slump in GDP growth

What to Study

  • For Prelims : Different types of GDP and definitions of various terms like GDP FC, MP etc,
  • Mains : Factors Affecting India’s growth, Is GDP an adequate measure of development

Context : India’s GDP grew at 5.8% in the January-March 2019 quarter, dragging down the full year growth to a five-year low of 6.8%. The unemployment rate in the country rose to a 45-year high of 6.1% in 2017-18, as per official data released on the first day of the second term of the Modi government.

Why there is a slump in GDP Growth

  • Slowdown in the fourth quarter GDP was due to temporary factors, like stress in the NBFC sector affecting consumption finance
  • During the year, the slowdown in the economy was led by sluggish growth in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector (2.9% growth), the mining sector (1.3% growth) and in manufacturing (6.9%).
  • Sectors which saw growth rate of over 7% were public administration, defence and other services, construction, financial, real estate and professional services, and electricity, gas, water supply and other utility services.

3 . Elnino

What to Study

  • For Prelims and Mains: El Nino and La Nia- causes, effects and impacts

Context : India Meteorological Department (IMD) has predicted a “normal” rainy season, with the country as a whole set to receive 96% of the long period average (LPA) rainfall. IMD seemed to allay fears of the El Nino phenomenon playing havoc with the summer’s rainfall, although it noted that “the current weak El Nino conditions may continue during the monsoon season with reduced intensity”.

Background and History

  • El Nino was observed as far back as in the late 1800s when South American fishermen noticed the warming up of coastal waters around Christmas. They referred to it as “El Nino” (Spanish for the boy child), since it appeared around Christmas.
  • Sir Gilbert Walker, a British mathematician, discovered the Southern Oscillation (SO), or large-scale changes in sea level pressure across Indonesia and the tropical Pacific. However, he did not recognise that it was linked to changes in the Pacific Ocean or El Nino.
  • It wasn’t until the late 1960s that Norwegian-American meteorologist Jacob Bjerknes and others realised that the changes in the ocean and the atmosphere were connected. This was how the coinage ‘ENSO’ came into existence.
  • As already mentioned, El Nino has been found to impact almost half the world triggering droughts in Australia, India, southern Africa and floods in Peru, Ecuador, the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Colorado River basin.

About Elnino

  • El Nino is a phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific, in which sea-surface temperatures rise over a threshold of +0.5 degree Celsius (and when it cools by the same margin it is La Nina).
  • These are averaged over five, three-month sessions on a trot across a stretch of water designated as the Nino 3.4 region to arrive at the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI).

Terms related to Elnino

  • Southern Oscillation Index, or SOI – gives an indication of the development and intensity of El Nino or La Nina. The SOI is calculated on the basis of the atmospheric pressure differences between Tahiti (South Pacific Ocean) and Darwin (Australia), separated by 8,569 km. Sustained positive SOI values are indicative of La Nina conditions while negative values suggest El Nino conditions.
  • ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) – refers to the oscillation between the El Nino and the La Nina. ENSO shifts irregularly back and forth between El Nino and La Niña every two to seven years. Each phase triggers predictable disruptions of temperature, precipitation, and winds disrupting large-scale air movements in the tropics, triggering a cascade of global side effects.
  • Under ‘normal’ conditions, though, the west tropical Pacific is warmer than its eastern basin. The warmer area of the ocean is also a source for convection and is associated with cloudiness and rainfall. During El Nino years, the warmth shifts to Central and East Tropical Pacific (Nino 3.4 region), and along with it, cloudiness and rainfall.

Effects of Elnino

  • El Nino has been generally known to suppress monsoon rainfall in India while La Nina increases it.
  • El Niño years tend to be drier than average, but one of the strongest El Nino of the century (1997-98) produced a monsoon season with above-average rainfall for India (see table).
  • Researchers also believe that even the location of the warming in the Pacific may possibly have an influence on the monsoon.
  • Anomalous warming in the Central and East Pacific (Nino 3.4 region) could have a more profound adverse impact on the monsoon than when the warming shifts to the adjoining far east Pacific (Nino 3. region).
  • Current conditions (March, 2019) suggest that the warming is pronounced (+0.98 degree Celsius) in the Nino 3.4 region than the far east Pacific (+0.74 degree Celsius), which could suggest a weaker monsoon this year.
  • Scientists claim there may be other factors that combine with the prevailing Pacific conditions to decide the fate of the monsoon.
  • Progressive heating of the land during April-May-June is one.
  • The extent of the Himalayan/Eurasian snow cover is another. Less snow cover means a warmer subcontinent, which can help to intensify the monsoon circulation and bring more rain.
  • The Indian summer monsoon rainfall is influenced by a system of oscillating sea surface temperatures known as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean. A positive IOD occurs when the sea surface temperatures are greater than normal in the Arabian Sea and less than normal in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. When the reverse is the case, a negative IOD is said to have developed. A positive IOD leads to greater monsoon rainfall and more active (above normal rainfall) monsoon days while negative IOD leads to less rainfall and more monsoon break days (no rainfall)

4 . Pension Coverage to Farmers

What to Study

  • For Prelims : Features of the Scheme
  • Mains : Importance of the Scheme, Importance of Farmers and Agriculture for food security of the country

Context : The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved  a new Central Sector Scheme that will provide pension cover to our industrious farmers which will empower farmers across India.

Salient features of this scheme

  • A voluntary and contributory pension scheme for all Small and Marginal Farmers (SMF) across the country.
  • Entry age of 18 to 40 years with a provision of minimum fixed pension of Rs.3,000/- on attaining the age of 60 years.
  • For example, a beneficiary farmer is required to contribute Rs 100/ – per month at median entry age of 29 years.  The Central Government shall also contribute to the Pension Fund an equal amount as contributed by the eligible farmer. 
  • After the subscriber’s death, while receiving pension, the spouse of the SMF beneficiary shall be entitled to receive 50% of the pension received by the beneficiary as family pension, provided he/she is not already an SMF beneficiary of the Scheme. 
  • If the death of the subscriber happens during the period of contribution, the spouse shall have the option of continuing the Scheme by paying regular contribution.

Other Features

  • An interesting feature of the Scheme is that the farmers can opt to allow his/her monthly contribution to the Scheme to be made from the benefits drawn from the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) Scheme directly. Alternatively, a farmer can pay his monthly contribution by registering through Common Service Centres (CSCs) under MeitY. 
  • It is also for the first time since independence that such a pension coverage has been envisioned for farmers.
  • It is estimated that 5 crore small and marginal farmers will benefit in the first three years itself.  The Central Government would spend Rs. 10774.50 crore for a period of 3 years towards its contribution (matching share) for providing social security cover as envisaged under the scheme


What to Study

  • For Prelims: Features of the scheme.
  • For Mains: Significance, relevance and need for the scheme, concerns and challenges over its implementation

Context : The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved that the ambit of the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) would be comprehensively extended. With this decision, all land holding eligible farmer families (subject to the prevalent exclusion criteria) would avail of the benefits under this scheme.

PM-KISAN: A path-breaking support incentive for farmers

  • The key element of PM-KISAN is income support of Rs. 6000/- to the small and marginal landholder farmer families with cultivable land holding upto 2 hectare across the country. (This has been expanded now)
  • The amount is being released in three 4-monthly instalments of Rs.2000/- each over the year, to be credited into the bank accounts of the beneficiaries held in destination banks through Direct Benefit Transfer mode.
  • The scheme was launched in a record time of 3 weeks, on 24th February at a huge programme in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh where the first rounds of instalments was paid to several farmers.
  • So far, 1st installment to 3.11 crore beneficiaries and 2nd instalment to 2.66 crore beneficiaries have been credited directly to the bank accounts of the farmer families.

About the Revised Scheme

  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) extended to all the farmers in the country. Earlier the benefit of the scheme was applicable to farmers having two hectares of land. 
  • The revised Scheme is expected to cover around 2 crore more farmers, increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore beneficiaries, with an estimated expenditure by Central Government of Rs. 87,217.50 crores for year 2019-20. 

6 . Kasturirangan Committee Report

Context : The Committee led by the Chairman Dr. Kasturirangan submitted the Draft National Educational Policy to the Union Human Resource Development Minister, Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ and Minister of State for HRD, Shri Sanjay Shamrao Dhotre in New Delhi today in the presence of Shri R. Subrahmanyam, Secretary Department of Higher Education and Smt. Rina Ray, Secretary Department of School Education & Literacy and other senior officials of the Ministry.


  • The Committee had the onerous task of analysing and examining a humungous volume of suggestions, inputs, reports, and outcome documents that preceded its own efforts.
  • The underlying spirit that dictated the Committee’s own course of crafting this significant document was primarily to bring out a vision document which will hold the test of time for at least another 20 years.
  • The Draft National Education Policy, 2019 is built on the foundational pillars of Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability and Accountability.

Details of the Draft National Educational Policy

  • The Committee has proposed to rename MHRD as Ministry of Education (MoE).
  • In School Education, a major reconfiguration of curricular and pedagogical structure with Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) as an integral part of school education is proposed.
  • The Committee also recommends Extension of Right to Education Act 2009 to cover children of ages 3 to 18.
  • A 5+3+3+4 curricular and pedagogical structure based on cognitive and socio-emotional developmental stages of children: Foundational Stage (age 3-8 yrs): 3 years of pre-primary plus Grades 1-2;  Preparatory Stage (8-11 years): Grades 3-5; Middle Stage (11-14 years): Grades 6-8;  and Secondary Stage (14-18 years): Grades 9-12. Schools will be re-organized into school complexes.
  • It also seeks to reduce content load in school education curriculum.
  • The Committee proposes for massive transformation in Teacher Education by shutting down sub-standard teacher education institutions and moving all teacher preparation/education programmes into large multidisciplinary universities/colleges. The 4-year integrated stage-specific B.Ed. programme will eventually be the minimum degree qualification for teachers.
  • In higher education, a restructuring of higher education institutions with three types of higher education institutions is proposed- Type 1: Focused on world-class research and high quality teaching; Type 2: Focused on high quality teaching across disciplines with significant contribution to research; Type 3: High quality teaching focused on undergraduate education. This will be driven by two Missions -Mission Nalanda & Mission Takshashila.
  • Several new policy initiatives for promoting internationalization of higher education, strengthening quality open and distance learning,  technology integration at all levels of education, adult and lifelong learning  and initiatives to enhance participation of under-represented groups, and eliminate gender, social category and regional gaps in education outcomes are recommended.
  • Promotion of Indian and Classical Languages and setting up three new National Institutes for Pali, Persian and Prakrit and an Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI) has been recommended. 

Other Important Structural Recommendations

  • A new apex body Rashtriya Shiksha Ayog is proposed to enable a holistic and integrated implementation of all educational initiatives and programmatic interventions, and to coordinate efforts between the Centre and States. The National Research Foundation, an apex body is proposed for creating a strong research culture and building research capacity across higher education.
  • The four functions of Standard setting, Funding, Accreditation and Regulation to be separated and conducted by independent bodies
  • National Higher Education Regulatory Authority as the only regulator for all higher education including professional education;
  • Creation of accreditation eco-system led by revamped NAAC;
  • Professional Standard Setting Bodies for each area of professional education and UGC to transform to Higher Education Grants Commission (HEGC).
  • The private and public institutions will be treated on par and education will remain a ‘not for profit’ activity.

7 . Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme

Context : The Government of India, in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), has decided to issue the Sovereign Gold Bonds.

What is Sovereign Gold Bond (SGB)

  • SGBs are government securities denominated in grams of gold. They are substitutes for holding physical gold.
  • The Bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of Government of India.
  • The Bonds will be restricted for sale to resident individuals, HUFs, Trusts, Universities and Charitable Institutions.
  • The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with exit option after 5th year to be exercised on the interest payment dates.
  • Bonds will be sold through Commercial banks, Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL), designated post offices (as may be notified) and recognised stock exchanges viz., National Stock Exchange of India Limited and Bombay Stock Exchange, either directly or through agents.
  • Bonds can be used as collateral for loans. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is to be set equal to ordinary gold loan mandated by the Reserve Bank from time to time.
  • The interest on Gold Bonds shall be taxable as per the provision of Income Tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961). The capital gains tax arising on redemption of SGB to an individual has been exempted. The indexation benefits will be provided to long term capital gains arising to any person on transfer of bond.
  • Bonds will be tradable on stock exchanges within a fortnight of the issuance on a date as notified by the RBI.
  • Payment for the Bonds will be through cash payment (upto a maximum of Rs. 20,000) or demand draft or cheque or electronic banking.

Rate of Interest

  • The Bonds bear interest at the rate of 2.50 per cent (fixed rate) per annum on the amount of initial investment. Interest will be credited semi-annually to the bank account of the investor and the last interest will be payable on maturity along with the principal.

Minimum and maximum limit for investment

  • The Bonds are issued in denominations of one gram of gold and in multiples thereof.
  • Minimum investment in the Bond shall be one gram with a maximum limit of subscription of 4 kg for individuals, 4 kg for Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) and 20 kg for trusts and similar entities notified by the government from time to time per fiscal year (April – March).
  • In case of joint holding, the limit applies to the first applicant.
  • The annual ceiling will include bonds subscribed under different tranches during initial issuance by Government and those purchased from the secondary market.
  • The ceiling on investment will not include the holdings as collateral by banks and other Financial Institutions

Issue Price and Redemption Price

  • Price of Bond will be fixed in Indian Rupees on the basis of simple average of closing price of gold of 999 purity, published by the India Bullion and Jewellers Association Limited for the last 3 working days of the week preceding the subscription period. The issue price of the Gold Bonds will be Rs.50 per gram less for those who subscribe online and pay through digital mode.
  • The redemption price will be in Indian Rupees based on previous 3 working days simple average of closing price of gold of 999 purity published by IBJA.


  • The quantity of gold for which the investor pays is protected, since he receives the ongoing market price at the time of redemption/ premature redemption.
  • The SGB offers a superior alternative to holding gold in physical form.
  • The risks and costs of storage are eliminated.
  • Investors are assured of the market value of gold at the time of maturity and periodical interest.
  • SGB is free from issues like making charges and purity in the case of gold in jewellery form.
  • The bonds are held in the books of the RBI or in demat form eliminating risk of loss of scrip etc.


  • People prefer physical gold over bonds as it is a staus symbol – “Every year, close to 800 tonnes of consumption of gold and 60% of that is as jewellery. And about 70% of this 60%, about 340 tonnes, is bought as wedding jewellery. The second large part of jewellery purchases are gifts outside of weddings. Hence the above mentioned requirements cannot be bought as bonds.
  • The method of purchase and the lack of education about the procedure and the benefits of gold bonds over physical gold :- Either you need a demat account to buy, or you need to do KYC to buy through a fund house. People think that buying a SGB involves a lot of formalities and is very difficult. The reality, however, is different, he explained. Once obtained, demat accounts allow the person to buy gold bonds at the click of a button, and the KYC procedure is also not onerous and can be done online. But education is missing not only to the extent of how easy it is to invest, but also [as to] what advantages gold bonds have over physical gold. There are festivals where people buy gold out of emotion. If they can be educated that buying a gold bond is the same as buying a gold coin, that will have an impact. They are safer and highly liquid; our CAD will also come down
  • The third set of problems with the SGBs is the way the scheme is designed – :
    If somebody wants to buy gold, they want to buy it at that particular time itself. That is possible in SGBs only when buying through exchanges. The issue also is that there is a lock-in for five years before which the bonds cannot be redeemed.”


  • The consensus view is that the aim of the Sovereign Gold Bond scheme — to divert people away from physical gold — is pretty much doomed from the start because of Indians’ cultural affinity for gold jewellery. That said, there are a number of changes such as removing the lock-in and allowing gold bonds to be sold on tap that the government can do to at least spur the scheme on from where it is languishing at present.

8 . Periodic Labour Force Survey

Context : Unemployment rate at 6.1% in 2017-18, says labour force survey which was withheld earlier

About Periodic Labour Force Survey

  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation had launched the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) during 2017-18, with the objective of measuring quarterly changes of various statistical indicators of the labour market in urban areas as well as generating the annual estimates of different labour force indicators both in rural and urban areas.
  • Households in urban areas were visited four times, constituting a rolling panel for 3 quarters. This facilitates analysis of the changes in seasonal employment and employment characteristics in urban areas.

Details of the Report

  • The country’s unemployment rate stood at 6.1 per cent in 2017-18,
  • PLFS covered 4.3 lakh people across 1.02 lakh households, unemployment rate among urban workforce was 7.8 per cent, while the unemployment rate for the rural workforce was 5.3 per cent.
  • The unemployment rate of males on all-India basis was 6.2 per cent, while it was 5.7 per cent in case of females.
  • It also showed that the unemployment rate for males was higher at 7.1 per cent in urban areas compared to 5.8 per cent in rural areas. Similarly, the unemployment rate for women was also higher in urban areas at 10.8 per cent compared to 3.8 per cent in rural areas.
  • It also said the Labour Force Participation Rate was estimated at 36.9 per cent in 2017-18, while worker population ratio was 34.7 per cent on all-India basis.

Change in Methodology

  • A new series was implemented for measuring employment and unemployment on annual basis as the criterion for sampling has been changed to education levels than the criterion of monthly expenditure in earlier quinquennial Employment-Unemployment Surveys.
  • The change in methodology was undertaken to assess the impact of changes in policy intervention in education sector on employment. “The rationale for this decision was based on the fact that the education levels in the economy have risen due to various policy interventions like the Right to Education Act etc and it would be important to assess the level of employment and unemployment using this as a stratification basis,”
  • As per the new criterion, the sampling design of PLFS was formed in a way where out of 8 households selected in the sample, 75 per cent had at least one member with 10th standard education or above.

9 . Facts for Prelims

Fiscal Deficit

  • Fiscal deficit for 2018-19 came in at 3.39% of the GDP (gross domestic product), marginally lower than the 3.4% projected in the revised estimates of the Budget, mainly on account of lower expenditure and increase in non-tax revenue.
  • Fiscal deficit, which is the difference between expenditure and revenue, was originally budgeted at 3.3% for 2018-19. However, the government later revised upward the deficit to 3.4% in the revised estimates of 2018-19 Budget to accommodate extra spending on account of schemes for farmers. For 2019-20, the fiscal deficit is budgeted at 3.4% of the gross domestic product.
  • About Fiscal Deficit : The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed as fiscal deficit. It is an indication of the total borrowings needed by the government. While calculating the total revenue, borrowings are not included. 

Index of 8 Core Sector

  • It contains index, production and growth of Eight Core Industries.
  • Eight Core Industries are Electricity , steel, refinery products, crude oil, coal, cement, natural gas and fertilizers.
  • The Index of Eight Core Industries is a monthly production index, which is also considered as a lead indicator of the monthly industrial performance.

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis

  • These diseases are very common amongst the livestock – cow-bulls, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs etc.
  • If a cow/buffalo gets infected with FMD, the milk loss is upto 100% which could last for four to six months.
  • Further, in case of Brucellosis the milk output reduces by 30%, during the entire life cycle of animal. Brucellosis also causes infertility amongst the animals.
  • The infection of brucellosis can also be transmitted to the farm workers and livestock owners.
  • Both the diseases have a direct negative impact on the trade of milk and other livestock products.
  • Govt Schemes : In case of FMD, a new scheme envisages vaccination coverage to 30 crore bovines (cows-bulls and buffaloes) and 20 crore sheep/goat and 1 crore pigs at six months’ interval along with primary vaccination in bovine calves, while the Brucellosis control programme shall extend to cover 100% vaccination coverage of 3.6 crore female calves. 

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