Daily Current Affairs : 1st and 2nd September

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. National Register of Citizen
  2. Uranium Mining in India
  3. TB Detect, TB Concentration & Transport, and TB DNA Extraction
  4. Mamallapuram
  5. Firoz Shah
  6. Foetus in foetu
  7. Facts for Prelims : Cholera, New Governors

1 . National Register of Citizen

Context : More than 19 lakh of the 3.29 crore applicants in Assam were left out of the final National Register of Citizens (NRC) that was published on Saturday to conclude a Supreme Court-monitored exercise that took five years and ₹1,220 crore.

What is National Register of Citizens

  • The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is the register containing names of Indian citizens.
  • The only time that a National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared was in 1951 when after conduct of the Census of 1951, the NRC was prepared by recording particulars of all the persons enumerated during that Census.
  • The NRC is now updated to include the names of those persons (or their descendants) who appear in the NRC, 1951, or in any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 or in any one of the other admissible documents issued upto mid-night of 24th March, 1971, which would prove their presence in Assam or in any part of India on or before 24th March, 1971.

What necessitated an NRC exclusive to assam?

  • The 1951 NRC was compiled exclusively for Assam on the basis of the fears expressed by Assamese nationalist leaders who feared a post-Partition conspiracy by Pakistan to effect a demographic change in Assam.
  • Historically, however, colonial Assam (1826-1947) has witnessed a steady influx of migrants. From the mid-19th century onwards, the British brought in migrant workers from the adjoining areas which include present-day Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, parts of Bihar, Odisha, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh to work in the newly-opened tea plantations.
  • In 1904, the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, divided Bengal into three provinces – West Bengal, East Bengal and Assam. The division was, on the face of it, for administrative efficiency. On the ground, the division prompted another wave of migration with Muslim farmers from East Bengal pouring into Muslim-dominated Assam
  • Post independence, there were attempts by successive chief ministers of Assam to expel illegal migrants (read: mostly Muslims) who had settled in the state post 1951 and it led to considerable strife with the Centre, headed by Prime Minister Nehru. Regardless, at least two lakh illegal migrants were expelled from the state during this period.
  • The Liaqat-Nehru pact signed between PM Nehru and his Pakistani counterpart Liaqat Ali Khan is also credited for contributing to migration into Assam. The treaty stated that minorities in both countries would be treated equally and also granted them freedom of movement.
  • The Bangladesh liberation movement sent lakhs of Muslims from East Pakistan into Assam and West Bengal. Nearly 10 million Bangladeshis –mostly Hindus – fled murder, rape and forced conversion to Islam. Subsequently, Muslim families began migrating to escape poverty.
  • After the 1971 India-Pakistan war and the liberation of Bangladesh, the government in the state and at the Centre made several efforts, but failed to send the illegal migrants back to the newly-founded country.


  • The demands to update the NRC of 1951 were first raised by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) and Assam Gana Parishad more than three decades ago. The organisations had submitted a memorandum to the Centre on January 18, 1980, two months after launching the anti-illegal foreigners Assam Movement.
  • On November 17, 1999, at an official-level tripartite meeting to review the implementation of the Assam Accord, a decision was taken that the NRC would be updated and the Centre sanctioned Rs 20 lakh for the purpose and released Rs 5 lakh of it to start the exercise.
  • Later, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh led government took the final decision to update NRC on May 5, 2005. Thereafter, the government created a directorate for updating the NRC and the process of computerisation of the voters’ list up to 1971 and the NRC of 1951 began.

Assam Accord

  • The Assam accord was signed between the leaders of AASU-AAGSP and the Government of India in 1985 marking an end to a six-year-long agitation.
  • The Assam Accord put together a list of resolutions to be implemented in order to solve the immigration issue in Assam.
  • As per the accord, all people who came to Assam prior to January 1, 1966, would be given citizenship. Those who moved in between January 1, 1966, and March 24, 1971, would be “detected in accordance with the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order 1964”. Their names would be deleted from the electoral rolls and they would remain disenfranchised for a period of 10 years. Lastly, the accord provided a resolution to the case of those who entered Indian borders after March 24, 1971.
  • “Foreigners who came to Assam on or after March 25, 1971, shall continue to be detected, deleted and practical steps shall be taken to expel such foreigners
  • Important Clauses of Assam Accord
    • Clause 5- Foreigners issue ( Discussed above)
    • Clause 6 – Constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards, as may be appropriate, shall be provided to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the Assamese people.
    • Clause 7 – The Government takes this opportunity to renew their commitment for the speedy all round economic development of Assam, so as to improve the standard of living of the people. Special emphasis will be placed on education and science & technology through establishment of national institutions.
    • Clause 9 – Security of International Borders
    • Clause – 10 Prevention of encroachment of Govt lands
    • Clause 11 – Relevant law restricting acquisition of immovable property by foreigners in Assam is strictly enforced.
    • Clause 15 – The Ministry of Home Affairs will be the nodal Ministry for the implementation of the above

Documents for proving citizenship

  • The NRC will be updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003. As per the two statutes, the citizenship status would be ascertained based on the NRC, 1951, Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 and in their absence the following documents of Pre-1971 period.
  • Land & Tenancy Records, Citizenship Certificate, Permanent Residential Certificate (PRC), Refugee Registration Certificate,  Passport, LIC Policy,  Govt issued License/ Certificate, Govt Service/Employment Certificate,  Bank/Post Office Accounts, Birth Certificate,  Board/University Educational Certificate, Court Records/ Processes
  • In addition to above, 1) Ration cards and 2) Certificates issued by GP Secretary (certified by Circle Officer) in respect of women who have migrated after marriage shall also be admissible as supporting documents.
  • The updated NRC shall also contain names of persons eligible for citizenship by virtue of being original inhabitants of Assam.

What is Legacy data

  • All the names appearing in the NRC, 1951, or any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 together are called Legacy Data.

About Final List of NRC

  • The complete NRC draft was published on July 30, 2018, wherein 2,89,83,677 people were found eligible for inclusion while 40,007,707 were excluded. Thereafter, claims were received from 36,26,630 people against exclusions. Verification was also carried out of persons included in the draft NRC under Clause 4(3) of the Schedule of the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
  • Objections were received against the inclusion of 1,87,633 people whose names had appeared in the complete draft. Another additional draft exclusions list containing 1,02,462 names was published on June 26.
  • “Taking into account all the persons already included and after disposal of all claims and objections and proceedings under Clause 4(3), a total of 3,11,21,004 were found eligible for inclusion in the final NRC leaving out 19,06,657 people, including those who did not submit claims

What next for excluded people

  • Each excluded person will have 120 days to file an appeal at any of the existing 100 Foreigners’ Tribunals — 200 more are to be established within a month — which in turn will have to dispose of the cases within six months.
  • The appellant then has the option of approaching the High Court and Supreme Court.

2 . Uranium Mining in India

Context : The Andhra Pradesh government has ordered a full-fledged inquiry into a number of complaints about groundwater pollution caused by the uranium mining and processing project of the Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) at Tummalapalle in Vemula mandal of Kadapa district.


  • Soon after independence, with the formation of Atomic Energy Commission in 1948 India made a humble beginning of its inspiring atomic energy programme. Consequent to this development, it was felt that the country must have indigenous resources of basic raw materials such as uranium, thorium etc.
  • A group called Rare Metal Survey Unit (later on renamed as Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research) was formed by Govt. of India to locate good uranium deposits in the country.
  • The pioneering work of the first group of geologists, brought to light many uranium occurrences in Singhbhum Thrust belt in the eastern part of the country and soon it became evident that this belt holds the potential for commercial uranium mining operations.

Uranium deposits of India

  • Jaduguda in Singhbhum Thrust Belt (in the state of Jharkhand, formerly part of Bihar) is the first uranium deposit to be discovered in the country in 1951.
  • The Singhbhum Thrust Belt (also known as Singhbhum Copper belt or Singhbhum shear Zone) is a zone of intense shearing and deep tectonization with less than 1km width and known for a number of copper deposits with associated nickel, molybdenum, bismuth, gold, silver etc. It extends in the shape of an arc for a length of about 160 km.
  • This discovery of uranium at Jaduguda in this belt paved the way for intensive exploration work and soon a few more deposits were brought to light in this area.
  • Apart from discoveries in the Singhbhum Thrust Belt, several uranium occurrences have also been found in Cuddapah basin of Andhra Pradesh.
  • In the Mahadek basin of Meghalaya in NorthEastern part of the country, sandsyone type uranium deposits like Domiasiat, Wahkhyn, Mawsynram provide near-surface flat ore bodies amenable to commercial operations.
  • Other areas in Rajasthan, Karnataka and Chattishgarh hold promise for developing into some major deposits

Operating mines

  • Jharkhand : Jaduguda Mine, Bhatin Mine , Narwapahar Mine, Turamdih mine, Banduhurang mine, Bagjata Mine, Mohuldih Mine,
  • Andhra Pradesh : Lambapur-Peddagattu mine, Tummalapalle uranium deposit
  • Meghalaya : Domiasiat mine
  • Rohili uranium deposit : This area in the state of Rajasthan is under advanced stage of detailed exploration

Challenges and emerging technology

  • Uranium deposits in India are generally small, lean in tenor and complex in nature of mineralization.
  • In order to meet the timely requirement of uranium, the construction activities need to be accelerated.
  • Rising ore production from forthcoming new mines calls for some innovative approach of physical beneficiation of valuable uranium bearing minerals, which will reduce the volume of ore transportation and processing. The available flow-sheet also needs modification for improvement in recovery under different mineralogical conditions.
  • The plants, with a shorter processing route, need to incorporate measures to maximize the re-use of water, high recovery of the product and minimum discharge of effluents.
  • In the field of tailings management, long-term stability of tailings restricting the movement of contaminants, strengthening of embankment system, maximum re-use of effluents and reclamation of the existing ponds are some of the challenging areas for continuous research and improvement.
  • A great deal of efforts has already been made to implement precipitation of uranium peroxide (UO4.2H2O) using hydrogen peroxide in place of magnesium di-uranate. This will prevent co-precipitation of other metals, ensure higher purity in product and control many environment related problems.
  • Use of integrated software (survey-geology-mine planning) has helped to quickly establish the configuration of ore body and assess the potential of the deposit. Standard modules of mine layout and method have been developed with minor variations to accommodate the sitespecific geology. Similarly, standard modules and parameters for different processing activities are in place for implementation with site-specific modifications. This has considerably cut down time in planning, award of contracts for construction, drawing up specification for equipment and procurement. Uniformity in procedures for different studies like environmental assessment, feasibility, detailed project report etc has helped to reduce the pre-project period.

3 . Mamallapuram

Context : The historic coastal town of Mamallapuram on the scenic East Coast Road in Tamil Nadu is expected to be the venue for the second India-China informal summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping, scheduled in October this year.

About Mahabalipuram / Mamallapuram

  • Mahabalipuram or Mamallapuram is a historic city and UNESCO World Heritage site in Tamil Nadu.
  • During the reign of the Pallava dynasty, between the 3rd century CE and 7th century CE, it became an important centre of art, architecture and literature. Mahabalipuram was already a thriving sea port on the Bay of Bengal before this time.
  • A significant amount of coins and other artefacts excavated from this region also indicate a pre-existing trade relation with the Romans even before it became a part of the Pallava Empire.
  • The group of monuments at Mahabalipuram is a collection of 7th- and 8th-century CE religious monuments in the coastal resort town of Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu
  • The site has 400 ancient monuments and tamil reliigious temples including one of the largest open-air rock reliefs in the world: the Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance.The group contains several categories of monuments: ratha temples with monolithic processional chariots, built between 630 and 668; mandapa viharas (cave temples), rock reliefs (particularly bas-reliefs); stone-cut temples built between 695 and 722, and archaeological excavations dated to the 6th century and earlier.

Shore Temple / Shore Temple

  • “Seven Pagodas” has served as a nickname for the south Indian city of Mahabalipuram, also called Mamallapuram, since the first European explorers reached it. The phrase “Seven Pagodas” refers to a myth that has circulated in India, Europe, according to a myth seven temples once stood along Mahabalipuram’s shore
  • In 2005 the Indian Navy searched the coastline using sonar, and discovered the remains of two submerged temples and one cave temple
  • Currently only shore temple exists
  • The construction of Shore Temple was started by Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman II. Later, Cholas built the additional parts of the temple after invading the Mamallapuram from the Pallavas.
  • Shore temple is a complex of 3 temples. One big temple and two small temples. In that two temples have pyramid shaped gopura (temple tower).
  • Two shrines in the Shore Temple are dedicated to Lord Shiva. The 3rd and the small temple is the Vishnu temple. This depicts the blend of religious ideologies which existed in the past.
  • Shore Temple looks like a Ratha (Chariot) from a distance. It is believed that Shore Temple resembles the structure of Dharmaraja Ratha.
  • The mythology of the King Hiranyakashipu and his son Prahalada is related with the temple. It is believed that after Hiranyakashipu was killed by Lord Vishnu, Prahalada becomes the king. The legend goes that Prahalada’s son Bali founded Mahabalipuram in this place.
  • The temple was also named as Jalashayana (lying in the water) because it is situated at the sea level.
  • First literary reference to this came from the 13th century account of Marco Polo’s travels. The Venetian explorer gave a detailed account of his travels in Asia in the Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World c. 1300). In his account Marco Polo also gives a detailed account of ‘Seven Pagodas’ or temples, that were so large, on the Indian shore that he could see it from afar.


  • All the three Temples of the Shore Temple complex are built on the same platform. Viewed from the northern end, the temples appear to be a replica of the Dharmaraja Ratha.
  • The main Shore Temple is a five-storied structural Hindu temple rather than rock-cut as are the other monuments at the site. Built with sculpted granite stones hauled from a nearby quarry, it is the earliest important structural temple in South India.
  • Its pyramidal structure is 60 feet high and sits on a 50 feet square platform.
  • The entrance is through a transverse barrel vault gopuram. The two shikharas have a pyramidal outline, each individual tier is distinct with overhanging eaves that cast dark shadows
  • The temple has a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) in which the deity, Sivalinga, is enshrined, and a small mandapa surrounded by a heavy outer wall with little space between for circumambulation.

4 . TB Detect, TB Concentration & Transport, and TB DNA Extraction

Context : To address the TB diagnostic challenges, a multi-institutional team has developed three cost-effective kits that improve the sensitivity of smear microscopy, enable transport of sputum samples at ambient temperature without using bio-safe containers, and extract DNA for diagnosing drug-resistant TB. The three kits are — TB Detect, TB Concentration & Transport, and TB DNA Extraction.

About the Kits

  • The TB Detect kit is for diagnosis using LED fluorescence microscopy, while the TB Concentration & Transport, and the TB DNA Extraction kits together are for detection of drug-resistance.
  • The TB Detect kit helps increase the positivity of LED fluorescence microscopy by about 5%, while the TB DNA Extraction kit allows the detection of drug-resistant TB bacteria with a high level of sensitivity. 

5 . Firoz Shah Tughlaq

About Firoz Shah Tughlaq

  • Tughlaq was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty that ruled over Delhi from 1320 to 1412 AD. Tughlaq was in power from 1351 to 1388 AD.
  • He ascended the throne after the death of his cousin Muhammad-bin Tughlaq (ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD).
  • The dynasty started from the rule of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (ruled from 1320 to 1324 AD) and ended at Nasiruddin Mahmud (ruled from 1395 to 1412 AD).
  • Firoz Shah is regarded as the honorary founding president of The Conservation Society of Delhi and that the British called him the ‘father of the irrigation department’ because of the many gardens and canals that he built.


  • Firoz Shah was different from his predecessor when it came to ruling. He was not interested in conquering new areas, he did not even try to claim the areas which were split away. Many regions took autonomy while he was in power.
  • Firoz Shah also gave imperative concessions to the Islamic scholars. To keep them on his side, he boycotted the practices in the kingdom, the scholars deemed un-Islamic.
  • He was the one who started the imposition of Jaziya.
  • He provided the principle of inheritance to the armed forces where the officers were permitted to rest and send their children in army in their place. However, they were not paid in real money but by land.
  • He put an end to punishments like chopping of limbs, gouging of the eyes and burning convicts alive. He established courts at all important places of his empire and appointed Qazis to administer milder forms of punishment and justice. 


Firoz Shah Tughlaq worked majorly for development of infrastructure in his kingdom. He built schools, hospitals, river canals, reservoirs, rest houses among other things. He also repaired the Qutub Minar which had been damaged by an earthquake.

  • He established the Diwan-i-Khairat — office for charity
  • He established the Diwan-i-Bundagan — department of slave
  • He established Sarais (rest house) for the benefits of merchants and other travellers
  • He adopted the Iqtadari framework
  • He is known to establish four new towns, Firozabad, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Hissar
  • He established hospitals known as Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan or Shifa Khana

Canals built

  • Yamuna to the city of Hissar
  • Sutlej to the Ghaggar
  • Ghaggar to Firozabad
  • Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana

Taxes imposed under Firoz Shah Tughlaq

He implemented uniform system of taxation, which was done after an extensive revenue survey lasting six years.  During the entire period of his reign (which lasted till 1388), the taxation system remained constant

  • Kharaj: land tax which was equal to one-tenth of the produce of the land
  • Zakat: two and a half per cent tax on property realized from the Muslims
  • Kham: one-fifth of the booty captured (four-fifth was left for the soldiers)
  • Jaziya: levied on the non-Muslim subjects, particularly the Hindus. Women and children were, however, exempted from the taxes
  • Firoz also levied other taxes like the irrigation tax, garden tax, octroi tax and the sales tax.

6. Foetus in foetu

Context : When a 17-year-old girl Indian girl recently went to get a “lump” in her abdomen treated, it was found to be her twin growing inside her. This is a condition called foetus in foetu (FIF), or foetus within a foetus. Doctors say this is the first reported case of FIF in an adult woman worldwide, and the eighth such case in an adult in India (the previous cases were in adult men).

About Foetus in foetu

  • Foetus in foetu is a developmental abnormality in which a mass of tissue resembling a fetus forms inside the body
  • There are two theories about the origins of FIF.
    • The first is where a parasitic twin’s malformed foetus is formed inside the body of the host twin and both share the blood supply.
    • The other is that FIF is a “highly differentiated” form of teratoma – tumours made from tissues foreign to the area or part of the body in which they are found.
  • What differentiates a FIF from a tumour is that the lumps in the case of FIF are benign (do not spread to other organs and tissues) in nature, and are of embryological origin.

About Parasitic Twin

  • parasitic twin, also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin, is the result of the processes that also produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two.
  •  Parasitic twins occur when a twin embryo begins developing in utero, but the pair does not fully separate, and one embryo maintains dominant development at the expense of its twin.
  • Unlike conjoined twins, one ceases development during gestation and is vestigial to a mostly fully formed, otherwise healthy individual twin. The undeveloped twin is defined as parasitic, rather than conjoined, because it is incompletely formed or wholly dependent on the body functions of the complete fetus. The independent twin is called the autosite.

7 . Facts for Prelims


  • Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development.

New Governors

  • Former Union Minister, Arif Mohammed Khan, was appointed Governor of Kerala 
  • Former Uttarakhand Chief Minister Bhagat Singh Koshyari has been named the Governor of Maharashtra 
  • Tamil Nadu BJP president Tamilisai Soundararajan will be the new Governor of Telangana.
  • Former Union Labour Minister Bandaru Dattatreya will be the Governor of Himachal Pradesh in place of Kalraj Mishra, who has been given the charge of Rajasthan, replacing incumbent Governor Kalyan Singh.

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