Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- E-Courts Prjoect
- Katchatheevu Issue
- 3D Printing
- Facts for Prelims
1 . Remission
Context: The Supreme court asked the Gujarat government whether remission policy for prisoners was applied only “selectively”.
Background of the Case
- On February 28, 2002, Bilkis fled her village, Radhikpur in Dahod district, after violence erupted in the state in the aftermath of the previous day’s incident at Godhra station, in which the Sabarmati Express was set on fire, resulting in the deaths of dozens of pilgrims and kar sewaks returning from Ayodhya.
- Bilkis was gang-raped, and her three-year-old daughter was among 14 people killed by a mob on March 3, 2002, in the Limkheda taluka of Gujarat’s Dahod district during the riots. Her case was taken up by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and Supreme Court, which ordered an investigation by the CBI.
- The trial was moved out of Gujarat to Maharashtra after Bilkis Bano received death threats. In the Mumbai court, charges were filed against 19 men, including six police officers and a government doctor.
- In January 2008, a special court convicted 11 accused of conspiring to rape a pregnant woman, murder, unlawful assembly, and of charges under other sections of the Indian Penal Code. The Head Constable was convicted of “making incorrect records” to save the accused.
- Recently, in an unprecedented event, 11 men convicted of rape and murder in the 2002 Bilkis Bano case were released under a remission policy of the state of Gujarat.
- Bano had moved the apex court on November 30 last year challenging the “premature” release by the state government, saying it has “shaken the conscience of society”.
The power of Remission
- The Constitution of India confers the power to grant pardon, suspend, remit or commute sentences.
- Remission is shortening of a sentence without changing its character. It is not a right but based on executive discretion, as observed by the SC in the State of Haryana vs. Mahender Singh.
Types Of Pardoning Power
- There are five terms or types of pardoning powers mentioned in Article 72 and Article 161 of Indian Constitution.
- To pardon is to release a convict from any further punishment for a crime committed by him. The Governor has the power to pardon both the conviction and the sentence of a convict, such that it absolves the sentence, punishment, and any disqualifications.
- The pardoning power of a Governor, however, is not as broad as that of the President under Article 72. The President of India is the only authority with the power to pardon a conviction by a court-martial or pardon a death sentence. Moreover, the sovereign power of the government with respect to pardoning under Article 161 is exercised by the State government and not the Governor on his own.
- Respite: When the President or Governor uses the pardoning power of ‘Respite’, he/she chooses to award a lesser sentence in place of one originally awarded to the convict. For example, due to some special fact, such as the physical disability of a convict or the pregnancy of a woman offender, the President can use this power.
- Reprieve: When the President or Governor chooses the pardoning power of ‘Reprieve’; he/she stays the execution of a sentence (especially that of death) for a temporary period. By doing this, he/she enables the convict to have time to seek pardon or commutation from him.
- Remit: When the President or Governor chooses the pardoning power of Remit, he/she acts to reduce the period of the sentence, but the character of the sentence remains the same. For example, a sentence of rigorous imprisonment for two years may be remitted to rigorous imprisonment for one year, but the imprisonment remains rigorous.
- Commute: When the President or Governor chooses to use this pardoning power of ‘Commute; he/she substitutes one form of punishment for a lighter form. For example, a death sentence may be commuted to rigorous imprisonment, which in turn may be commuted to simple imprisonment.
- Article 72: Bestows upon the President the power to grant pardons, reprieves or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence.
- This power is applicable in all cases:
- where the punishment or sentence is by a court-martial,
- where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends,
- where the sentence is a sentence of death.
- Articles 161 of the Constitution: Governors have the power to pardon, suspend, remit, or commute a sentence passed by the courts.
- The Prison Act of 1894 defines remission as the system of “rules for the time being in force regulating the award of marks to, and the consequent shortening of sentences of, prisoners in jail”. It is an outcome of the State’s efforts to reform criminal justice and protect human rights.
- As per law, there are three kinds of remissions — constitutional, statutory and those earned in accordance with jail manuals. While Article 72 of the Constitution empowers the President to grant remission, Article 161 vests similar power with the Governor.
- Meanwhile, provisions under Sections 432 and 433 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) lay down rules for the State governments to suspend or remit sentences. Prison is a subject under the State List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, and the management and administration of jails fall under State governments.
- Section 432 empowers the ‘appropriate government’ to suspend or remit the sentence of a prisoner. Section 433A which deals with the power to commute sentences, however, states that a prisoner shall not be released before 14 years of undergoing sentence in the case of two kinds of life convicts. — those found guilty of an offence punishable with death and those whose death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment under Section 433.
- Section 435 states that in certain cases, the States have to act in consultation with the Central government. These include cases investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment, or by any agency that has investigated an offence under a Central Act other than the CrPC.
- Before deciding on the remission plea, the appropriate authority “may” also seek the opinion of the presiding judge of the court where the sentence was passed.
- It further clarifies that the expression “appropriate Government” refers to the central government, in cases where the sentence is for an offence or an order has been passed under any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends.
- The remission can be cancelled by the governor if any of the conditions imposed are not fulfilled. In this case, the person who was granted remission may, if at large, be arrested by any police officer, without a warrant and remanded to undergo the unexpired portion of the sentence.
- Section 433A provides for restrictions on powers of remission or commutation in certain cases. According to this provision, a person who has been sentenced to life imprisonment for an offence where death is one punishment provided, or where the death sentence has been commuted to life imprisonment, the person will be released only after serving at least fourteen years of imprisonment.
- In D. Krishna Kumar vs State of Telangana, the HC ruled that whenever an application is made for the suspension or remission of a sentence, the “appropriate government may require the presiding judge of the court before or by which the conviction was had or confirmed, to state his opinion as to whether the application should be granted or refused, together with his reasons for such opinion…”
- Appropriate authority issue was dealt with by a constitution bench of the Supreme Court in the case of Union of India vs V Sriharan. The court said that to ascertain which government would be the appropriate government, the sentence imposed by the criminal court under the CrPC or any other law is to be seen. Further, if the sentence imposed is under any of the sections of the IPC for which the executive power of the central government is specifically provided for, under a parliamentary enactment or prescribed in the Constitution itself, it would be the central government. If, under the provisions of the Code the sentence is imposed, within the territorial jurisdiction of the state concerned, then the appropriate government” would be the state government.
Grounds for remission
- The Supreme Court has held that states cannot exercise the power of remission arbitrarily and must follow due process.
- States set up a Sentence Review Board to exercise the powers under Section 432 of the CrPC.
- While the policy varies from state to state, broadly the grounds for remission considered by the Board are the same.
- The seriousness of the crime, the status of the co-accused and conduct in jail are the factors considered for granting remission.
- In ‘Laxman Naskar v. Union of India’ (2000) the SC laid down five grounds on which remission is considered:
- Whether the offence is an individual act of crime that does not affect society;
- Whether there is a chance of the crime being repeated in future;
- Whether the convict has lost the potential to commit the crime;
- Whether any purpose is being served in keeping the convict in prison; and
- Socio-economic conditions of the convict’s family.
- Jail manuals contain rules that allow certain days of remission every month for the good behaviour of convicts.
- Remission days are accounted for those serving fixed sentences while releasing the convict.
- However, convicts serving life sentences are entitled to seek remission only after serving a minimum of 14 years.
- This rule has often led to uncertainty on whether a “life sentence” means 14 years or a sentence unto death, prompting courts in recent times to clarify that “life means the remainder of one’s life”.
Supreme Court judgements on State’s power of Remission
- In April 2022 an apex court Bench said that the State cannot exercise its remission powers arbitrarily.
- State of Haryana vs Raj Kumar: SC observed that the power under Article 161 of the constitution can be exercised by the state governments, not by the Governor on his own. The advice of the appropriate government binds the Head of the State.
- State of Haryana Vs. Mohinder Singh: apex court said that the grant of remission should be informed, fair and reasonable. The court further said the state in the exercise of its executive power of remission must consider each individual’s case, keeping in view the relevant factors. The power of the state to issue general instructions, so that no discrimination is made, is also permissible in law
- Rajan Vs. Home Secretary, Department of Tamil Nadu: the top court held that granting premature release is not a matter of privilege but is the power coupled with duty conferred on the appropriate government. It said that remission should not undermine the nature of the crime committed.
- Laxman Naskar Vs. Union of India: court laid down five questions which should feature in the State’s mind before deciding on remission.
- Union of India Vs. Sriharan @ Murugan: the apex court said the presiding judge’s opinion would shed light on factors like the nature of the crime that was committed, the record of the convicts, their backgrounds and other relevant factors, which would enable the government to take the right decision as to whether or not the sentence should be remitted.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARDONING POWERS OF PRESIDENT AND GOVERNOR:
- The scope of the pardoning power of the President under Article 72 is wider than the pardoning power of the Governor under Article 161. The power differs in the following two ways:
- The power of the President to grant pardon extends in cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial but Article 161 does not provide any such power to the Governor.
- The President can grant pardon in all cases where the sentence given is sentence of death but pardoning power of Governor does not extend to death sentence cases.
2 . E- Court Project
Context: Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud said a “huge budget” allotted for the third phase of the e-courts project would see technology make inroads into the working of the judiciary, especially the lower courts.
Background of the News
- Union Budget had announced the launch of Phase 3 of the e-courts project with an outlay of ₹7,000 crore, while the first two phases of the project were planned and executed with an overall budget of ₹639.411 crore and ₹1,670 crore, respectively.
- Phase 3 of the project sought to interlink courts across the country, besides setting up the infrastructure of paperless court, digitisation of court records, and opening of advanced e-Sewa Kendras in court complexes.
- The success of virtual courts and the necessity, witnessed during the pandemic, of embracing technology in efficient justice administration had triggered a rise in the budget for the third phase of the project.
About e- Court Project
- The eCourts Project was conceptualized on the basis of the “National Policy and Action Plan for Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Indian Judiciary – 2005” submitted by eCommittee, Supreme Court of India with a vision to transform the Indian Judiciary by ICT enablement of Courts.
- Ecommittee is a body constituted by the Government of India in pursuance of a proposal received from Hon’ble the Chief Justice of India to constitute an eCommittee to assist him in formulating a National policy on computerization of Indian Judiciary and advise on technological communication and management related changes.
- The eCourts Mission Mode Project, is a Pan-India Project, monitored and funded by Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India for the District Courts across the country.
THE PROJECT ENVISAGES
- To provide efficient & time-bound citizen centric services delivery as detailed in eCourt Project Litigant’s Charter.
- To develop, install & implement decision support systems in courts.
- To automate the processes to provide transparency in accessibility of information to its stakeholders.
- To enhance judicial productivity, both qualitatively & quantitatively, to make the justice delivery system affordable, accessible, cost effective, predictable, reliable and transparent.
- e-court plan is an “integrated mission mode project” to help in the judiciary’s efforts to “transform itself by implementing tools and means of Information and Communication Technology”.
- The e-courts project aims to develop a hybrid model, allowing for physical and virtual courts to co-exist.
- In Phase-I of the eCourts Project beginning from 2007, a large number of Court Complexes, Computer Server Rooms and Judicial Service Centres were readied for computerization of the District Courts. The District and Taluka Court Complexes covered in Phase-I were computerized with installation of hardware, LAN and Case Information Software (CIS), for providing basic case related services to the litigants and the lawyers.
- A large number of District Courts launched their websites for the convenience of the different stakeholders. The Change Management exercise was undertaken to train the Judicial Officers and Court Staff in the use of computers and Case Information System (CIS) was successfully implemented.
- The Judicial Officers were trained by the Master Trainers trained from amongst them for continuing training programme. The CIS Master trainers have trained District System Administrators (DSAs) in the use of CIS. The DSAs have trained all the Court Staff in the use of CIS. The data entry for all pending cases has reached an advanced stage of completion. The Process Re-Engineering exercise was initiated to have a fresh look on the process, procedures, systems and Court Rules in force in the different District Courts under High Courts. The Phase-I concluded with extended timelines upto 30th March 2015.
- In Phase-II, the covered courts are provisioned for additional hardware with (1+3) systems per Court Room, the uncovered Courts of Phase-I and the newly established Courts with (2+6) systems per Court Room and the Court Complexes are provisioned for hardware, LAN etc.
- The dynamic implementation structure provides for greater participation and cooperation between the eCommittee, the Department of Justice (Government of India), NIC, DietY and Ministry of finance. It provides for High Courts as Implementing Agency, of the project under its jurisdiction. The Infrastructure Model provides for adopting Cloud Computing Architecture which is efficient and cost effective, while retaining the present Servers Rooms as Network Rooms and Judicial Service centers as Centralized Filing Centres. Provision has been made for computerization of office of District Legal Services Authority; Taluka Legal Services Committee, the National Judicial Academy and the State Judicial Academies for efficient delivery of services and training.
- Continuing with the implementation of Free and Open Source Solutions (FOSS), Phase-II has adopted the Core-Periphery model of Case Information Software, the core being Unified as National Core, while the periphery developed according to requirement of each High Court, with NIC, Pune continuing to be the Centre for Software Development and related applications, ensuring software compatibility and interoperability, both horizontally and vertically, with the data including metadata to be unified and standardized.
- In Phase-II, all the remaining Court Complexes are provisioned to be connected with Jails and Desktop based Video Conferencing to go beyond routine remands and production of under-trial prisoners. It will also be used for recording evidence in sensitive cases and gradually extended to cover as many types of cases as possible. With an emphasis on Capacity Building of Judicial Officers and Process Re-Engineering, the Phase-II provides for Judicial Knowledge Management System including Integrated Library Management System and use of Digital Libraries.
- The Phase-II of the project lays great emphasis on service delivery to the litigants, lawyers and other stakeholders. The websites will be Accessible Compliant and to the extent possible, the information will be available in the local languages. The applications for mobile phones , SMS and emails are extensively used as platforms for dissemination of information. Kiosk will be provided for every Court Complex. Certified copies of documents will be given online and ePayment Gateways will be provided for making deposits, payment of court fees, fines etc. The National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) will be further improvised to facilitate more qualitative information for Courts, Government and Public.
3 . Katchatheevu Issue
Context: Chief Minister M.K. Stalin said that retrieving the Katchatheevu islet from Sri Lanka alone would put a permanent end to the problems of fishermen in Tamil Nadu.
- Katchatheevu issue arises in pre-independence India and continues to create a rift in the relationship between India and Sri Lanka. The island has its own history and international mutual agreements have also been questioned by the state of Tamil Nadu government.
- Island Gifted to SriLanka– In 1974, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi did treaties with her counterpart Srimavo Bandaranaike, Sri Lankan President, and ceded Katchatheevu Island to Sri Lanka.
- In 1991, a resolution was adopted by the Tamil Nadu Assembly. The retrieval of Katchatheevu island was demanded through the resolution.
- Considering the move flawed in law, in 2008, then chief minister Jayalalithaa dragged the centre to the Supreme Court and appealed to nullify the Katchatheevu agreements. She stated that two treaties between the countries that gifted Katchatheevu to Sri Lanka are unconstitutional.
What is Katchatheevu?
- Katchatheevu is an uninhabited off-shore island in the Palk Strait. It was formed due to volcanic eruptions in the 14th century. The 285-acre land was jointly administered by India and Sri Lanka during British rule.
- The Raja of Ramnad (present-day Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu) owned Katchatheevu island and later became part of the Madras Presidency.
- In 1921, both Sri Lanka and India claimed this piece of land for fishing and the dispute remained unsettled. After Indian independence, the country initiated to resolve the pre-independence territory dispute between Ceylon and the British.
How did the conflict arise?
- Fishermen of both countries have been fishing in each other’s waters without conflict for a very long time. The issue emerged when both the countries signed four Maritime Boundary Agreements between 1974-76. The agreement marked the international maritime boundary of India and Sri Lanka
- The agreement aimed to facilitate resource management and law enforcement in the Palk Strait. Now, Indian fishermen were only allowed to use the island for resting, net drying and the annual St. Anthony’s festival. They are not permitted to use the island for fishing. However, Indian fishermen continued trespassing the Sri Lankan water boundary, searching for better catch in the area.
- The next few decades went well but the problem turned serious when fish and aquatic life in the Indian continental shelf depleted, which resulted in an increased number of Indian fishermen in the region. They are also using modern fishing trolleys which harm marine life and the ecosystem.
LTTE era and restrictions on movement
- During the LTTE (LiberationTigers of Tamil Eelam, a separatist group in Sri Lanka) era, the Sri Lankan government restricted the easy movement of Sri Lankan fishermen in waters raising military operations issues. The Indian fishermen considered this as an opportunity.
- In 2009, Sri Lanka started heavily guarding its maritime boundary in the Palk Strait. It was done to reduce the possibility of the return of Tamil insurgents in the country. With the end of the war in 2010, Sri Lankan fishermen again started their movement in Palk Bay and reclaimed their lost legitimate territory.
Humanitarian and Livelihood Concern
- About 10 miles northeast of Rameshwaram, the island is used by Indian fishermen to dry their nets, catch fish and rest. Frequent arrests on the border have increased and Sri Lankan authorities said that they are protecting their maritime boundaries against poaching, and securing the livelihood of Sri Lankan fishermen. Both sides ensure to not use force under any circumstances. However, the violent situation remains the same.
Indian Government’s stand
- According to a statement available on the website of the Ministry of External Affairs, the government concluded maritime boundary agreements with Sri Lanka in 1974 and 1976. According to the agreement, the Island lies on the Sri Lankan side of the India-Sri Lanka International Maritime Boundary Line. The matter is still sub-judice in the Supreme Court of India.
- The government has raised the issue at the highest political level with Sri Lanka. According to agreements, the issue was bilaterally resolved and has allowed Indians to visit the island for the pilgrimage without any requirement of a visa.
4 . 3D Printing
Context: India’s first 3D-printed post office was virtually inaugurated by Union Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw in Bengaluru’s Cambridge Layout. Its construction was completed in just 43 days — two days ahead of the deadline.
What is 3D Printing?
- 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a method of creating a three – dimensional object layer-by-layer using a computer created design.
- 3D printing is an additive process whereby layers of material are built up to create a 3D part. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing processes, where a final design is cut from a larger block of material. As a result, 3D printing creates less material wastage.
- It was first developed in the 1980s, but at that time was a difficult and expensive operation and so had few applications. It is only since 2000 that it has become relatively straightforward and affordable and so has become viable for a wide range of uses including product design, component and tool manufacture, consumer electronics, plastics, metalworking, aerospace engineering, dental and medical applications, and footwear.
3D Printing Technologies
- There are three broad types of 3D printing technology;
- melting, and
- Sintering is a technology where the material is heated, but not to the point of melting, to create high resolution items. Metal powder is used for direct metal laser sintering while thermoplastic powders are used for selective laser sintering.
- Melting methods of 3D printing include powder bed fusion, electron beam melting and direct energy deposition, this use lasers, electric arcs or electron beams to print objects by melting the materials together at high temperatures.
- Stereolithography utilises photopolymerization to create parts. This technology uses the correct light source to interact with the material in a selective manner to cure and solidify a cross section of the object in thin layers.
- The 3D Printing technology was developed on the basic principle of Rapid Prototyping. Prototyping is the process of building an early stage model, sample, or testing version of the actual product to be developed. Prototyping helps in the development process of the product and ensures the optimum output of the final product. Prototyping is still one of the most common applications of 3D printing.
Applications of 3D Printing Technology
- Aerospace/Aviation : Aerospace and aviation industry were amongst the early adopters of the 3D printing technology. Numerous 3D printed aircraft components are now manufactured and tested successfully and even used in the industry. 3D printing is commonly used to manufacture structural, low-volume metal brackets (with DMSL/SLM) that mount complex life-saving systems to the interior wall of a plane.
- Automotive : Some of the commonly used 3D printing technology in Automotive industry are
- Customized parts – manufacturers can tailor the parts to specific vehicles, making them bespoke and lightweight. This could also be developed for more personal benefits for the driver, for example, seats for racing cars, key fobs or gear sticks.Conceptual designs – 3D printed scale models can be used to demonstrate concepts and designs of new vehicles on a complex and intricate level. This helps to diagnose any future design problems as the model is to scale.Prototypes and testing – additive manufacturing allows for speedy prototyping, meaning validating a prototype can be quicker and more accurate.Spare parts – any part can be replicated and replaced quickly with the assistance of 3D printing, in a variety of materials.
- Tooling – 3D printing can also be used to develop molds and thermoforming tools, as well as contributing to the rapid manufacturing of grips, jigs, and fixtures.
- Medical Industry : Medical industry uses 3D printing to create critical items, such as : creating tissues and organoids, surgical tools, patient-specific surgical models and custom-made prosthetics.
- Bioprinting tissues and organoids- One of the many types of 3D printing that is used in the medical device field is bioprinting. Rather than printing using plastic or metal, bioprinters use a computer-guided pipette to layer living cells, referred to as bio-ink, on top of one another to create artificial living tissue in a laboratory. These tissue constructs or organoids can be used for medical research as they mimic organs on a miniature scale. They are also being trialled as cheaper alternatives to human organ transplants.
- Another application of 3D printing in the medical field is creating patient-specific organ replicas that surgeons can be use to practice on before performing complicated operations. This technique has been proven to speed up procedures and minimise trauma for patients.
- 3D printing of surgical instruments- Sterile surgical instruments, such as forceps, hemostats, scalpel handles and clamps, can be produced using 3D printers.
- Custom-made prosthetics using 3D printing- 3D printing in the medical field can be used to produce prosthetic limbs that are customised to suit and fit the wearer. It is common for amputees to wait weeks or months to receive prosthetics through the traditional route; however, 3D printing significantly speeds up the process, as well as creating much cheaper products that offer patients the same functionality as traditionally manufactured prosthetics.
- Jewellery Industry : Jewellery sector has always been a complex and labour intensive sector. Highly specialized knowledge and expertise is required in each of the many processes involved in it. 3D printing has disrupted the jewellery industry and it is now rationalising the traditional processes to optimise and utilize the potential of 3D printing. It has made it easier to rapidly prototype jewellery designs that accurately fit customers and has made it possible to produce large batches of ready-to-cast pieces.
- Art and Sculpture : 3D printing technology allows artists to use their sketches or photographs to create amazing works of sculpture straight from a computer.
- Construction Industry : 3D printing in construction is when companies or projects sequentially layer materials via computer-controlled processes to create three-dimensional shapes. 3D printers are useful for creating new structures on-site or manufacturing components off-site for later assembly. The printer receives dimensions from a software program and builds the structure on a platform using materials, such as cement, plastic or liquid metals.
Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages of 3D printing include:
- Bespoke, cost-effective creation of complex geometries: This technology allows for the easy creation of bespoke geometric parts where added complexity comes at no extra cost. In some instances, 3D printing is cheaper than subtractive production methods as no extra material is used.
- Affordable start-up costs: Since no moulds are required, the costs associated with this manufacturing process are relatively low. The cost of a part is directly related to the amount of material used, the time taken to build the part and any post processing that may be required.
- Completely customisable: Because the process is based upon computer aided designs (CAD), any product alterations are easy to make without impacting the manufacturing cost.
- Ideal for rapid prototyping: Because the technology allows for small batches and in-house production, this process is ideal for prototyping, which means that products can be created faster than with more traditional manufacturing techniques, and without the reliance on external supply chains.
- Allows for the creation of parts with specific properties: Although plastics and metals are the most common materials used in 3D printing, there is also scope for creating parts from specially tailored materials with desired properties. So, for example, parts can be created with high heat resistance, water repellency or higher strengths for specific applications.
The disadvantages of 3D printing include:
- Can have a lower strength than with traditional manufacture: While some parts, such as those made from metal, have excellent mechanical properties, many other 3D printed parts are more brittle than those created by traditional manufacturing techniques. This is because the parts are built up layer-by-layer, which reduces the strength by between 10 and 50%.
- Increased cost at high volume: Large production runs are more expensive with 3D printing as economies of scale do not impact this process as they do with other traditional methods. Estimates suggest that when making a direct comparison for identical parts, 3D printing is less cost effective than CNC machining or injection moulding in excess of 100 units, provided the parts can be manufactured by conventional means.
- Limitations in accuracy: The accuracy of a printed part depends on the type of machine and/or process used. Some desktop printers have lower tolerances than other printers, meaning that the final parts may slightly differ from the designs. While this can be fixed with post-processing, it must be considered that 3D printed parts may not always be exact.
- Post-processing requirements: Most 3D printed parts require some form of post-processing. This may be sanding or smoothing to create a required finish, the removal of support struts which allow the materials to be built up into the designated shape, heat treatment to achieve specific material properties or final machining.
5 . Facts for Prelims
Project 17 A (Alpha)
- President Droupadi Murmu launched an advanced stealth frigate ‘Vindhyagiri’ at the dock on the banks of the river Hooghly in Kolkata.
- This is the sixth of seven ships built under ‘Project 17 Alpha’ (P17A) for the Navy.
- INS Vindhyagiri is named after the mountain range in Karnataka. It is also a tribute to the distinguished service of its predecessor ‘INS Vindhyagiri’, a Leander Class ASW (anti-submarine warfare) frigate, which served the country for 31 years from July 1981 to June 2012. It had witnessed various challenging operations and multinational exercises.
- Project 17A frigates are a follow-on class of the P17 (Shivalik Class) frigates with improved stealth features, advanced weapons and sensors and platform management systems.
- The Navy had placed orders for seven stealth frigates, four of which are being developed by Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL) and three by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE).
- P17A ships have been designed in-house by Navy’s Warship Design Bureau. Around 75 per cent of the orders for equipment and system of P17A ships are being placed on indigenous firms.
- The first ship of Project 17A, ‘Nilgiri’ built by MDL, was launched on September 28, 2019.
- ‘Himgiri’, the first of the three Project 17A ships being built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE), Kolkata was on December 14, 2020.
- The third ship ‘Udaygiri’ under the project was launched on May 17 this year. It is expected to start sea trials during the second half of 2024.
- ‘Dunagiri’, the fourth ship of P17A frigates, was launched in July this year. It was named after a mountain range in Uttarakhand.
- Taragiri, named after a hill range in the Himalayas located at Garhwal, is the fifth ship of Project 17A frigates.
- Vindhyagiri is the third and last stealth frigate that the Kolkata-based warship maker was contracted to build for the Navy under the project.
- The state-of-the-art ship will be fitted with the latest gadgets and undergo extensive trials before being handed over to the Indian Navy for commissioning into service.
- P17A ships are guided missile frigates, each of which is 149 meters long, with the displacement of approximately 6,670 tonnes and a speed of 28 knots.
- These are capable of neutralizing threats in all three dimensions of air, surface and subsurface.
- The Navy has planned to name the seventh ship in the P17A frigate series as ‘Mahendragiri’.
Kalka Shimla Railway line
- The Kalka–Shimla railway is a 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow-gauge railway in North India which traverses a mostly-mountainous route from Kalka to Shimla. It is known for dramatic views of the hills and surrounding villages. It was built in 1898 to connect Shimla, the summer capital of India during the British Raj, with the rest of the Indian rail system. During its construction, 107 tunnels and 864 bridges were built along the route. The project’s chief engineer was H. S. Harington.
- It was considered the “crown jewel” of the Indian National Railways during British times.
- The world’s highest multi-arch gallery bridge at Kanoh and the world’s longest tunnel at Barog(at the time of construction) of the KSR were the testimony of the brilliant engineering skills applied to make this dream a reality.
Global Centre for Traditional Medicine
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (GCTM) is a knowledge centre for traditional medicine.
- The WHO GCTM is being established in Jamnagar under the Ministry of AYUSH. This would be the first and only global outposted Centre (office) for traditional medicine across the globe
- To position AYUSH systems across the globe
- To provide leadership on global health matters pertaining to traditional medicine.
- To ensure quality, safety and efficacy, accessibility and rational use of traditional medicine.
- To develop norms, standards, and guidelines in relevant technical areas, tools and methodologies, for collecting data undertaking analytics, and assess impact. Envisage WHO TM Informatics centre creating a collaborative of existing TM Data banks, virtual libraries, and academic and research institutes.
- To develop specific capacity building and training programmes in the areas of relevance to the objectives and conduct training programmes in campus, residential, or web-based, and through partnerships with the WHO Academy and other strategic partners.
- As lead investor in the WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine, India has committed an estimated US$ 250 million to support the Centre’s establishment, infrastructure and operations. This includes 35 acres of land in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, for a new building and premises in 2024, an interim office, and support for the GCTM operational costs with a 10-year commitment.
- The WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine will be an accessible, eco-friendly and interactive facility showcasing global traditions and modern scientific advances in traditional medicine.
- While the new Centre is being built, an interim office will be established at the Institute Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA), which is a WHO Collaborating Centre and Institute of National Importance.