Daily Current Affairs : 15th and 16th August 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

Topics Covered

  1. Aditya – L1 Mission
  2. Privilege Motion
  3. PMAY
  4. History of Redfort
  5. Facts for Prelims

1 . Aditya-L1 Mission

Context: Amidst all the excitement surrounding Chandrayaan-3, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is gearing up for another launch — a mission to study the Sun.


  • Aditya-L1 would be the first space-based Indian observatory to study the Sun.
  • According to the ISRO, the spacecraft was assembled and integrated at the U.R. Rao Satellite Centre (URSC) in Bengaluru and delivered to the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

What is the Aditya L1 mission?

  • The Aditya L1 mission will be the first space-based observatory Indian solar mission to study the Sun.
  • The spacecraft is planned to be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1), around 1.5 million km from the Earth, of the Sun-Earth system.
  • As per the ISRO, the mission will be launched by PSLV rocket from the Sathish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR) in Sriharikota. While the spacecraft will initially be placed in a low earth orbit. Further, as the orbit is made more elliptical, the spacecraft will then be launched towards the L1 point by using an on-board propulsion.
  • The ISRO said as the spacecraft moves towards L1, it will exit the Earth’s gravitational Sphere of Influence (SOI), after which the cruise phase will begin. The spacecraft will then be injected into a huge halo orbit around L1.
  • The total time of travel from the launch to the L1 point would take around four months for Aditya-L1.
  • According to the ISRO, a satellite which will be placed around the L1 will have a significant advantage of continuously having the Sun’s view without being obstructed by any occultation or eclipses.
  • The mission will also provide another advantage of observing solar activities and witnessing their impact on space weather in real-time.
  • The spacecraft will be carrying seven payloads in order to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and the topmost layers of the Sun (the corona) by using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors.
  • The satellite will use the L1 special vantage point to directly view the sun with four payloads and three payloads will study the particles and fields at the L1 point, “thus providing important scientific studies of the propagatory effect of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium.

About Aditya L1 Mission

  • The Aditya L1 mission will be the first space-based observatory Indian solar mission to study the Sun.
  • The spacecraft is planned to be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1), around 1.5 million km from the Earth, of the Sun-Earth system.  A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 point has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/eclipses. This will provide a greater advantage of observing the solar activities and its effect on space weather in real time. 
  • The total time of travel from the launch to the L1 point would take around four months for Aditya-L1.

About the Satellite & Payloads

  • ISRO categorises Aditya L1 as a 400 kg-class satellite, that will be launched using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in XL configuration.
  • Spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and the outermost layers of the Sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. Using the special vantage point L1, four payloads directly view the Sun and the remaining three payloads carry out in-situ studies of particles and fields at the Lagrange point L1, thus providing important scientific studies of the propagatory effect of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium
  • The suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide most crucial informations to understand the problem of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, propagation of particle and fields etc.
  • The mission will be undertaken in collaboration between various labs of ISRO, along with institutions like the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru, Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune, and Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER), Kolkata. Aditya L1 will be ISRO’s second space-based astronomy mission after AstroSat, which was launched in September 2015.

Importance of Mission

  • According to the ISRO, a satellite which will be placed around the L1 will have a significant advantage of continuously having the Sun’s view without being obstructed by any occultation or eclipses.
  • The mission will also provide another advantage of observing solar activities and witnessing their impact on space weather in real-time.
  • What makes a solar mission challenging is the distance of the Sun from Earth (about 149 million km on average, compared to the only 3.84 lakh km to the Moon) and, more importantly, the super hot temperatures and radiations in the solar atmosphere.

Science Objectives

The major science objectives of Aditya-L1 mission are:

  • Study of Solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics.
  • Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, physics of the partially ionized plasma, initiation of the coronal mass ejections, and flares
  • Observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun.
  • Physics of solar corona and its heating mechanism.
  • Diagnostics of the coronal and coronal loops plasma: Temperature, velocity and density.
  • Development, dynamics and origin of CMEs.
  • Identify the sequence of processes that occur at multiple layers (chromosphere, base and extended corona) which eventually leads to solar eruptive events.
  • Magnetic field topology and magnetic field measurements in the solar corona .
  • Drivers for space weather (origin, composition and dynamics of solar wind .

Why is studying the Sun important?

  • Every planet, including Earth and the exoplanets beyond the Solar System, evolves — and this evolution is governed by its parent star. The solar weather and environment, which is determined by the processes taking place inside and around the sun, affects the weather of the entire system. Variations in this weather can change the orbits of satellites or shorten their lives, interfere with or damage onboard electronics, and cause power blackouts and other disturbances on Earth. Knowledge of solar events is key to understanding space weather.
  • To learn about and track Earth-directed storms, and to predict their impact, continuous solar observations are needed. Every storm that emerges from the Sun and heads towards Earth passes through L1, and a satellite placed in the halo orbit around L1 of the Sun-Earth system has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/eclipses, ISRO says on its website.

Lagrange Point 1

  • L1 refers to Lagrangian/Lagrange Point 1, one of five points in the orbital plane of the Earth-Sun system. Lagrange Points, named after Italian-French mathematician Josephy-Louis Lagrange, are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two-body system (like the Sun and the Earth) produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion. These can be used by spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain in position. The L1 point is home to the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Satellite (SOHO), an international collaboration project of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA).
  • The L1 point is about 1.5 million km from Earth, or about one-hundredth of the way to the Sun. Aditya L1 will perform continuous observations looking directly at the Sun. NASA’s Parker Solar Probe has already gone far closer — but it will be looking away from the Sun. The earlier Helios 2 solar probe, a joint venture between NASA and space agency of erstwhile West Germany, went within 43 million km of the Sun’s surface in 1976.


  • The Parker Solar Probe’s January 29 flyby was the closest the spacecraft has gone to the Sun in its planned seven-year journey so far. Computer modelling estimates show that the temperature on the Sun-facing side of the probe’s heat shield, the Thermal Protection System, reached 612 degrees Celsius, even as the spacecraft and instruments behind the shield remained at about 30°C, NASA said. During the spacecraft’s three closest perihelia in 2024-25, the TPS will see temperatures around 1370°C.
  • Aditya L1 will stay much farther away, and the heat is not expected to be a major concern for the instruments on board. But there are other challenges.
  • Many of the instruments and their components for this mission are being manufactured for the first time in the country, presenting as much of a challenge as an opportunity for India’s scientific, engineering, and space communities. One such component is the highly polished mirrors which would be mounted on the space-based telescope.
  • Due to the risks involved, payloads in earlier ISRO missions have largely remained stationary in space; however, Aditya L1 will have some moving components, scientists said. For example, the spacecraft’s design allows for multiple operations of the front window of the telescope — which means the window can be opened or shut as required.

2 . Privilege Motion

Context: Lok Sabha member and Congress leader Manickam Tagore wrote to Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla to move a privilege motion against BJP MP Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore for his remarks against the Gandhi family, while the Privileges Committee of the Lower House will meet to examine the complaint of gross misconduct against Congress leader Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury.

What is Privilege Motion? 

  • All Members of Parliament (MPs) enjoy rights and immunities, individually and collectively, so that they can discharge their duties and functions effectively. Any instance when these rights and immunities are disregarded by any member of Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha is an offence, called ‘breach of privilege’, which is punishable under the Laws of Parliament. 
  • Any member from either house can move a notice in the form of a motion against the member who he/she thinks is guilty of the breach of privilege. Both Houses of the Parliament reserve the right to punish any action of contempt (not necessarily breach of privilege) which is against its authority and dignity, as per the laws. 

What are the rules governing Privilege Motion? 

  • The rules governing the privilege are mentioned in the Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook. The rules explain that any member of the House may, with the consent of the Speaker or the Chairperson, raise a question involving an incident that he or she considers a breach of privilege either of a member or of the House or of a committee. The notice, however, has to be about a recent incident and should need the intervention of the House. These notices have to be submitted before 10 am to the Speaker or the Chairperson of the House. 

What is the role of the Lok Sabha Speaker and Rajya Sabha Chairperson? 

  • The speaker of Lok Sabha and the Chairperson of Rajya Sabha are the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion in the two Houses of Parliament. They can either take a decision on the privilege motion or can also refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament. Once the Speaker or the House Chairperson gives consent under Rule 222, the concerned member is allowed to explain himself or herself. 

What is the Privileges Committee? 

  • The Speaker of Lok Sabha nominates a committee of privileges consisting of 15 members of parliament from each party. The report prepared by the committee is submitted to the House for its consideration. The Speaker may also allow a half-hour debate on the report by the committee before passing orders or directing that the report be tabled before the House. A resolution is passed. In the Rajya Sabha, the deputy chairperson heads the committee of privileges, which consists of 10 members. 

What are parliamentary privileges? 

  • Members of parliament are granted privileges or advantages under Articles 105 and 194 so that they can carry out their responsibilities and functions without impediment. Privileges like this are provided because they are necessary for democratic functioning. From time to time, the law should specify these authorities, privileges, and immunities. 
  • These privileges are regarded as exceptional provisions that take precedence in the event of a disagreement. These provisions also put on them the responsibility of enacting efficient laws that do not infringe on the rights of others. Although the legislature or the Legislative Assembly can use their rights, privileges, and immunities, they cannot function as a court of law 
  • The powers, privileges and immunities of either House of the Indian Parliament and of its Members and committees are laid down in Article 105 of the Constitution. Article 194 deals with the powers, privileges and immunities of the State Legislatures, their Members and their committee 

Article 105 of the Constitution 

  • Article 105.Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof 
  • 1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech in Parliament. 
    2. No member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceeding in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. 
    3. In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament, and the members and the committee of each House, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by Parliament by law, and until so defined, [shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of Section 15 of the Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978]. 
    4. The provision of clauses (1), (2), and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, a House of Parliament or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to the members of Parliament. 
  • In India, some legislative privileges are expressly mentioned in the Constitution while the others are recognised in the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha framed under its rule-making power. 

Privileges Mentioned in the Constitution 

Freedom of speech 

  • For the effective functioning of parliamentary democracy, the freedom of speech in Parliament is guaranteed. This is to enable the Members to express themselves freely in the House without any fear or favour. In India, the freedom of speech in Parliament is safeguarded by Article 105(1) and (2). A constitutional restriction on this freedom imposed by Article 121 (similarly Article 211) is that no discussion shall take place in any House with respect to the conduct of a Supreme Court Judge or a High Court Judge in discharge of his duties except when a motion for his removal is under consideration. 

Immunity from civil and criminal proceedings 

  • The first part of Article 105(2) provides that no Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court “in respect of” anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof. The only limitation arises from the words ‘in Parliament’ which means during the sitting of Parliament and during the business of Parliament. Once it was proved that Parliament was sitting and its business was being transacted, anything said during the course of that business was immune from proceedings in any court. This immunity is not only complete but is as it should be. 

Right of publication of proceedings 

  • Part two of Article 105(2) provides that no person shall be liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of the House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. 

With regard to the other privileges, the following are recognised under the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha as well as by certain laws: 

  • Freedom from arrest of Members in civil cases during continuance of the Session of the House and 40 days before its commencement and 40 days after its conclusion. 
  • Exemption of Members from liability to serve as jurors. 
  • Right of the House to receive immediate information of the arrest, detention, conviction, imprisonment and release of the Member. 
  • Prohibition of arrest and service of legal process within the precincts of the House without obtaining the permission of the Speaker. 
  • Prohibition of disclosure of the proceedings or decisions of a secret sitting of the House. 
  • All Parliamentary Committees are empowered to send for persons, papers and records relevant for the purpose of the enquiry by a committee. 
  • A Parliamentary Committee may administer oath or affirmation to a witness examined before it. 
  • The evidence tendered before a Parliamentary Committee and its report and proceedings cannot be disclosed or published by anyone until these have been laid down on the table of the House. 
  • The right to prohibit the publication of its debates and proceedings. 
  • Right to exclude strangers from the House. 
  • Right to commit persons for breach of privilege or contempt of the House, whether they are members of the House or not. 

Have Privilege Motions been passed in Parliament in the past?

  • Most of the privilege motions passed in the Parliament in the past have been rejected. Penal actions have been recommended only in a few, so far.
  • Among the most significant privilege motions passed so far was in 1978 against Indira Gandhi. The then Home Minister Charan Singh had moved a resolution of breach of privilege against her on the basis of observations made by Justice Shah Commission, which investigated the excesses during the Emergency. Indira Gandhi, who had just won the Lok Sabha elections from Chikmagalur, was expelled from the House.
  • In 1976, BJP MP Subramanian Swamy was expelled from Rajya Sabha for bringing disgrace to Parliament through his interviews to foreign publications.

3 . PMAY

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a new scheme to help urban poor build houses in cities. Under this programme, they would receive relief in interest rates and loans taken from banks to construct their houses.

About the New scheme

  • New scheme will benefit those families that live in cities but are living in rented houses, or slums, or chawls and unauthorised colonies.
  • The government will assist them with a relief in interest rates and loans from banks that will help them save lakhs of rupees.
  • It might be noted that the government already has a scheme to address the housing shortage for the urban poor called the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Urban (PMAY-U) which was launched in 2015.

What is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana?

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) is a credit-linked subsidy scheme by the Government of India to facilitate access to affordable housing for the low and moderate-income residents of the country. It envisaged a target of building 2 crore (20 million) affordable houses by 31 March 2022.
  • It has two components: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY-U) for the urban poor and Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin) (PMAY-G and also PMAY-R) for the rural poor, the former administered by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and the latter by Ministry of Rural Development.
  • This scheme converges with other schemes to ensure houses have a toilet, Saubhagya Scheme for universal electricity connection, Ujjwala Yojana LPG connection, access to drinking water and Jan Dhan banking facilities, etc.


  • The features of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana are that the government will provide an interest subsidy of 6.5% (for EWS and LIG), 4% for MIG-I and 3% for MIG-II on housing loans availed by the beneficiaries for a period of 20 years under credit link subsidy scheme (CLSS) from the start of a loan.
  • The houses under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana would be constructed through a technology that is eco-friendly, while allotting ground floors in any housing scheme under PMAY, preference will be given to differently abled and older persons.

PMAY- Gramin

  • The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin (PMAY-G) has been devised in line with Government’s commitment to provide ‘Housing for All’ by 2022 in the rural areas. The scheme aims at providing a pucca house with basic amenities to all houseless householder living in kutcha and dilapidated houses by 2022.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY-U)

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U), being implemented since June 2015, is one of the major flagship programmes being implemented by Government of India under Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) to provide all weather pucca houses to all eligible beneficiaries in the urban areas of the country through States/UTs/Central Nodal Agencies. The scheme covers the entire urban area of the country, i.e., all statutory towns as per Census 2011 and towns notified subsequently, including Notified Planning/ Development Areas.
  • All houses under PMAY-U have basic amenities like toilet, water supply, electricity and kitchen. The Mission promotes women empowerment by providing the ownership of houses in name of female member or in joint name. Preference has also been given to differently abled persons, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minority, single women, transgender and other weaker & vulnerable sections of the society.
  • A PMAY-U house ensures dignified living along with sense of security and pride of ownership to the beneficiaries.
  • PMAY-U has adopted a cafeteria approach to suit the needs of individuals based on the geographical conditions, topography, economic conditions, availability of land, infrastructure etc.

4 . History of Red Fort

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi hoisted the tricolour and addressed the nation from the Red Fort in Delhi, early morning on August 15, on the occasion of India’s 77th Independence Day.

Background history of Red fort

  • Jawaharlal Nehru first started the tradition in 1947, although his address was on August 16, a day after the official handover of power. In his speech, he memorably called himself the pratham sevak of India.
  • Over the years, the Red Fort has become an integral part of India’s Independence Day celebrations.

Why was Red For chosen for this honour?

Delhi- The capital of Hindustan

  • It was under the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1506) that Delhi became a major capital city from where a large part of north India was ruled.
  • Babur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal dynasty, was the first to refer to Delhi as the ‘capital of all Hindustan’ in the 16th century. Though the Mughals, under Akbar (1542-1605) shifted their capital to Agra for some time, they continued to be seen as the rulers of Delhi.
  • Finally, under Shah Jahan (1592-1666), Delhi became the Mughal capital once again with  (what we know today as Old Delhi). The Mughals would continue to rule from the fortified citadel of Shahjahanabad – more popularly known as the Red Fort – till 1857. Even as their power waned, they continued to be recognised as the symbolic rulers of India, in part due to their association with Delhi.

Delhi – during British Period

  • Delhi at the time was of minor importance to the East India Company, and housed very few Europeans. But for the rebels, it was still the strongest symbol of indigenous authority, around which they rallied and the fall of Delhi pretty much sealed the fate of the rebellion.

The stamping of British imperial authority over the Red Fort

  • After capturing Delhi from the rebels, the British initially planned to raze the whole city (Shahjahanabad) to the ground, their primary objective being to wipe out the memory of the Mughal Empire from the city. And destroy they did, razing beautiful Mughal buildings such as the Akbarabadi mosque near Daryaganj or the bustling Urdu Bazaar near Chandni Chowk.
  • Although they stopped short of completely razing the Red Fort to the ground, the British stripped it of all its imperial majesty. Precious artworks and the imperial treasury (what was left of it in 1857) were looted, and many of its inner structures were demolished to be replaced by British structures.
  • As per estimates, as much as 80 per cent of the Red Fort’s original inner structures were destroyed, replaced by British buildings to house their troops and service their needs. The palace was converted into a British garrison and the famed Diwan-i-Aam into a hospital.

Co-opting Delhi’s symbolic authority

  • In the years following 1857, the British systematically relegated Delhi to a minor provincial town.
  • At the same time, the city still remained a potent symbol of authority in India, something the British also tapped into, notably with the Delhi Durbars (1877, 1903, 1911). These grand ceremonies proclaimed the British monarch as the Emperor of India, and invited rulers from Princely States across the subcontinent to Delhi to pay their tributes to the British Crown.
  • The British finally decided to shift their capital to Delhi from Calcutta in 1911, building a grand new city which would be completed in 1930.

Red Fort after independence

  • The Red Fort would return to the forefront of public consciousness in the years prior to Independence.
  • Under Subhas Chandra Bose, the Indian National Army – comprising Indian PoWs captured by Japan and civilian volunteers – raced towards India from the Burmese border in 1943, aiding the Japanese war effort. This effort would eventually fail – Bose died in a plane crash and between 1945 and 1946, senior officers were tried for treason.
  • These highly public trials were held at the Red Fort. Causing an outpouring of sympathy for the INA and upping nationalist sentiments against the British, the trials firmly established the Red Fort as a symbol of power and resistance in the minds of the Indian public.
  • It is in this context that Nehru’s decision to hoist the flag over the Red Fort in 1947 makes sense.

5 . Facts for prelims

Reserve Bank innovation hub

  • The Reserve Bank Innovation Hub is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) set-up to promote and facilitate an environment that accelerates innovation across the financial sector.
  • RBIH would create internal capabilities by building applied research and expertise in the latest technology. The hub will collaborate with financial sector institutions, policy bodies, the technology industry, and academic institutions and coordinate efforts for exchange of ideas and development of prototypes related to financial innovations.

Generic drugs

  • A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that contains the same chemical substance as a drug that was originally protected by chemical patents. Generic drugs are allowed for sale after the patents on the original drugs expire. Because the active chemical substance is the same, the medical profile of generics is equivalent in performance.
  • A generic drug has the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as the original, but it may differ in some characteristics such as the manufacturing process, formulation, excipients, color, taste, and packaging.
  • Although they may not be associated with a particular company, generic drugs are usually subject to government regulations in the countries in which they are dispensed. They are labeled with the name of the manufacturer and a generic non-proprietary.

Vishwakarma yojana

  • The Union Cabinet approved the Rs 13,000-crore Vishwakarma Yojana, an ambitious scheme to support those engaged in traditional skills.
  • Under the scheme, craftsmen will get subsidised loans up to Rs 2 lakh at a concessional interest rate of 5%.
  • Vishwakarma Yojana will benefit 30 lakh craftsmen families including weavers, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, laundry workers, and barbers.
  • This scheme will launch on the occasion of Vishwakarma Jayanti, benefiting individuals skilled in traditional craftsmanship, particularly from the OBC community.
  • Under the scheme, artisans and craftsmen will be provided recognition through PM Vishwakarma certificate and ID card.
  • They will be provided credit support of up to Rs 1 lakh (first tranche) and Rs 2 lakh (second tranche) with a concessional interest rate of 5 per cent.
  • Artisans and craftsmen will also be provided skill upgradation, tool kit incentive, incentive for digital transactions and marketing support.
  • Under the scheme, there will be two types of skilling programmes — Basic and Advanced and a stipend of Rs 500 per day will also be provided to beneficiaries while undergoing skills training.
  • They will also get a support of up to Rs 15,000 to buy modern tools.
  • The scheme aims to strengthen and nurture the ‘Guru-Shishya parampara’ or family-based practice of traditional skills by artisans and craftsmen working with their hands and tools.
  • The scheme also aims at improving the quality, as well as the reach of products and services of artisans and craftsmen and to ensure that Vishwakarmas are integrated with the domestic and global value chains.
  • Initially, 18 traditional trades will be covered. These include carpenter (Suthar); boat maker; armourer; blacksmith; hammer and tool kit maker; locksmith; goldsmith; potter (Kumhaar); sculptor, stone breaker; cobbler; mason; basket/mat/broom maker/coir weaver; doll and toy maker (traditional); barber; garland maker; washerman; tailor ; and fishing net maker.

Seventh Schedule of the constitution

  • Seventh Schedule specifies the role and responsibilities into three lists namely, Union List, State List and Concurrent List.
  • It specifies the distribution of powers and responsibilities between the state and central governments.
  • The three lists have been changed since they first came into being; the Union list contained 97 subjects and now is at 100 subjects, the state list contained 66 subjects but is now at 61 subjects, and concurrent list contained 47 subjects but now has 52 subjects on the concurrent list.

Union list of Seventh Schedule

  • The Union List is a list of 100 subjects that the Union or Centre government enjoys supreme jurisdiction over.
  • Simply put, it is a list of matters of national importance that the central government has the sole power to take decisions on.
  • The Union list consists of subjects of National Importance like defence, foreign affairs, banking, atomic energy, railways, post etc.

State list of Seventh Schedule

  • The state list is a list of 61 subjects that state legislatures enjoy jurisdiction over.
  • In layman’s terms, the state legislature can pass laws and govern the said subjects.
  • The state list specifies jurisdiction over subjects like, public order, prisons, public health, production, manufacture, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors, agricultural education and research, fisheries, state public services etc.

Concurrent list under Seventh Schedule

  • The concurrent list is a list of 47 subjects on which both the Union and State legislatures enjoy jurisdiction over.
  • The constitution of India specifies subjects like, criminal law, criminal procedure, preventive detention, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, trade unions, industrial and labour disputes, population control and family planning etcetera to the concurrent list.

Residual Powers

  • Residuary powers, put simply, refer to the power of jurisdiction upon subjects that are not mentioned in the state or concurrent list.
  • The union government enjoys exclusive jurisdiction over such subjects.
  • Article 248 of the constitution clearly states, “The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or the State List.”

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)

  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) are meant to promote afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) is a National Advisory Council under the chairmanship of the Union Minister of Environment & Forests for monitoring, technical assistance and evaluation of compensatory afforestation activities. 
  • National CAMPA Advisory Council has been established as per orders of The Hon’ble Supreme Court with the following mandate:
    • Lay down broad guidelines for State CAMPA.
    • Facilitate scientific, technological and other assistance that may be required by State CAMPA.
    • Make recommendations to State CAMPA based on a review of their plans and programmes.
    • Provide a mechanism to State CAMPA to resolve issues of an inter-state or Centre-State character.


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