Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE
- CEC and EC appointment
- Monetary Poicy Committee
- Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Bill, 2023,
- Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) Bill, 2023
- Bharatiya Sakshya (BS) Bill, 2023
- Facts for Prelims
1 . CEC and EC Appointments
Context: The Union Government introduced a Bill removing the Chief Justice of India (CJI) from a three-member panel to select the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners. Instead of the CJI, the three-member panel, when formed, would consist of a Cabinet Minister besides the Leader of Opposition (LoP) in the Lok Sabha, and the Prime Minister, who would head it.
What was the SC ruling?
- On March 2, a five-judge bench of the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that a high-power committee consisting of the Prime Minister, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, and the Chief Justice of India must pick the CEC and ECs.
- The judgement by a bench led by Justice KM Joseph came in a 2015 public interest litigation, challenging the constitutional validity of the practice of the Centre-appointed members of the Election Commission. In 2018, a two-judge bench of the SC referred the case to a larger bench since it required a close examination of Article 324 of the Constitution, which deals with the role of a Chief Election Commissioner.
- Article 324(2) reads: “The Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the President may from time-to-time fix and the appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners shall, subject to the provisions of any law made in that behalf by Parliament, be made by the President.”
- However, since there was no law made by Parliament as prescribed by the Constitution, the Court stepped in to fill the “constitutional vacuum.”
- The Court went through the debates of the Constituent Assembly to conclude that the Founding Fathers “did not intend the executive exclusively calling the shots in the matter of appointments to the Election Commission.”
- The Bill now seeks to address this vacuum and set up a legislative process to make appointments to the EC.
What is a new process under the Bill?
- Currently, the Law Minister suggests a pool of suitable candidates to the Prime Minister for consideration. The President makes the appointment on the advice of the PM.
- As per the Bill, a Search Committee headed by the Cabinet Secretary and comprising two other members, not below the rank of Secretary to the government, having knowledge and experience in matters relating to elections, shall prepare a panel of five persons who can be considered for appointment.
- Then, as per the Bill, a Selection Committee consisting of the Prime Minister, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha, and a Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister will appoint the CEC and other ECs.
Can the Parliament undo a decision of the Supreme Court?
- Parliament has the power to nullify the effect of a Court ruling by addressing the concerns flagged in the judgement. The law cannot simply be contradictory to the ruling.
- In this case, the arrangement prescribed by the Supreme Court was specifically because the Court noted that there was a “legislative vacuum.” Filling that vacuum is well within the purview of the Parliament.
- However, the idea of an independent body that conducts elections permeates through the judgement. The Court repeatedly stated that to be the objective of the framers of the Constitution.
- The composition of the Selection Committee in the Bill raises questions on whether the process is now independent or still rigged in favour of the Executive. With the PM and a Cabinet Minster nominated by the PM in the three-member panel, the LoP is outvoted even before the process begins.
2 . Monetary Policy Committee
Context: The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Reserve Bank of India decided unanimously to keep the policy repo rate unchanged at 6.5% even as it raised the projection for retail inflation in the current fiscal year by 30 basis points to 5.4%.
RBI Monetary Policy Highlights-
- The RBI Monetary Policy Committee has kept the key policy repo rate unchanged at 6.5%. The MPC last raised this rate from 6.25 per cent to 6.50 per cent at its meeting in February. India’s GDP likely to grow at 6.5% in FY24.
- RBI pegged inflation for FY24 at 5.4%. RBI to allow offline payment of UPI by using near-field communication. The central bank raised payment limit via UPI lite to Rs 500 from Rs 200. Home loan, other borrowers can switch to fixed-rate regime.
Monetary Policy Committee
- RBI Act, 1934 provides for an empowered six-member monetary policy committee (MPC) to be constituted by the Central Government.
- The first such MPC was constituted in 2016.
- Governor of the RBI;
- Deputy Governor of the RBI in charge of Monetary Policy;
- one officer of the RBI to be nominated by the Central Board;
- Three people to be appointed by the Central Government
- Governor of the Reserve Bank of India is the ex-officio Chairperson of the committee
- Members hold office for a period of four years or until further orders, whichever is earlier)
- It determines the policy repo rate required to achieve the inflation target.
- The MPC is required to meet at least four times in a year.
- The quorum for the meeting of the MPC: four members.
- Each member of the MPC has one vote, and in the event of an equality of votes, the Governor has a second or casting vote.
Objectives of Monetary Policy
- The main objective of the monetary policy is
- Economic growth
- Price and exchange rate stability
- Promotion of saving and investment
- Managing the foreign exchange markets
- Interest Rate Stability
3 . Deflation
Context: Consumer prices in China declined for the first time in over two years in July. The consumer price index declined 0.3% in July from a year earlier, leading to calls for steps to boost demand. Producer prices also dropped for the 10th consecutive month, contracting 4.4% in July. This is in contrast to the rest of the world where inflation has been the most pressing problem of late.
What is deflation?
- Deflation is a term that is used these days to refer to a general fall in the prices of goods and services in an economy. The definition of deflation, however, has not always remained constant.
- In the past, the terms inflation and deflation were used to refer to a rise or a fall, respectively, in the money supply rather than a rise or fall in prices. A rise in the money supply was expected to contribute to higher prices in the wider economy while a fall in the money supply was believed to lead to lower prices.
What are the consequences of deflation?
- Negative effects- Deflation is a sign of falling demand for goods and services which could lead to a slowdown in economic growth. The demand for goods and services is the driver of economic growth. Falling prices, can also push buyers to postpone their purchases expecting lower prices in the future; this in turn can further dampen demand in the economy.
- A certain degree of inflation is believed to be necessary for the full utilisation of the resources in an economy. Further, it is said that deflation can lead to business losses and lower growth as costs remain sticky. It can also mess up credit contracts as borrowers will have to pay back lenders more in real terms.
- Positive effects- Other economists point out that deflation per se may not be a problem. Many economics have experienced deflation during times of rapid economic growth. Even a country like Japan, which has been plagued by persistent deflation for years, actually witnessed a rise in per capita real income levels during the era of deflation.
- Deflation in such cases is the result of a rise in the supply of goods and services that outpaces the rate of money supply growth. It should also be noted that it is not quite uncommon for countries experiencing high price inflation to suffer from low or even negative economic growth at the same time.
- During times of economic crises, spending by individuals can drop temporarily as they become more cautious. But the economists argue that deflation need not cause consumers to postpone purchases as widely believed. It is not the prices that determine consumer demand for goods and services, but it is rather consumer demand that determines prices. Moreover, deflation need not cause sustained business losses since businesses can adjust what they pay for their inputs according to what their customers are willing to pay for their goods and services.
4 . Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Bill, 2023
Context: Union Home Minister Amit Shah introduced three Bills in the Lok Sabha to repeal the British-era Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act and the Code of Criminal Procedure.
About Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Bill, 2023
- Bhartiya Nyaya Sanhita proposes to repeal 22 provisions of IPC, proposes changes to 175 existing provisions and introduces 8 new Sections. It contains total 356 provisions.
- It will give precedence to offences against the state, crimes against women and children, and murder. For the first time, the offences of terrorist activities and organised crime have been added in the draft.
- Prevention of crime against women: Officials said proper investigation is the priority of any government. Instances of false promise of marriage, gangrape of minors, mob lynching, chain snatching among others are reported but the IPC did not have specific provisions to deal with these crimes. In cases of false promise of marriage, where women are abandoned after establishing sexual relations, a provision (Section 69) has been made in the new law. It has also been proposed that punishment for the two categories of gangrape may be combined and punishment for gangrape on a woman under the age of 18 shall be life imprisonment or death.
- Sedition : The proposed legislation will repeal the offence of sedition, which is criminalised under Section 124A of the IPC. The Supreme Court in May this year, had asked the Centre and state government to refrain from registering cases under the offence of sedition, reported Bar and Bench.
- The new bill replaces the sedition provision with Section 150, which deals with “acts endangering sovereignty, unity and integrity of India”. Such actions will be punishable with 7 years in jail, life imprisonment and fine.
- While the sedition clause has been repealed, the new bill does not mention if criticism of the government, without exciting or attempting to excite the activities mentioned in Section 150 will constitute an offence under the rules.
- Furthermore, unless the phrase “acts endangering sovereignty, unity and integrity of India” is clarified in legal parlance, the phrase might end up becoming an excuse to take legal action against people who are critical of any governmental policies.
- Mob lynching : The proposed changes also call for punishment for mob lynching, with the death penalty in certain cases. Other prospective punishments include death penalty for rape of a minor and 20 years jail to life imprisonment for gang rape. The provisions also include one year imprisonment for bribing voters during polls.
- Community Services : The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita also calls for community service as a punishment for petty offences, which will be the part of penal code for the first time. The introduction of community service makes it a bit similar to the US, where the punishment is given for offences like vandalism, petty theft, and drunk driving..
- Provisions related to snatching, idol theft: There was no provision presently to deal with the offence of snatching, a rampant crime. A new section, Section 302, has been inserted with imprisonment extendable to three years and liable to fine. A provision, Section 303(d), to cover theft of an idol has also been made.
- Child trafficking: It is proposed that trafficking into India from any country outside India any girl under the age of 21 or any boy under the age of 18 with the intent that such person will be forced or seduced to illicit sexual acts with another person has been made punishable with imprisonment which may extend to 10 years. At present, there is no provision to prosecute a person who employs or engages a child for the purpose of committing offences. A new section has been added in the bill to make hiring, employing or engaging a child to commit an offence as a punishable crime, and the punishment will be imprisonment of a minimum of seven years extendable to 10 years. Both boys and girls are trafficked for sexual exploitation. The word “minor girl” has been replaced with the word “child” to cover both male and female children below the age of 18 and the offence of procurement has been made punishable.
- Dealing with organised crime: A new penal section has been added related to organised crime. This section penalises any unlawful activity either by a member of a crime syndicate or on behalf of such syndicate by use of violence, coercion or other lawful means to accrue direct or indirect material and financial gains. The gains will include tangible and intangible both. The section provides for death sentence or imprisonment for life as punishment in case the unlawful act results in the death of any person. In other cases, minimum punishment of five years (extendable to life imprisonment) has been provided for members of crime syndicates. Barring spouse, anyone who intentionally conceals or harbours any accused under this section, shall be punished with a minimum imprisonment of three years. The section has provision for minimum three-year imprisonment of a person, who holds any property gained through organized crime.
- Acts of terrorism: This section includes any act carried out to threaten unity, integrity and security of India; to intimidate general public or to disturb public order by using a range of lethal weapons and any other life endangering substance. It also covers acts of hijacking and abduction of any person to compel the government. Besides, it considers any act as a terrorist act, which is covered under the second schedule of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. Anyone who is involved, directly or indirectly, in terrorist act will be treated as terrorist under this section. Similarly, any entity, owned or managed by terrorists or group of terrorists, which is involved in terrorist acts will be considered as terrorist organization. Besides, any death due to terrorist act will draw the punishment of death or life imprisonment with minimum fine of rupees ten lakh. In any other case, minimum punishment will be five years (extendable to life imprisonment). This section also provides for minimum punishment of five years (extendable to life imprisonment) for those who engage in any act in a preparation of any terrorist act.
- Ex-parte trial and conviction of fugitives: To deal with permanent fugitives/absconders during an ongoing trial, a special provision has been inserted in court. In case a person is a declared proclaimed offender and is evading trial with no possibility of arrest in near future, the court will not stop the trial in any manner. It will proceed in a way as if the absconder was present and pronounce the judgement.
- Trial in absentia: A new section on trial in absentia has been inserted for the persons declared proclaimed offenders. It is provided that the trial in the absence of the accused will start after three months from the date of framing charges. The accused who is tried in absentia, will be provided an advocate by the State for his defence. Trial in absentia will not be limited to recording of evidence of witnesses, which is the current provision, but it will be up to judgement and punishment.
About Indian Penal Code
- The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the official criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted on the recommendations of first law commission of India established in 1834 under the Charter Act of 1833 under the chairmanship of Thomas Babington Macaulay.
- However, it did not apply automatically in the Princely states, which had their own courts and legal systems until the 1940s. The code has since been amended several times and is now supplemented by other criminal provisions.
- After the partition of India, the Indian Penal Code was inherited by India, where it continues independently as the Indian Penal Code
5 . Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) Bill, 2023
About the Bill
- Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita repeals 9 provisions of the CrPC, proposes changes to 160 provisions thereof and introduces 9 new provisions. The Bill contains total 533 Sections.
- Police Custody for an arrested person – In the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, 2023 the period during which an arrested person can be sent to police custody has been expanded. Like in the CrPC, an arrested person can be sent to police custody for a maximum of 15 days after the date of arrest, but in the proposed law these 15 days of police custody can be spread over a 60- or 90-day period depending on the offence.
- Rights of Victims : Nagarik Suraksha Bill has significant improvements for the rights of victims — perhaps the most important of those is the provision allowing registration of FIR in any police station irrespective of where the offence was committed.
- The Nagarik Suraksha Bill also seeks to plug an important gap by making it the responsibility of a prison superintendent to ensure that an application is made to the court to release undertrials who have completed half or one-third of their maximum possible sentence.
- Trial in Abstentia – The right of an accused to fully participate in the trial and offer a defence is part of the legal process. However, the Criminal Procedure Code doesn’t permit a trial in absentia and only allowed for recording evidence in the absence of the accused. With the proposed legislation, even if the accused is not present, the court can proceed to try him 90 days after the date on which charges are framed.
- Greater use of Technology – The Bill states that trials, appeal proceedings, recording of depositions including those of public servants and police officers may be held in electronic mode. The statement of the accused can be recorded through video-conferencing while the summons, warrants, documents, police reports and statements of evidence can be done in electronic form. The Bill also allows search and seizure of properties, article or thing on a visit to a crime scene by a forensic expert and the recording of the victim’s statement shall be audio-videographed, preferably on a mobile phone. The recordings will then be sent without delay to the District Magistrate, Sub-divisional Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class.
- Use of handcuffs – The bill states that a police officer may use handcuff while arresting a person if he is a “habitual, repeat offender who escaped from custody, who has committed offence of organised crime, offence of terrorist act, drug related crime, or offence of illegal possession of arms and ammunition, murder, rape, acid attack, counterfeiting of coins and currency notes, human trafficking, sexual offences against children, offences against the State, including acts endangering sovereignty, unity and integrity of India or economic offences.”
- Mercy Petition – There is a provision on procedures allowing a convict to file mercy petitions in cases of death sentence. The convict has to file petition within a period of thirty days after the date on which the Superintendent of the Jail informs him about the date of confirmation of the sentence of death
- Detention by Police – There are also provisions for police to detain or remove any person resisting or refusing directions given as part of preventive action. The Bill also lays down provisions for preventive detention, detention of a person who has mental illness.
About code of criminal procedure
- The Code of Criminal Procedure is the main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India. It was enacted in 1973 and came into force on 1 April 1974. It provides the machinery for the investigation of crime, apprehension of suspected criminals, collection of evidence, determination of guilt or innocence of the accused person and the determination of punishment of the guilty. It also deals with public nuisance, prevention of offences and maintenance of wife, child and parents.
6 . Bharathiya Sakshya Bill
Context: Among the three bills introduced by the Union Home Minister Amit Shah in Lok Sabha include the Bharatiya Sakshya Bill that would repeal the current Indian Evidence Act of 1872.
About the Bill:
- As per details, the new Bharatiya Sakshya Bill has 167 sections. Of these, 23 sections sourced from the Evidence Act have been amended, 1 section is entirely new, and 5 sections have been removed.
- Significance of the Bill- As per the bill, it aims to ‘consolidate and to provide for general rules and principles of evidence for fair trial. The government said that the existing Indian Evidence Act has not kept up with the technological advancements and societal changes of the past decades.
- The new bill aims to align the laws with the contemporary needs and aspirations of the people.
Key Provisions of the Bill
- The bill makes electronic or digital records admissible as evidence, thereby they will have the same legal effect as paper documents.
- It repeals five existing provisions of the Evidence Act, modifies 23 provisions, and adds one new provision. Also, the bill proposes amendments to 23 Sections and contains 170 Sections in total.
- In the bill, the scope of expansion for secondary evidence to include copies made from the original by mechanical processes, counterparts of documents, and oral accounts of document contents has been done.
- Through the bill, the government is aiming to introduce precise and uniform rules for dealing with evidence during the trial of cases.
7 . Facts for Prelims
- China has voiced its opposition to the inclusion of the Sanskrit phrase ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ in G20 documents.
- Vasudhaiva Kutumbakama is a phrase from the Hindu text the Maha Upanishad that is typically translated as “the world is one family.” It is so valued that it is engraved in the entry to India’s parliament building.
- The term comes from the ancient Sanskrit vasudeva, which means the Eternal Reality, and kutumbaka, meaning “family.” In the alternate spelling, vasudha means the Earth. The overall meaning of the expression is the same – that all of the world, universe or reality is one
- Although the Maha Upanishad is the original source of the adage, it has influenced Hindu literature and philosophy since. The Bhagavata Purana describes vasudeva kutumbakam as the “loftiest Vedantic thought.” It affirms the worth of all life – human, animal and plants – and the value of their interconnectedness on Earth and in the universe, just as the goal of yoga is unity.
- The Assam Rifles is a central paramilitary force responsible for border security, counter-insurgency, and maintaining law and order in Northeast India. Its primary duty involves guarding the Indo-Myanmar border.
- Assam Rifles is one of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) administered by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
- The Indian Army maintains operational control of the Assam Rifles. As a police force, its recruitment, perks, promotions, and retirement policies are governed by CAPF rules.
- Doordarshan is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
- It is one of India’s largest broadcasting organisations in terms of studio and transmitter infrastructure, having been established on 15 September 1959.
- It also broadcasts on digital terrestrial transmitters. DD provides television, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional India, as well as overseas, through the satellite network.
Cell culture and immortalized cell line
- Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown in a petridish, in a lab in controlled conditions, outside of their natural environment. These cells are used in critical and path breaking scientific research to develop drugs, vaccines (polio), study the effects of radiation, how pathogens affect humans, gene mapping and the list could go on. Usually cells cultured in the lab from human cells could be kept alive for only a few days, subject to the phenomenon of cellular senescence, or the cessation of cell division.
- An immortalised cell line, simply, is a population of cells from which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutations, has achieved the ability to keep on dividing, never reaching the point of senescence..
- The main advantage of using an immortal cell line for research is its immortality; the cells can be grown indefinitely in culture. This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime.
- Immortalised cell lines can also be cloned giving rise to a clonal population which can, in turn, be propagated indefinitely. This allows an analysis to be repeated many times on genetically identical cells, which is desirable for repeatable scientific experiments. The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage.
- Immortalised cell lines find use in biotechnology, where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins.
- An immortalised cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism.
- A wildfire is an uncontrolled fire that burns in the wildland vegetation, often in rural areas. Wildfires can burn in forests, grasslands, savannas, and other ecosystems.
- Wildfires can start with a natural occurrence—such as a lightning strike—or a human-made spark. However, it is often the weather conditions that determine how much a wildfire grows. Wind, high temperatures, and little rainfall can all leave trees, shrubs, fallen leaves, and limbs dried out and primed to fuel a fire. The risk of wildfires grows in extremely dry conditions, such as drought, heat waves and during high winds.
- Wildfire smoke is a mixture of hazardous air pollutants, such PM2.5, NO2, ozone, aromatic hydrocarbons, or lead. In addition to contaminating the air with toxic pollutants, wildfires also simultaneously impact the climate by releasing large quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
- With climate change leading to warmer temperatures and drier conditions and the increasing urbanization of rural areas, the fire season is starting earlier and ending later. Wildfire events are getting more extreme in terms of acres burned, duration and intensity, and they can disrupt transportation, communications, water supply, and power and gas services.
Special Economic Zone
- A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country’s domestic economic laws. SEZs are located within a country’s national borders, and their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration.
- To encourage businesses to set up in the zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically encompass investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon establishing themselves in a zone, they are granted a period of lower taxation.
- The main objectives of the SEZ Scheme is generation of additional economic activity, promotion of exports of goods and services, promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources, creation of employment opportunities along with the development of infrastructure facilities. All laws of India are applicable in SEZs unless specifically exempted as per the SEZ Act/ Rules. Each Zone is headed by a Development Commissioner and is administered as per the SEZ Act, 2005 and SEZ Rules, 2006. Units may be set up in the SEZ for manufacturing, trading or for service activity.
Rule 267 , 176 and 167
- Rule 267 : According to the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Council of States, Rule 267 relates to suspension of rules. It says, “Any member, may, with the consent of the Chairman, move that any rule may be suspended in its application to a motion related to the business listed before the Council of that day and if the motion is carried, the rule in question shall be suspended for the time being: Provided further that this rule shall not apply where specific provision already exists for suspension of a rule under a particular chapter of the Rules.”
- Rule 176: It is related to the Short-duration discussion which is a brief discussion not exceeding two-and-a-half hours which states that “any member desirous of raising discussion on a matter of urgent public importance may give notice in writing to the Secretary-General specifying clearly and precisely the matter to be raised: Provided that the notice shall be accompanied by an explanatory note stating reasons for raising discussion on the matter in question: Provided further that the notice shall be supported by the signatures of at least two other members.”It means a short-duration discussion under Rule 176 can be taken up immediately, a few hours later, the next day or can be fixed for a later date and time. But the rule says there shall be no formal motion or voting under a short duration discussion. “The member who has given notice may make a short statement and the Minister shall reply shortly.
- Rule 167– The rule states: “Save insofar as is otherwise by the Constitution or by these rules, no discussion of a matter of general public interest shall take place except on a motion made with the consent of the Chairman.”
Unified Payments Interface (UPI)
- A Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is a smartphone application that allows users to transfer money between bank accounts.
- It is a single-window mobile payment system developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). It eliminates the need to enter bank details or other sensitive information each time a customer initiates a transaction.
- The system is said to be a safe and secure method of transferring money between two parties and eliminates the need to transact with physical cash or through a bank.
- UPI uses existing systems, such as Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) and Aadhaar Enabled Payment System (AEPS), to ensure seamless settlement across accounts. It facilitates push (pay) and pull (receive) transactions and even works for over-the-counter or barcode payments, as well as for multiple recurring payments such as utility bills, school fees, and other subscriptions.
- To meet the positioning, navigation and timing requirements of the nation, ISRO has established a regional navigation satellite system called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). NavIC was erstwhile known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
- NavIC is designed with a constellation of 7 satellites and a network of ground stations operating 24 x 7. Three satellites of the constellation are placed in geostationary orbit and four satellites are placed in inclined geosynchronous orbit
- The ground network consists of control centre, precise timing facility, range and integrity monitoring stations, two-way ranging stations, etc.
- NavIC offers two services: Standard Position Service (SPS) for civilian users and Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users.
- NavIC SPS signals are interoperable with the other global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals namely GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou
Few applications of NavIC
- Transportation (terrestrial, aerial and marine)
- Location based services
- Personal mobility
- Resource monitoring
- Surveying and geodesy
- Scientific research
- Time dissemination and synchronisation
- Safety-of-life alert dissemination