Daily Current Affairs : 10th January 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC CSE

  1. Governor’s Address
  2. India – UK Young Professional Scheme
  3. SC Verdict on power of State Govt to form UCC Committee
  4. Facts for Prelims

We have restarted CA MCQs. We strongly suggest you to attempt the Current Affairs MCQs as it will help you to revise Current Affairs better. It covers CA from Hindu, Indian Express and PIB.

1 . Governor’s Address

Context: The conflict between the Tamil Nadu government and Governor R N Ravi reached a new low when Ravi made changes to the prepared speech he read out in the Assembly. As a result, Chief Minister M K Stalin had to step in and move a resolution demanding only the original printed speech in Tamil be put in records. Governor Ravi reacted to this in an unprecedented manner by staging a walkout from the House in protest even before the national anthem was played.

Constitutional provisions related to the Governor’s Address

  • Article 175. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
    • (1) The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, either House of the Legislature of the State, or both Houses assembled together, and may for that purpose require the attendance of members.
    • (2) The Governor may send messages to the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Legislature or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient despatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.
  • Article 176.  Special address by the Governor:
    • Article 176(1) of the Constitution of India enjoins that the Governor shall Address both the Houses assembled together at the commencement of the first Session after each general election to the Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year and inform the Legislature of the causes of its Summons. The Address of the Governor contains a review of the activities and Achievements of the Government during the previous year and their policy with regard to important internal problems as well as a brief account of the programme of Government Business for the session.
    • On the first day on which the discussion on the Address of the Governor begins, a copy of the Address of the Governor is laid on the table of the House. The Speaker, in consultation with the Business Advisory Committee, allots time for discussion of the matters referred to in the Governor’s Address. A motion is moved by a member and seconded by another member thanking the Governor for the Address. The occasion provided for General Discussion in respect of any aspect of administration and also the matters referred to in the address. Members may move Amendments to the Motion of Thanks in such form as may be considered appropriate by the Speaker.
    • The Chief Minister or any other Minister has the right to explain the position of the Government at the end of the discussion. A copy of the address as adopted by the House is communicated to the Governor’s reply for the address if any is reported to the Assembly by the Speaker as soon as he received it.

2 . India-UK Young Professional Scheme

Context:  The governments of India and the U.K. marked Pravasi Bharatiya Divas on January 9, 2023, by kicking off the Young Professionals Scheme, which will permit up to 3,000 of their degree-holding citizens aged between 18 and 30 to live and work in each other’s countries for a period of two years.

About the Young Professional Scheme

  • It is a new reciprocal route that will give young professionals from the UK and India a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to take part in a professional and cultural exchange.
  • This route was first mooted back in May 2021
  • Under this scheme 3000 degree holding citizens aged between 18 and 30 to live and work in each other’s countries for a period of two years.
  • India is the first visa-national country to benefit from such a scheme.
  • This scheme will strengthen the bilateral relationship between India and UK.
  • This scheme will run initially for the period of three years.

India – UK Bilateral Relationship

  • India and UK are bound by strong ties of history and culture.
  • India’s multifaceted bilateral relationship with the UK intensified with its upgradation to a Strategic Partnership in 2004.
  • ‘India-UK: towards a new and dynamic partnership’ which envisages annual Summits and regular meetings between Foreign Ministers outlined the areas for future cooperation in civil nuclear energy, space, defence, combating terrorism, economic ties, science & technology, education and culture.
  • The UK supports India’s proposal for permanent membership of the UNSC and is also an important interlocutor for India in the EU, G8, G20 and global contexts. 
  • India is the second largest source of students studying in UK and the number of Indian students in UK is approximately 38,000.
  • The UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) was launched in 2005 with focus on higher education and research, schools and professional and technical skills.
  • India’s main exports to the UK are ready-made garments and textiles, gems and jewellery, engineering goods, petroleum and petrochemical products, transport equipment and parts, spices, manufactures of metals, machinery and instruments, drugs & pharmaceuticals and marine products.
  • The main imports from the UK to India are precious and semi-precious stones, metalifers, ores and metal scraps, engineering goods, professional instruments other than electronics, non-ferrous metals, chemicals and machinery.
  • In the services sector, the UK is the largest market in Europe for Indian IT services.
  • Of Britain’s population of 62.3 million, the population of Indian origin is estimated to be around 1.8 – 2 million, accounting for the single largest segment of ethnic population.

Free Trade Agreement between India and Uk

  • In a free trade agreement, two countries or regions either significantly reduce or eliminate customs duties on a maximum number of goods traded between them. Besides, they also ease norms to promote trade and investments.
  • This FTA is significant for the countries in the manner that trade deals with the UK could boost exports for large sectors such as textiles, leather goods, and footwear which will in turn increase the prospects for employment considering the scale of these sectors

Importance of the deal

  • In a post Brexit era, the India-UK FTA would be a crucial step would be a crucial step for the UK to reduce the dependency on EU and establish independent trade ties outside of the EU
  • India on the other hand could use this opportunity to further boost the “Make in India” programme and secure strategic defence, cyber security, R & D and health care where UK has predominantly been a strong player.
  • The FTA between India and the UK will significantly help bring down the current trade barriers and restrictions on transfer of goods and services between the two countries and is likely to boost investments, exports and imports across sectors.

Current Issues

  • But the agreement did not conclude because of the following reasons
    • Easing of patent regime will enable drug companies to get fresh protection by tweaking the composition.
    • Talks were reportedly derailed due to UK home minister Suella Braverman’s comments over Indians overstaying their visas.
    • From the UK side, reduction in import duty on scotch and automobiles as also bringing labour within the ambit of the proposed treaty are focus areas.
    • Taking binding commitments on new issues like environment, labour and sustainability in the proposed FTA, being negotiated by India, may hamper the country’s exports in the future,
    •  Higher import duties in India compared to new FTA partners.

3 . Supreme court Verdict on State Governments power to form UCC committees

Context: The Supreme Court held that a state government’s authority under the Constitution to form a committee to examine the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) cannot per se be challenged.

About the News

  • A Bench led by Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud found no merit in the argument by petitioner-in-person Anoop Baranwal that only the Centre could set up a committee for the implementation of the UCC.
  • The petition had challenged the Uttarakhand government’s move to set up a Committee on UCC. The Uttarakhand committee on UCC is headed by former apex court judge, Justice Ranjana P. Desai.
  • Article 162 of the Constitution indicates that the executive power of a State extends to matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has power to make laws. In view of the provisions of Entry 5 of the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule, the constitution of a committee per se cannot be challenged as ultra vires.
  • Entry 5 of the Concurrent List deals with “marriage and divorce; infants and minors; adoption; wills, intestacy and succession; joint family and partition; all matters in respect of which parties in judicial proceedings were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution subject to their personal law”.
  • Hence the apex court ordered that a State government did indeed have the power to take steps towards implementing the UCC would prove decisive and encourage other State governments to take similar measures.
  • Gujarat too has decided to form its committee for the implementation of the UCC.
  • Uttarakhand Chief Minister Pushkar Singh Dhami’s decision to form a committee to prepare a UCC draft for the State had raised questions about whether an individual State could bring its own family law code and the impact it may have in a pluralist society with personal laws based on the customs of religious communities.
  • Goa’s Portuguese Civil Code of 1867 is an example of a common family law prevalent in a State
  • The promulgation of the UCC emerges as a positive obligation and not duty of the State under Article 44 of the Constitution in the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP).
  • The DPSP urges “the State shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India”

What is Uniform civil code?

  • Article 44 contained in part IV of the Constitution says that the state “shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India”.
  • While there is no draft or model document yet for the UCC, the framers of the Constitution envisioned that it would be a uniform set of laws that would replace the distinct personal laws of each religion with regard to matters like marriage, divorce, adoption, and inheritance.
  • Part IV of the Constitution outlines the Directive Principles of State Policy, which, while not enforceable or justiciable in a court of law, are fundamental to the country’s governance.

Arguments around UCC

  • It has been argued that while India does have uniformity in most criminal and civil matters like the Criminal Procedure Code, Civil Procedure Code, and the Contract Act, States have made over 100 amendments to the CrPC and IPC, as well as several amendments to civil laws.
    • For example, the law of anticipatory bail differs from one State to another.
  •  If there is plurality in already codified civil and criminal laws, how can the concept of ‘one nation, one law’ be applicable to diverse personal laws of various communities
  • Looking at the codified personal laws of various communities in India — all Hindus are not governed by a homogenous personal law even after the enactment of the Hindu Code Bill, neither are Muslims and Christians under their personal laws.  
  •  while marriages amongst close relatives are prohibited by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, they are considered auspicious in the south of India.
  •  Even the Hindu Succession Act of 1956 made several compromises and could not make the daughter a coparcener till 2005.
  • Wives are still not coparceners, nor do they have an equal share in inheritance. Similarly, there is still no uniform applicability when it comes to the Muslim personal law or the Shariat Act that was passed in 1937

What has the Supreme Court said about the UCC?

The Supreme Court in various judgements has called for the implementation of the UCC.

  • In its Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano Begum judgement of 1985, where a divorced Muslim woman demanded maintenance from her former husband, the apex court while deciding whether to give prevalence to the CrPc or the Muslim personal law, called for the implementation of the UCC.
  • The Court also called on the government to implement the UCC in the 1995 Sarla Mudgal judgement as well as in the Paulo Coutinho vs Maria Luiza Valentina Pereira case (2019).

4 . Facts for Prelims

Wolf Warrior diplomacy

  • Wolf warrior diplomacy is the style of diplomacy practised by China
  • Wolf warrior diplomacy” is a tactic for the Chinese government to extend its ideology beyond China and counter the West and defend itself.
  • It is an unofficial term for the more aggressive and confrontational style of communication that Chinese diplomats have taken to in the last decade.
  • The change in strategy has been attributed to
    • Xi’s more authoritarian tendencies as compared to earlier leaders,
    • Deteriorating US-China relations under former US President Donald Trump,
    • coronavirus pandemic-related accusations on China

Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas

  • Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) Convention is the flagship event of the Government of India that provides an important platform to engage and connect with overseas Indians and to enable the diaspora to interact with each other.
  • The event is celebrated annually and is on the same date as Mahatma Gandhi’s return to India from South Africa in 1915.
  • First held in 2003, the event is traditionally organised by the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India, in partnership with the Confederation of Indian Industry and other organisations.
  • The core of the event is to provide a platform for the Indian diaspora across the globe to engage with the government and help strengthen ties.
  • PBD and economy
    • The event has contributed to the growth of India’s economy by attracting foreign investment.
    • In addition, it has helped create jobs and encouraged the return of skilled Indian workers and entrepreneurs.
    • The Centre’s aim, with PBD, is to highlight the opportunities that are available for Indians living abroad to invest, work, and study in their home country.
  • 17th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
    • 17th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention is being organised in partnership with the Madhya Pradesh Government from 08-10 January 2023 in Indore.
    • The theme of this PBD Convention is “Diaspora: Reliable partners for India’s progress in Amrit Kaal”.
    • A Commemorative Postal Stamp ‘Surakshit Jaayen, Prashikshit Jaayen’ was also released to underline the importance of safe, legal, orderly and skilled migration.
    • The Prime Minister also inaugurated the first-ever digital PBD Exhibition on the theme “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav – Contribution of Diaspora in Indian Freedom Struggle” to highlight the contribution of our diaspora freedom fighters in India’s Independence.

Specific standards for the manufacturing of digital television receivers  

  • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), under the Union Ministry of Consumer Affairs, has published new country-specific standards for the manufacturing of digital television receivers with built in satellite tuners, for Universal Serial Bus (USB) Type C receptacles, plug and cables and for Video Surveillance Systems.
  • Under the new standard for televisions, the digital television receivers will now come with in-built satellite tuners.
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards has published three significant Indian Standards in the area of Electronics. 
  • The first standard is Indian Standard for digital television receivers with built in satellite tuners. 
    • Bureau of Indian standards, through its technical Committee has published an Indian Standard IS 18112:2022 Specification for television with built in satellite tuners.
    • TVs manufactured as per this Indian standard would enable reception of Free-To-Air TV and Radio channels just by connecting a dish antenna with LNB mounted on a suitable place, at roof top/side wall of the building.
    • This would facilitate transmission of knowledge about government initiatives, schemes, educational content of Doordarshan and repository of Indian culture programs to reach and benefit wide segment of population in the country at large.
    • At present, Television (TV) viewers in the country need to purchase set-top box for viewing various paid and free channels. The viewer is required to use set top box even for the reception of free to air channels (non-encrypted) transmitted by Doordarshan.
    • Now Doordarshan is in the process of phasing out Analog transmission. Free to air channels will continue to be broadcast using digital satellite transmission by Doordarshan.
    • To enable the reception of these free to air channels without use of set top box, there is a need for television receivers with inbuilt suitable satellite tuner.
  • The second standard is Indian Standard for USB Type C receptacles, plug and cables. Bureau of Indian standards has published Indian standard IS/IEC 62680-1-3:2022 USB Type-C® Cable and Connector Specification.
    • This Indian standard is adoption of existing International standard IEC 62680-1- 3:2022.
    • This standard provides requirements for USB Type-C port, plug and cables for use in various electronic devices like mobile phone, laptop, notebook etc.
    • This standard would provide common charging solutions for the smartphones and other electronic devices sold in the country.
    • This would facilitate in reduction in number of chargers per consumer as consumers will no longer need to buy different chargers every time they buy a new device.
    • This would help in achieving Government of India’s mission to reduce e-waste and move towards sustainable development.
    • Earlier consumers have to keep different chargers for various electronic devices they possess which leads to extra expenditure, increase in e-waste and a lot of inconvenience. Countries worldwide are working to address these issues.
  • The third Standard is Indian Standards for Video Surveillance Systems.
    • Bureau of Indian Standards, through its technical committee on Alarms and Electronic Security Systems has developed a series of Indian Standard (IS 16910) on Video Surveillance Systems for use in Security Applications.
    •  IS 16910 series of Standards is an adoption of the International Standard IEC 62676 series.
    • The standard provides a detailed outline of all the aspects of a Video Surveillance System such as requirements for its components like camera devices, interfaces, system requirements and tests to ascertain the image quality of the camera devices and also specifies guidelines on efficient installation of the system.

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