Fast Breeder Reactor

Context : Prime Minister Narendra Modi witnessed the start of the process of core-loading the indigenous Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at the Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. A statement from his office called the occasion “a historic milestone in India’s nuclear power programme”. Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme of India Details … Read more

International Space Station

Context : NASA and SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft blasted off on Saturday carrying four astronauts to the International Space Station. What is International Space Station How Old Is the Space Station? How Big Is the Space Station? What Are the Parts of the Space Station? Why Is the Space Station Important? Space X Dragon Capsule


Context: The West Bengal government announced that it was introducing an additional dose of injectable polio vaccine as part of the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) for children.  What is polio?  Types of Polio vaccine  Inactivated (killed) polio vaccine  Oral Polio vaccine  Polio eradication efforts in India  Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) 

Aurbite Meteor

Context: On August 17, 2022, a meteorite streaked over India, breaking apart as it descended through the air, to scatter over two villages in Banaskantha, Gujarat. An analysis by a group of scientists at the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad has revealed that the meteorite is a “rare, unique specimen” of aubrite.  What is meteorite?  What … Read more

Genetically Modified Crops

Context : The Supreme Court on January 24, 2023 asked the Centre what will happen if the risk of the commercial release of GM Mustard crop is “irreversible”. Background of the Case About the current status of the case About genetic modification (GM) of crops? Process What is the legal position of genetically modified crops … Read more

Big Bang Theory

Context: Lost’ interview of Georges Lemaître rediscovered. The VRT has found in its archives an interview with Georges Lemaître that was thought to be lost. The cosmologist from Louvain was the founder of the big bang theory in the 1920s and 1930s.  Now the entire 20-minute interview has been found.  What is Big Bang Theory?  … Read more

Shukrayaan – 1

Context: P. Sreekumar, the Satish Dhawan Professor at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and advisor to its space science programme, said that the organisation is yet to receive approval from the Indian government for the Venus mission and that the mission could as a result be postponed to 2031. About the News What is … Read more

Liquid Mirror Telescope

Context : In early 2022, India’s first liquid-mirror telescope, which will observe asteroids, supernovae, space debris and all other celestial objects from an altitude of 2,450 metres in the Himalayas, saw its first light as it peered into the zenith from the Devasthal observatory in Uttarakhand. Having entered the commissioning phase, it became the world’s first … Read more


Context : U.S. surgeons have successfully implanted a heart from a genetically modified pig in a 57-year-old man, a medical first that could one day help solve the chronic shortage of organ donations. About Xenotransplantation Xenotransplantation is any procedure that involves transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. Xenotransplants were largely abandoned after … Read more

CRISPR & Gene Editing

About CRISPR Unusual but repeated DNA structures that scientists had been observing were given a name — Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats or CRISPR. In 2012, scientists discovered that CRISPR is a key part of the “immune system”. For instance, when a virus enters a bacterium, it fights back by cutting up the virus’s DNA. This … Read more

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