PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Earthquakes in Delhi-NCR
- Sickle Cell disease
- Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
- Facts for Prelims
1 . SATYABHAMA
Context : Shri Pralhad Joshi, Union Minister for Coal, Mines and Parliamentary Affairs launched SATYABHAMA (Science and Technology Yojana for Aatmanirbhar Bharat in Mining Advancement) Portal for Science and Technology Programme Scheme of Ministry of Mines on 15th June 2020.
About the Portal
- The portal has been designed, developed and implemented by National Informatics Centre (NIC), Mines Informatics Division.
- In contrast to present system where research proposals are submitted physically by the Scientists / Researchers, SATYABHAMA Portal allows online submission of project proposals along with monitoring of the projects and utilization of funds / grants.
- The researchers can also submit progress reports and Final Technical Reports of the projects in the electronic format in the portal.
- A User Manual is also available on the Portal where the stepwise procedures for submission of project proposals have been highlighted.
- The Portal is integrated with NGO Darpan Portal of NITI Aayog.
- Ministry of Mines, Govt. of India provides funds to Academic institutions, universities, national institutes and R&D institutions recognized with the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India for implementing R&D projects under Science and Technology Programme Scheme of Ministry of Mines with the vision to promote research in applied geosciences, mineral exploration, mining and allied areas, mineral processing, optimum utilization and conservation of the mineral resources of the country, for the benefit of the nation and its people.
- The Portal will increase efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of the Scheme.
2 . Earthquakes in Delhi-NCR
Context : In the wake of the recent series of tremors in Delhi-NCR, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, has said that such tremors are not unusual in the Delhi-NCR region, but indicate that strain energy is built up in the region.
Why earthquakes happen in Delhi-NCR?
- All the earthquakes in Delhi-NCR are due to the release of strain energy, which have been accumulated as a result of northward movement of Indian plate and its collision with the Eurasian plate, through the fault or weak zones.
- There are so many weak zones and faults in the Delhi-NCR: Delhi-Haridwar ridge, Mahendragarh-Dehradun subsurface fault, Moradabad fault, Sohna fault, Great boundary fault, Delhi-Sargodha ridge, Yamuna river lineament, Ganga river lineament etc.
- Himalayan seismic belt, where the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate and underthrusted beneath the Himalayan wedge, accumulates strain energy at the plate boundary due to relative movement of plates against each other causing crustal shortening and deformation of rocks.
- These energy can be released through the weak zones and faults in the form of earthquakes ranging from micro (<3.0), minor (3.0-3.9), light (4.0-4.9), moderate (5.0-5.9), strong (6.0-6.9), major (7.0-7.9) or great (>8.0) earthquake, defined as per the amount of energy released.
- The small magnitude earthquakes are frequent, but large magnitude earthquakes are rare to very rare. It is the large earthquakes that cause severe damages both to structures and properties.
Impact of Earthquakes in the Himalaya to Delhi-NCR
- The Isoseismals of the 1905 Kangra (7.8), 1934 Bihar-Nepal (8.0), 1950 Assam (8.6), 2005 Muzaffarabad (6.7) and 2015 Nepal (7.8) earthquakes in the Himalayan arc are bounded by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) to the north and the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) to the south.
- These earthquakes are the result of slip on a décollement surface i.e. the contact between the under thrusting Indian plate and overlying Himalayan wedge, which extends southward from 16-27 km depth beneath the MCT to its surficial expression as the HFT at a distance of 50-100 km from MCT.
- The rupture areas due to large earthquakes show gaps along the Himalayan arc, which have not experienced great earthquakes for a long time, and are identified as the future potential zones for great earthquakes.
- Three main seismic gaps have been identified in the Himalaya: the Assam Gap between the 1950 Assam earthquake and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake; the Kashmir Gap between the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake; and the ~700 km long Central Gap between the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake.
- The entire NW-NE Himalayan belt lies in the highest seismic potential zone V and IV, where major to great earthquakes can take place.
Neighbouring faults and ridges
- There are so many faults, ridges, and lineaments transverse to the Himalayan arc, large sediment thickness in the Ganga Alluvium Plains to the north of Delhi-NCR. Again, the Delhi-NCR is ~200 km away from the Himalayan arc.
- Therefore, a major earthquake in the Himalayan seismic belt may also be a threat to Delhi-NCR.
- The Garhwal Himalaya, lying in the Central Seismic Gap and north of Delhi-NCR, has experienced the 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake (6.8), 1999 Chamoli earthquake (6.6) and 2017 Rudraprayag earthquake (5.7), and is due for a major to great earthquake. Such a scenario can make a pronounced impact to the north India and Delhi-NCR.
3 . Sickle Cell Disease
Context : The Minister for Tribal Affairs, Shri Arjun Munda today emphasized on the need to create more awareness about Sickle Cell disease in the county.
About Sickle Cell Disease
- Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body.
- People with this disorder have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape.
- Signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease usually begin in early childhood. Characteristic features of this disorder include a low number of red blood cells (anemia), repeated infections, and periodic episodes of pain.
- The signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease are caused by the sickling of red blood cells. When red blood cells sickle, they break down prematurely, which can lead to anemia.
- Anemia can cause shortness of breath, fatigue, and delayed growth and development in children. The rapid breakdown of red blood cells may also cause yellowing of the eyes and skin, which are signs of jaundice.
- Painful episodes can occur when sickled red blood cells, which are stiff and inflexible, get stuck in small blood vessels. These episodes deprive tissues and organs of oxygen-rich blood and can lead to organ damage, especially in the lungs, kidneys, spleen, and brain.
- A particularly serious complication of sickle cell disease is high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Pulmonary hypertension occurs in about one-third of adults with sickle cell disease and can lead to heart failure.
- Hemoglobin consists of four protein subunits, typically, two subunits called alpha-globin and two subunits called beta-globin.
- The HBB gene provides instructions for making beta-globin. Various versions of beta-globin result from different mutations in the HBB gene.
- One particular HBB gene mutation produces an abnormal version of beta-globin known as hemoglobin S (HbS). Other mutations in the HBB gene lead to additional abnormal versions of beta-globin such as hemoglobin C (HbC) and hemoglobin E (HbE).
- HBB gene mutations can also result in an unusually low level of beta-globin; this abnormality is called beta thalassemia.
- In people with sickle cell disease, at least one of the beta-globin subunits in hemoglobin is replaced with hemoglobin S.
- In sickle cell anemia, which is a common form of sickle cell disease, hemoglobin S replaces both beta-globin subunits in hemoglobin.
- In other types of sickle cell disease, just one beta-globin subunit in hemoglobin is replaced with hemoglobin S. The other beta-globin subunit is replaced with a different abnormal variant, such as hemoglobin C. For example, people with sickle-hemoglobin C (HbSC) disease have hemoglobin molecules with hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C instead of beta-globin. If mutations that produce hemoglobin S and beta thalassemia occur together, individuals have hemoglobin S-beta thalassemia (HbSBetaThal) disease.
4 . Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
Context : Prime Minister Narendra Modi today launched a massive employment -cum- rural public works Campaign named ‘Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan’ to empower and provide livelihood opportunities in areas/ villages witnessing large number of returnee migrant workers affected by the devastating COVID-19
About Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
- Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan is being undertaken in 116 districts of 6 states. It will be implemented at the grassroots level with active coordination between 11 ministries of the Central Government.
- The Abhiyaan will continue for 125 days, and 25 works have been identified which will be taken up for completion. As a result, employment will be rapidly generated. It is an important step towards providing employment to the people on a mission mode.
- The Abhiyaan will be a convergent effort between different Ministries/Departments, namely; Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Road Transport & Highways, Mines, Drinking Water & Sanitation, Environment, Railways, Petroleum & Natural Gas, New & Renewable Energy, Border Roads, Telecom and Agriculture, to expedite implementation of 25 public infrastructure works and works relating to augmentation of livelihood opportunities.
The major objectives of the initiative include:
- Provide livelihood opportunity to returning migrants and similarly affected rural citizens
- Saturate villages with public infrastructure and create livelihood opportunities viz. Roads, Housing, Anganwadis, Panchayat Bhavans, various livelihood assets and Community Complexes among others
- The basket of a wide variety of works will ensure that each migrant worker is able to get an opportunity of employment according to his skill, in the coming 125 days.
- The Program will also prepare for expansion and development of livelihoods over a longer term.
5 . Facts for Prelims
- Patanjali had compiled, coded and systematised this science which is known as ‘Yoga Sutra’
- Rig Veda, which is regarded as the most ancient literature of the world, elucidated two important aspects of Yoga Sutra – ‘Tapa’ and ‘Dhyana’. ‘Tapa’ means to control the flickering mind and sensory organs as it serves the purpose of creativity and acquiring knowledge, whereas ‘Dhyana’ serves as a tool to acquire knowledge.
- Knowledge is to know who I am and also about the outer world, that is, reality. ‘Samyama’, another important term in Yoga Sutra signifies a combination of Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses), Dharana (concentration) and Dhyana (meditation) – which are tools used for gaining knowledge of things around and within. Hence, it is a tool for the human body to function effectively and acquire knowledge. Patanjali also wrote about two aspects of ‘Yama’ and ‘Niyama’ that help to fortify human cells and therefore trains us in self-discipline in day-to-day life.