PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Initiatives undertaken to Boost Manufacturing Sector
- Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation
- Partial Lunar Eclipse
- Initiatives involving Self Help Groups
- National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
- Facts for Prelims : FDI Routes
1 . Initiatives undertaken to boost Manufacturing Sector
- Overall performance of manufacturing sector is an interplay of several factors such as domestic demand, demand for exports, level of investment and prevailing prices. The Government has been continuously taking steps to boost manufacturing.
Key initiatives taken
- ‘Make in India’ initiative under which thrust sectors have been identified to provide a push to manufacturing in India.
- ‘Startup India’ initiative for encouraging self-employment.
- ‘Ease of Doing Business’ where the Government aims at creating a conducive environment by streamlining the existing regulations, processes and eliminating unnecessary requirements/procedures.
- Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy and procedures have been simplified and liberalised progressively.
- Recent budget has further rationalized corporate tax and custom duties.
2 . Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation
- Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act
Major functions of CDSCO
- Regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials, meetings of Drugs Consultative Committee (DCC) and Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB), approval of certain licenses as Central License Approving Authority is exercised by the CDSCO headquarters.
- Initiate in framing of rules, regulations and guidance documents to match the contemporary issues in compliance with the requirements of Drugs & Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945.
- Facilitate in Uniform implementation of the provisions of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945.
- Function as Central license Approving Authority under the provisions of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945.
- Collaboration with other similar International agencies.
- Providing training to the Indian regulatory personnel.
3 . Partial Lunar Eclipse
Context : A partial eclipse of the Moon will occur on 17 July, 2019 which will be visible in India.
What is a partial lunar eclipse?
- When the Earth comes in between the Moon and the Sun and casts its shadow over the Moon, cutting off its source of illumination and making parts of it appear dark, the event is called a lunar eclipse.
- When the Moon is fully covered by Earth’s shadow, it is called a full lunar eclipse, but when only a small portion of the moon appears dark due to incomplete overlapping, it is called a partial lunar eclipse.
Special Significance of lunar eclipse 2019
- The partial eclipse happening is a little special for people in India as it marks a coincidence happening after 149 years.
- The Guru Purnima celebrated in India will happen on the same day as the upcoming partial lunar eclipse for the first time after a span of 149 years. And if you believe in astrology, this coincidence can be of special religious significance.
4 . LaQshya
Context : Government of India has launched “LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) to improve quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres in public health facilities. It’s a multipronged approach focused at Intrapartum and immediate postpartum period.
Aim of the Scheme
- To reduce preventable maternal and newborn mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity Operation Theatre and ensure respectful maternity care.
Objectives of the Scheme
- To reduce maternal and newborn mortality & morbidity due to hemorrhage, retained placenta, preterm, preeclampsia and eclampsia, obstructed labour, puerperal sepsis, newborn asphyxia, and newborn sepsis, etc.
- To improve Quality of care during the delivery and immediate post-partum care, stabilization of complications and ensure timely referrals, and enable an effective two-way follow-up system.
- To enhance satisfaction of beneficiaries visiting the health facilities and provide Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) to all pregnant women attending the public health facilities.
Following types of healthcare facilities have been identified for implementation of LaQshya program
- Government medical college hospitals.
- District Hospitals & equivalent health facilities.
- Designated FRUs and high case load CHCs with over 100 deliveries/month ( 60 in hills and desert areas)
5 . Initiatives involving Self Help Groups
Government of India is promoting Self Help Groups (SHGs) for realization of socio-economic development through the following programmes:
- Deen dayal Antyodaya Yojana
- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM), under Ministry of Rural Development, across the country in a mission mode with the objective of organizing the rural poor women into Self Help Groups (SHGs) and continuously nurturing and supporting them to take economic activities till they attain appreciable increase in income over a period of time to improve their quality of life and come out of abject poverty.
- The programme aims to ensure that at least one woman member from each rural poor household is brought into the fold of women SHGs and their federations within a definite time frame.
- The programme is being implemented in all the States and Union Territories, except Delhi and Chandigarh, in a phased manner.
- As on 31st May, 2019, 5.96 crore women have been mobilised into 54.07 lakh women Self Help Groups (SHGs) under the programme.
- Under DAY – NRLM programme, Revolving Funds (RF) @ Rs.10,000-15,000 per SHG and Community Investment Support Fund (CISF) @ maximum of Rs.2,50,000 per SHG is provided to Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their Federations to take up self-employment for income generation.
- SHGs are also linked to banks for availing loans for taking up various livelihood activities. In addition, capacity building and technological support is also provided to the target households for taking up income generating activities both in farm and non-farm sectors.
- Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
- National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)under Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs aims to reduce poverty and vulnerability of urban poor households on sustainable basis.
- The mission, inter alia, is mandated to build strong grassroots level institutions of the poor.
- Under Social Mobilization and Institution Development (SM&ID) component, the mission envisages universal social mobilization of urban poor into Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and their Federations by bringing at least one member from each urban poor household, preferably a woman, under the SHG network. These groups serve as a support for the poor, to meet their financial and social needs.
- Under the Self-Employment Programme (SEP), interest subvention over and above 7 percent rate of interest is available to all SHGs accessing bank loans. An additional 3 percent interest subvention is also available to all women SHGs who repay their loan in time
6 . National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
- Govt has enacted the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act (CPCR), 2005, extending pan-India except to the State of Jammu and Kashmir
- Under Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005 (CPCR), National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) and State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs) have been created as Statutory bodies for protection of child rights.
- The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
The Commission may inquire into complaints and take suomotu notice of matters relating to -:
- Deprivation and violation of child rights
- Non-implementation of laws providing for protection and development of children
- Non-compliance of policy decisions, guidelines or instructions aimed at mitigating hardships to and ensuring welfare of the children and to provide relief to such children
- Or take up the issues arising out of such matters with appropriate authorities.
7 . Facts for Prelims
- The routes under which foreign investment can be made is as under:
- Automatic Route: Foreign Investment is allowed under the automatic route without prior approval of the Government or the Reserve Bank of India, in all activities/ sectors as specified in the Regulation 16 of FEMA 20 (R).
- Government Route: Foreign investment in activities not covered under the automatic route requires prior approval of the Government.