PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Non Communicable Disease
- National Crisis Management Committee
1 . Non-Communicable Disease
About Noncommunicable disease
- Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
- The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.
Who is at risk of such diseases?
- People of all age groups, regions and countries are affected by NCDs. Children, adults and the elderly are all vulnerable to the risk factors contributing to NCDs, whether from unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, exposure to tobacco smoke or the harmful use of alcohol.
- These diseases are driven by forces that include rapid unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles and population ageing. Unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity may show up in people as raised blood pressure, increased blood glucose, elevated blood lipids and obesity. These are called metabolic risk factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease, the leading NCD in terms of premature deaths.
Modifiable behavioural risk factors
- Modifiable behaviours, such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and the harmful use of alcohol, all increase the risk of NCDs.
Metabolic risk factors
Metabolic risk factors contribute to four key metabolic changes that increase the risk of NCDs:
- raised blood pressure
- hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) and
- hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood).
What are the socioeconomic impacts of NCDs?
- NCDs threaten progress towards the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a target of reducing premature deaths from NCDs by one-third by 2030.
- The rapid rise in NCDs is predicted to impede poverty reduction initiatives in low-income countries, particularly by increasing household costs associated with health care. Vulnerable and socially disadvantaged people get sicker and die sooner than people of higher social positions, especially because they are at greater risk of being exposed to harmful products, such as tobacco, or unhealthy dietary practices, and have limited access to health services.
- In low-resource settings, health-care costs for NCDs quickly drain household resources. The exorbitant costs of NCDs, including often lengthy and expensive treatment and loss of breadwinners, force millions of people into poverty annually and stifle development.
Prevention and control of NCDs
- Detection, screening and treatment of NCDs, as well as palliative care, are key components of the response to NCDs.
- Integrated and multi-sectoral coordination, health promotion and health systems strengthening for NCDs as well as awareness of ill-effects of unhealthy lifestyle are important for prevention and control of NCDs
2 . National Crisis Management Committee
About National Crisis Management Committee
- For effective implementation of relief measures in the wake of a natural calamity, the Cabinet may set up a committee called as National Crisis Management Committee
- Cabinet Secretary, which is the highest executive officer, heads the NCMC.
- Secretaries of all the concerned Ministries /Departments as well as organizations are the members of the Committee.
- The NCMC gives direction to the Crisis Management Group as deemed necessary.
Crisis Management Group
- The Central Relief Commissioner in the Ministry of Home Affairs is the Chairman of the CMG, consisting of senior officers (called as nodal officers) from various concerned Ministries.
Functions of CMG
Functions of CMG is to review :
- Every year contingency plans formulated by various Ministries/Departments/ Organizations in their respective sectors,
- Measures required for dealing with a natural disaster,
- Coordinate the activities of the Central Ministries and the State Governments in relation to disaster preparedness and relief
- To obtain information from the nodal officers on measures relating to above.