PIB ANALYSIS FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM
- Neem coated urea, Soil Health Card Scheme, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Kisan Sampada Yojana
- KONKAN 2018
- Saubhagya Scheme
1 . HysIS
PSLV-C43 successfully launches earth observation satellite HysIS and 30 foreign satellites
ISRO to launch its heaviest satellite, GSAT-11, on Dec 5, 2018
General Studies 3 Space
About the Release
- The Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C43) successfully launched 31 satellites from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC)
- It also placed India’s Hyper-Spectral Imaging Satellite (HysIS) into a 645 km sun-synchronous polar orbit
- HysIS had the company of one micro and 29 nano-satellites from eight countries, including Australia (1), Canada (1), Columbia (1), Finland (1), Malaysia (1), Netherlands (1), Spain (1) and USA (23).
- Satellites from Australia, Columbia, Malaysia and Spain were flown aboard PSLV for the first time.
- These foreign satellites launched are part of commercial arrangements between Antrix Corporation Limited and customers.
- HysIS is an earth observation satellite built around ISRO’s Mini Satellite2 (IMS-2) bus weighing about 380kg.
- The mission life of the satellite is five years.
- The primary goal of HysIS is to study the earth’s surface in both the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- Data from the satellite will be used for a wide range of applications including agriculture, forestry, soil/geological environments, coastal zones and inland waters, etc.
- HysIS is a state-of-the-art satellite with many indigenous components developed by SAC, Ahmedabad and SCL, Chandigarh
- Main purpose of the HysIS is to exactly identify the objects on the surface of the earth with high precision and resolution.
- HysIS will start sending images from the fifth day of its injection.
- Including HysIS there are 47 operational satellites that are active now in their orbits, meant for applications like communications, earth observation, scientific studies and navigation,
- PSLV is a four stage launch vehicle with a large solid rocket motor forming the first stage, an earth storable liquid stage as the second stage, a high performance solid rocket motor as third stage and a liquid stage with engines as fourth stage.
- So far, the PSLV has launched 44 Indian and nine satellites built by students from Indian universities. The vehicle has also launched 269 international customer satellites
- Proposed Manned mission to space is called as Gaganyaan
2 . Neem Coated Urea, Soil Health Card Scheme, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Kisan Sampada Yojana
Emphasis is being given on soil health card, use of neem-coated urea and schemes related to per drop more crop for reducing cost of agriculture
Employment opportunities for about 5.5 lakh people are being created through the Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana
General Studies 3 Agriculture
Neem Coated Urea
- Urea is an important supplier of nitrogen, which is necessary for the development of plants.
- Only 30-40 per cent of nitrogen present in the urea is utilised by crops. The rest gets degraded
- When ordinary urea is applied, it gets converted to ammonium carbamate. Some of this gets converted to ammonia gas in what is called ammonia volatilisation.
- About 8-10 per cent nitrogen is lost during volatilisation
- The rest of the ammonium carbamate undergoes chemical transfor-mation and nitrates are formed. Some of these are absorbed by the plants.
- The rest are either leached into the underground water or are denitrified to gaseous nitrogen and nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen).
- Neem has properties that check nitrogen loss at each stage.
- It slows down the process of nitrate formation and hence excess nitrate is not available for denitrification.
Soil Health Card Scheme
Covered under October 29 PIB Analysis Click Here
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
- Vision of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) is to ensure access to some means of protective irrigation to all agricultural farms in the country, to produce ‘per drop more crop’, thus bringing much desired rural prosperity.
Objectives of PMKSY
- Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (preparation of district level and, if required, sub district level water use plans).
- Enhance the physical access of water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani).
- Integration of water source, distribution and its efficient use, to make best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices.
- Improve on – farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent.
- Enhance the adoption of precision – irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop).
- Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
- Ensure the integrated development of rainfed areas using the watershed approach towards soil and water conservation, regeneration of ground water, arresting runoff, providing livelihood options and other NRM activities.
- Promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.
- Explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri – urban agriculture.
- Attract greater private investments in irrigation.
A. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
- To focus on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects.
B. PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani)
- Creation of new water sources through Minor Irrigation (both surface and ground water)
- Repair, restoration and renovation of water bodies; strengthening carrying capacity of traditional water sources, construction rain water harvesting structures (Jal Sanchay);
- Command area development, strengthening and creation of distribution network from source to the farm;
- Ground water development in the areas where it is abundant, so that sink is created to store runoff/ flood water during peak rainy season.
- Improvement in water management and distribution system for water bodies to take advantage of the available source which is not tapped to its fullest capacity (deriving benefits from low hanging fruits). At least 10% of the command area to be covered under micro/precision irrigation.
- Diversion of water from source of different location where it is plenty to nearby water scarce areas, lift irrigation from water bodies/rivers at lower elevation to supplement requirements beyond IWMP and MGNREGS irrespective of irrigation command.
- Creating and rejuvenating traditional water storage systems like Jal Mandir (Gujarat); Khatri, Kuhl (H.P.); Zabo (Nagaland); Eri, Ooranis (T.N.); Dongs (Assam); Katas, Bandhas (Odisha and M.P.) etc. at feasible locations.
C. PMKSY (Per Drop More Crop)
- Programme management, preparation of State/District Irrigation Plan, approval of annual action plan, Monitoring etc.
- Promoting efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain – guns in the farm (Jal Sinchan);
- Topping up of input cost particularly under civil construction beyond permissible limit (40%), under MGNREGS for activities like lining inlet, outlet, silt traps, distribution system etc.
- Construction of micro irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities including tube wells and dug wells (in areas where ground water is available and not under semi critical /critical /over exploited category of development) which are not supported under AIBP, PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani), PMKSY (Watershed) and MGNREGS a s per block/district irrigation plan.
- Secondary storage structures at tail end of canal system to store water when available in abundance (rainy season) or from perennial sources like streams for use during dry periods through effective on – farm water management;
- Water lifting devices like diesel/ electric/ solar pumpsets including water carriage pipes, underground piping system.
- Extension activities for promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures including cropping alignment to maximise use of available water including rainfall and minimise irrigation requirement (Jal sarankchan);
- Capacity building, training and awareness campaign including low cost publications, use of pico projectors and low cost films for encouraging potential use water source through technological, agronomic and management practices including community irrigation.
- The extension workers will be empowered to disseminate relevant technologies under PMKSY only after requisite training is provided to them especially in the area of promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures, improved/ innovative distribution system like pipe and box outlet system, etc. Appropriate Domain Experts will act as Master Trainers.
- Information Communication Technology (ICT) interventions through NeGP – A to be made use in the field of water use efficiency, precision irrigation technologies, on farm water management, crop alignment etc. and also to do intensive monitoring of the Scheme.
D. PMKSY (Watershed Development)
- Effective management of runoff water and improved soil & moisture conservation activities such as ridge area treatment, drainage line 5 treatment, rain water harvesting, in – situ moisture conservation and other allied activities o n watershed basis.
- Converging with MGNREGS for creation of water source to full potential in identified backward rainfed blocks including renovation of traditional water bodies
Kissan Sampada Yojana
- It is an umbrella scheme incorporating ongoing schemes of the Ministry like Mega Food Parks, Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure, Food Safety and Quality Assurance Infrastructure, etc. and also new schemes like Infrastructure for Agro-processing Clusters, Creation of Backward and Forward Linkages, Creation / Expansion of Food Processing & Preservation Capacities.
Under PMKSY the following schemes are to be implemented.
- Mega Food Parks
- Integrated Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation Infrastructure
- Creation/Expansion of Food Processing/Preservation Capacities
- Infrastructure for Agro Processing Clusters
- Scheme for Creation of Backward and Forward Linkages
- Food Safety & Quality Assurance Infrastructure
- Human Resources and Institutions
3 . KONKAN 2018
IN – RN exercise KONKAN-18 begins at Goa
GS -2 Bilateral Relationship
About KONKAN -18
- KONKAN 2018 is a Naval exercise between India and the United Kingdom
- The KONKAN series of exercises commenced in 2004, and since then has grown in scale. KONKAN-2018 will be conducted from 28 Nov to 06 Dec 18 off Goa with units participating from both navies.
- Their will be two phases harbour phase followed by the sea phase
- The thrust of the exercise this year would be on Anti-Air warfare, Anti-Surface Warfare, Anti-Submarine Warfare, Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS) and Seamanship Evolutions.
- Besides exercises at sea, KONKAN-2018 also encompasses professional interactions and sports fixtures.
4 . Saubhagya Scheme
“8 States achieve 100% household electrification under Saubhagya; total 15 States now have 100 % household electrification”, announces the Power Minister
“Nation expected to achieve 100% household electrification by 31st December, 2018” says the Minister
General Studies 3 Infrastructure – Energy
About the Release
- “8 States have achieved 100% saturation in household electrification under Saubhagya namely Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Bihar, J&K, Mizoram, Sikkim, Telangana and West Bengal. Thus total 15 States in the countrynow have 100 % household electrification.”
About Saubhagya Scheme
- The objective of the ‘Saubhagya’ is to provide energy access to all by last mile connectivity and electricity connections to all remaining un-electrified households in rural as well as urban areas to achieve universal household electrification in the country.
- The beneficiaries for free electricity connections would be identified using Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data. However, un-electrified households not covered under the SECC data would also be provided electricity connections under the scheme on payment of Rs. 500 which shall be recovered by DISCOMs in 10 instalments through electricity bill.
- The electricity connection to households include release of electricity connections by drawing a service cable from the nearest electricity pole to the household premise, installation of energy meter, wiring for a single light point with LED bulb and a mobile charging point. In case the electricity pole is not available nearby from household for drawing service cable, the erection of additional pole along with conductor and associated accessories shall also be covered under the scheme.
- Poor households would be provided electricity connections free of cost. Other households would also be provided electricity connections under the scheme on payment of Rs.500 only which shall be recovered by the DISCOMs/Power Departments in ten instalments along with electricity bills.
Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana and Integrated Power Development Scheme
- Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) envisage creation of basic electricity infrastructure in villages / habitations, strengthening & augmentation of existing infrastructure, metering of existing feeders / distribution transformers / consumers to improve quality and reliability of power supply in rural areas. Besides this, last mile connectivity and free electricity connections are also provided to BPL households only identified by the States as per their list.
- However, in villages which are electrified in past for a long period, many households do not have electricity connections for many reasons. Some of the really poor households do not have BPL cards but these households are not capable of paying applicable initial connection charges. There is also lack of awareness as to how to get connection or taking connection is not an easy task for illiterate people. There may not be electricity pole nearby and the cost of erection of additional pole, conductor is also chargeable from the households for obtaining a connection.
- Similarly in urban areas, Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) provides for creation of necessary infrastructure to provide electricity access but some households are not yet connected mainly on account of their economic condition as they are not capable of paying the initial connection charges.
- Therefore, Soubhagya has been launched to plug such gaps and comprehensively address the issues of entry barrier, last mile connectivity and release of electricity connections to all un-electrified households in rural and urban areas.
Benefits to the Citizen
- Electricity in households has brought new light in their lives. Electrification has direct positive impact on the quality of all aspects of daily life, especially to the women and children.
- With deeper penetration of electricity network, significant improvement is expected in delivery of other essential services like education, health, communication etc. and thereby more opportunities for economic activities leading to employment generation, increase in income and poverty alleviation