PIB ANALYSIS FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM
- Constitution Day
- Embryo Transfer Technology – Rashtriya Gokul Mission, E Pashuhaat, UMANG App
- Direct Taxation Avoidance Agreement
- Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP)
- Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access (PAISA)
- Urban Water Management – Water Index , AMRUT Scheme
1 . Constitution Day
President of India Inaugurates Constitution day Celebrations; Says Idea of Social Justice has Expanded to Encompass Modern Civic Parameters like Pollution and Health
About Constitution Day
- Constitution day which is also known as the Samvidhan Divas is celebrated every year on November 26 to mark the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted.
- Adoption of the Constitution took place on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950
- India celebrated its first Constitution day on November 26, 2015
- Earlier, this day was commemorated as National Law Day, after a resolution by the Supreme Court Bar Association, a lawyers’ body, in 1979.
2 . Embryo Transfer Technology, Rashtriya Gokul Mission, E Pashuhaat, Umang
Embryo transfer technology is extremely effective for increasing production and breed improvement
E-pashuhaat portal is playing a crucial role in connecting farmers & breeders to trade in disease-free germplasm; an app has been created & integrated with UMANG
What is Embryo Transfer
- Embryo transfer is a technique by which embryos are collected from a donor female and are transferred to recipient females, which serve as surrogate mothers for the remainder of pregnancy.
- Embryo transfer techniques have been applied to nearly every species of domestic animal and to many species of wildlife and exotic animals, including humans and non-human primates. Within the past decade the degree of sophistication of embryo transfer procedures has evolved to permit complete utilization of non-surgical procedures in the cow, long term embryo culture and storage with cryo-preservation, and, more recently, micro-manipulation and many techniques associated with genetic engineering.
- This is a rapidly developing science with a very short lag-time between discovery and application. The potential applications continue to increase with the development of new technology.
- The first ET project ‘Cattle Herd Improvement for Increased Productivity Using Embryo Transfer Technology’ was established in 1987. The first buffalo calf from frozen thawed embryo was born in 1991. Till date, 11900 viable embryos have been produced and 720 male calves born using the technology.
- To get maximum number of high pedigreed calves from high yielding cows/buffaloes. These can be selected through Herd Registration scheme.
- To accelerate genetic gain / year by selecting the calves on the basis of collaterals’ performance.
- To reduce birth of low potential calves through conventional breeding practices adapted by farmers
- To conserve indigenous germplasm in the form of embryos
- Embryo transfer techniques allow top quality female livestock to have a greater influence on the genetic advancement of a herd or flock in much the same way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires.
- A high yielding cow/buffalo produces normally 8-10 high yielding calves during life-With ET technology we can get 80-200 calves during its lifetime. Important technology for the breeds which have threats of endangerment.
- The general epidemiological aspects of embryo transfer indicate that the transfer of embryos provides the opportunity to introduce genetic material into populations of livestock while greatly reducing the risk for transmission of infectious diseases.
- Recent developments in the sexing of embryos before transfer and implanting has great potential in the dairy and other livestock industries
What is Rashtriya Gokul Mission
- Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) has been launched in December 2014 with an outlay of Rs 2025 crore for development and conservation of indigenous breeds through selective breeding in the breeding tract and genetic upgradation of nondescript bovine population.
- The scheme comprises of two components namely National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB) and National Mission on Bovine Productivity (NMBP)
Objectives of RGM
- Development and conservation of indigenous breeds
- Breed improvement programme for indigenous breeds so as to improve the genetic makeup and increase the stock
- Enhancing milk production and productivity of bovine population by increasing disease free high genetic merit female population and check on spread of diseases
- Upgrading nondescript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi,Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi
- Distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service
- To bring all breedable females under organised breeding through AI or naturalservice using germ plasm of high genetic merits
- To arrange quality Artificial Insemination (AI) services at farmers’ doorstep
- To create e-market portal for bovine germplasm for connecting breeders and farmers;
Significant initiatives under RGM
- Awards for encouraging farmers/breeder societies to rear Indigenous breeds of Bovines
- Gopal Ratna awards: For farmers maintaining the best herd of Indigenous Breed(s) and practicing best management practices.
- Kamdhenu awards: For Best managed Indigenous Herd by Institutions/Trusts/NGOs/ Gaushalas or best managed Breeders’ Societies
- Gokul Gram
The Rashtriya Gokul Mission also envisages establishment of integrated cattledevelopment centres ‘Gokul Grams’ to develop indigenous breeds including upto 40%nondescript breeds.
- To promote indigenous cattle rearing and conservation in a scientific manner.
- To propagate high genetic merit bulls of indigenous breeds.
- To optimize modern Farm Management practices and promote Common ResourceManagement.
- To utilize animal waste in economical way i.e. Cow Dung, Cow Urine
The portal aims to be a
- E-Trading Market portal for livestock germplasm and additional related services.
- Will connect farmers with breeders – Central, State, Co-operative and private agencies.
- Real time authentic certified information on availability of germplasm.
- Centralized repository of information for Central and State Governments.
Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG)
- Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG) provides a single platform for all Indian Citizens to access pan India e-Gov services ranging from Central to Local Government bodies and other citizen centric services.
- UMANG intends to provide major services offered by Central and State Government departments, Local bodies and other utility services from private organizations. It provides a unified approach where citizens can install one application to avail multiple government services.
- UMANG is a Digital India initiative of Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
- UMANG provides seamless integration with popular customer centric services like Aadhaar and Digilocker.
- It provides a unified approach where you can install one application to avail multiple government services.
- UMANG can be accessed on multiple channels like mobile application, web, IVR and SMS which can be accessed through smartphones, feature phones, tablets and desktops.
- UMANG has a rich multimedia interface with a focus on maximizing usability and enriching user experience
- UMANG supports 12 major Indian languages in addition to English.
3 . Direct Tax Avoidance Agreement
Protocol amending India-China DTAA
About the Release
- The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China have amended the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) for the avoidance of double taxation and for the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, by signing a Protocol
- Protocol updates the existing provisions for exchange of information to the latest international standards. Further, the Protocol incorporates changes required to implement treaty related minimum standards under the Action reports of Base Erosion & Profit shifting (BEPS) Project, in which India had participated on an equal footing. Besides minimum standards, the Protocol brings in changes as per BEPS Action reports as agreed upon by the two sides
What is DTAA?
- A DTAA is a tax treaty signed between two or more countries.
- Its key objective is that tax-payers in these countries can avoid being taxed twice for the same income.
- A DTAA applies in cases where a tax-payer resides in one country and earns income in another.
- DTAAs can either be comprehensive to cover all sources of income or be limited to certain areas such as taxing of income from shipping, air transport, inheritance, etc. India has DTAAs with more than eighty countries, of which comprehensive agreements include those with Australia, Canada, Germany, Mauritius, Singapore, UAE, the UK and US.
Why is it important?
- DTAAs are intended to make a country an attractive investment destination by providing relief on dual taxation.
- Such relief is provided by exempting income earned abroad from tax in the resident country or providing credit to the extent taxes have already been paid abroad.
- DTAAs also provide for concessional rates of tax in some cases.
- Many of India’s DTAAs also have lower tax rates for royalty, fee for technical services, etc.Favourable tax treatment for capital gains under certain DTAAs such the one with Mauritius have encouraged a lot of foreign investment into India.
- But the problem is DTAAs can become an incentive for even legitimate investors to route investments through low-tax regimes to sidestep taxation. This leads to loss of tax revenue for the country.
4 . Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP)
Health Ministry launches a new state-of-the art Information Platform to monitor public health surveillance
About Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP)
- To strengthen/maintain decentralized laboratory based IT enabled disease surveillance system for epidemic prone diseases to monitor disease trends and to detect and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained Rapid Response Team (RRTs)
- Integration and decentralization of surveillance activities through establishment of surveillance units at Centre, State and District level.
- Human Resource Development – Training of State Surveillance Officers, District Surveillance Officers, Rapid Response Team and other Medical and Paramedical staff on principles of disease surveillance.
- Use of Information Communication Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data.
- Strengthening of public health laboratories.
- Inter sectoral Co-ordination for zoonotic diseases
5 . Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access (PAISA)
“Paisa – Portal for Affordable Credit & Interest Subvention Access”, Launched Under Day-NULM
- A centralized electronic platform for processing interest subvention on bank loans to beneficiaries under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) named “PAiSA – Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access”, was launched
- The web platform has been designed and developed by Allahabad Bank which is the Nodal bank.
- PAiSA is yet another effort by the government to connect directly with the beneficiaries, ensuring that there is greater transparency and efficiency in delivery of services.
- DBT of subvention on monthly basis under DAY-NULM will give the necessary financial support to small entrepreneurs in a timely manner
Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
- Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY) with an aim to uplift the urban poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development. Keeping in view the objective of Make in India, Skill Development is essential for socio economic betterment.
- Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana was launched under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA).
- Government of India has provisioned Rs.500 crore for the scheme.
- The scheme is integration of the National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) and National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM).
- National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) is renamed as Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-(DAY-NULM) and in Hindi as – Rashtriya Shahri Aajeevika Mission.
MAIN HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SCHEME
- Employment through Skill Training and Placement – An expenditure of Rs.15, 000 per person is allowed on training of urban poor which is Rs.18, 000 in North-East and J&K. Moreover, Training urban poor to meet the enormous demand from urban citizens by imparting market-oriented skills through City Livelihood Centers.
- Social Mobilization and Institution Development – It will be done through formation of Self-Help Groups (SHG) for training members and hand holding, an initial support of 10, 000 is given for each group. Assistance of Rs.50, 000 is provided to Registered Area Level Federations.
- Subsidy to urban poor – An interest subsidy of 5% – 7% for setting up individual micro-enterprises with a loan of up to 2 lakh and for group enterprises with a loan limit of up to Rs.10 lakhs.
- Shelters for urban homeless – Cost of construction of shelters for urban homeless is fully funded under the Scheme.
- Other means – Development of vendor markets and also the promotion of skills for the vendors through setting up infrastructure and special projects for the rag picker and differently abled etc.
6 . Urban Water Management
NITI Aayog Organises Capacity Building Programme for Urban Water Management
- India is experiencing rapid urbanisation. The urban population has gone up from 29 crore in 2001 to 37.7 crore in 2011. Due to rapid urbanisation, water demand in urban areas is increasing rapidly.
- The water situation in metropolitan cities is particularly exacerbating, where the people in such cities face acute water shortage. Changing climate and its impact on temporal and spatial variability of rainfall, is a further deterrent to timely and sufficient availability of water resources.
- In this backdrop, concerted efforts have been made by the Government of India to implement rainwater harnessing schemes for groundwater improvement, however, there is an urgent need for water portfolio diversification through introducing alternate sustainable water sources.
- The recycle and reuse of water presents itself as a potential solution for ensuring assured water supply in the Cities, on a sustainable basis.
- Recycling and reuse has been widely practised in Singapore, where every drop of water is recycled for reuse. Such an approach not only reduces pressure on other water sources, but also offers a sustainable solution for water resources management.
- While the AMRUT scheme drives the cities to undertake water supplies on a business model, yet the water source augmentation remains a challenge for ensuring assured water supply through the future. Nearly 30% of urban water supply and 70% of rural water supply in the country comes from groundwater, which is depleting day by day.
Some Related Concepts
Water Index by Niti Aayog
The Water Index seeks to enable data-backed water management in the country and promote ‘competitive, cooperative federalism’
Objectives of Index are :
- Establish a clear baseline and benchmark for state level performance on key water indicators
- Uncover and explain how states have progressed on water issues over time, including identifying high performers and under-performers, thereby inculcating a culture of constructive competition among states
- Identify areas for deeper engagement and investment on the part of the states
The CWMI is the country’s first comprehensive and integrated national dataset for water and is a massive achievement in the context of India’s water management.The Index can reinforce the principle of ‘competitive &cooperative federalism’ in the country and enable innovation in the water ecosystem.
The purpose of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation(AMRUT) is to
- Ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of waterand a sewerage connection;
- Increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery andwell maintained open spaces (e.g. parks)
- Reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport (e.g. walking and cycling).
About the Programme (Not very Important)
- NITI Aayog organized the Second Phase of Urban Management Programme on ‘Water Recycling and Reuse’.in collaboration with the Singapore Cooperation Enterprise & TF Internationalat India Habitat Centre
- In order to develop recycled water as part of sustainable and diverse water portfolio, NITI Aayog has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Singapore Cooperation Enterprise – Temasek Foundation International to launch the Second Phase of Urban Management Programme on ‘Water Recycling and Reuse’.
- The capacity building programme featured experience sharing by consultants from Singapore, who were associated in the successful transformation of the urban waterscape over the last four decades. The broader capacity building engagement with SCE also includes a series of interactive workshops, advisory sessions and an expository visit to Singapore.