PIB Analysis for UPSC CSE
- Neutrino Observatory
- World Population Day
- Draft Model Tenancy Act
- Study in India Programme
- Operation Thirst
1 . Neutrino Observatory
- The Government of India has approved a project to build the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) at Pottipuram in the Theni District of Tamil Nadu.
- The project aims to set up a 51000 ton Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to observe naturally occurring atmospheric neutrinos in a cavern at the end of an approximately 2 km long tunnel in a mountain.
- This will help to reduce the noise from cosmic rays that is ever present over-ground and which would outnumber the rare neutrino interactions even in a detector as large as ICAL.
About India based Neutrino Observatory Project
- The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) Project is a multi-institutional effort aimed at building a world-class underground laboratory with a rock cover of approx.1200 m for non-accelerator based high energy and nuclear physics research in India.
- The project includes
- Construction of an underground laboratory and associated surface facilities at Pottipuram in Bodi West hills of Theni District of Tamil Nadu,
- Construction of a Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector for studying neutrinos, consisting of 50000 tons of magnetized iron plates arranged in stacks with gaps in between where Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) would be inserted as active detectors
- Setting up of National Centre for High Energy Physics at Madurai, for the operation and maintenance of the underground laboratory, human resource development and detector R&D along with its applications. The underground laboratory, consisting of a large cavern and several smaller caverns, will be accessed by a 2100 m long and 7.5 m wide tunnel.
- The initial goal of INO is to study neutrinos.
- Neutrinos are fundamental particles belonging to the lepton family. They come in three flavours, one associated with electrons and the others with their heavier cousins the muon and the Tau.
- According to standard model of particle physics, they are mass less.
- However recent experiments indicate that these charge-neutral fundamental particles, have finite but small mass which is unknown.
- They oscillate between flavours as they propagate. Determination of neutrino masses and mixing parameters is one of the most important open problems in physics today.
- The ICAL detector is designed to address some of these key open problems in a unique way.
- Over the years this underground facility is expected to develop into a full-fledged underground science laboratory for other studies in physics, biology, geology, hydrology etc.
2 . World Population Day
Context : 11th July is celebrated as World Population Day
About World Population Day
- World Population Day 2019 is observed on July 11. World Population Day was established by United Nations Development Programme in 1989
- The landmark conference was attended by 179 governments who recognised that reproductive health and gender equality are essential for achieving sustainable development.
- The main aim behind having a World Population Day is to focus attention on consequence of population issues and how it affects overall development plans and programs.
- Unlike every other year, the UN Council has not decided a specific theme for the current year, but will instead call for global attention to the unfinished business of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.
3 . Model Tenancy Act
Context : The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has drafted a ‘Model Tenancy Act’, 2019 which envisages to balance the interest and rights of both the owner and tenant and to create an accountable and transparent ecosystem for renting the premises in disciplinedand efficient manner.
About Model Tenancy Act
- Act will enable creation of adequate rental housing stock for various income segmentsof society including migrants, formal and informal sector workers, professionals, students etc. and increase access to quality rented accommodation, enable gradual formalization of rental housing market.
- It will help overhaul the legal framework vis-à-vis rental housing across the country. It is also expected to give a fillip to private participation in rental housing for addressing the huge housing shortage across the country.
- The Draft MTA will also promote growth of rental housing and investment in the sector and promote entrepreneurial opportunities and innovative mechanism of sharing of space.This MTA will be applicable prospectively and will not affect the existing tenancies.
Features of Draft Model Tenancy Act
- MTA stipulates a robust grievance redressal mechanism comprising of Rent Authority, Rent Court and Rent Tribunal.
- It has been proposed to cap the security deposit equal to a maximum of two month’s rent in case of residential properties and, minimum of one month’s rent in case of non-residential property.
- After coming into force of this Act, no person shall let or take on rent any premises except by an agreement in writing.
- The Model Act provides for its applicability for the whole of the State i.e. urban as well as rural areas in the State.
- Within two months of executing rental agreement both landowner and tenant are required to intimate to the Rent Authority about the agreement and within seven days a unique identification number will be issued by the Rent Authority to the both the parties.
- A digital platform will be set up in the local vernacular language of the State for submitting tenancy agreement and other documents.
- A copy of the draft Act has also been shared with the States/UTs for seeking their views/comments.
- Once finalized the Model Act will be shared with the States/Union Territory (UTs) for adoption.
- As per Census 2011, nearly 1.1 crore houses were lying vacant in the country and making these houses available on rent will complement the vision of ‘Housing for All’ by 2022.
- The existing rent control laws are restricting the growth of rental housing and discourage the owners from renting out their vacant houses due to fear of repossession.
- One of the potential measures to unlock the vacant house is to bringing transparency and accountability in the existing system of renting of premises and to balance the interests of both the property owner and tenant in a judicious manner.
4 . Study in India Programme
About Study in India Programme
- The ‘Study in India’ programme’s primary objective is to target foreign students by branding India as an attractive education destination.
- As per the existing Government framework, provision of 10-15% supernumerary seats for foreign students is there.
- ‘Study in India’ programme would target the foreign students to be admitted as per this provision, which would not have any adverse impact on the number of seats/ admission of Indian students.
- The Government has approved an expenditure of Rs. 150 crores for the ‘Study in India’ programme for two years 2018-19 and 2019-20 which will be primarily for brand promotion activities.
- To improve the soft power of India with focus on the neighbouring countries and use it as a tool in diplomacy.
- To boost the number of inbound International students in India.
- To double India’s market share of global education exports from less than 1 percent to 2 percent.
- Increase in contribution of international student in the form of direct spends, indirect spends, spillover effects.
- Improvement in overall quality of higher education.
- Increase in global ranking of India as educational destination.
- To reduce the export – Import imbalance in the number of International students.
- Growth of India’s global market share of International students
5 . Operation Thirst
About Operation Thirst
- To curb the menace of unauthorized PDW (PACKAGED DRINKING WATER) in Railway premises, an all India drive named “Operation Thirst” was launched on the direction of DG/RPF, Railway Board
- All the Zonal Principal Chief Security Commissioners (PCSC) were asked to crackdown these unauthorised activities. Almost all major stations over Indian Railway were covered during this operation.